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IN 1814-15. 



I'riucipal Engineer in the late Seventh Military Distric"' United Stsjus' Art> 



JJis Tusci Uutulos egere ad castra reversos, 
Bis reject! armis respectant terga tegentes. 

Turbati fugiunt Rutuli — ■ 

Disjectique duces, desolatique manipli, 

Tuta petunt. Vir^. 


J. Maxwell, printer. 


1k ^ 


\ ?>^Vj 


BE IT REMEMBERED, That on the sixth day of March, in the fortieth year 
of the independence of the United States of America, A. D. 1816, Arseni: 
Lacarkiere Lato rn, of the said district, hath deposited in this office the title 
of a Book, the right Avhereof he claims as Author, in the words following, to wit: 

Historical Memoir of the war in West Florida and Louisiana in 1814-15. 
with an Atlas. By major A. Lacari-iere Latoiir, principal engineer in the late 
seventh military district United States' army. Written originally in French^ 
and translated for the author, hy H. P. Nugent, esqr. 

Eis Tusci Rutulos egere ad cantra reverses, 
Bis rejecti arrais respectant terga tegentes. 

Turbati fugiunt Rutuli — ■ 

Disjectique duces, desolatique manipli, 

Tuta petunt. • ; Tirg. 

In conformity t<, the act of congress of the United States, entitled, "An act 
for the encouragement of learning, by securing ihe copies of maps, charts, ahd 
bookb to the authc:s aya pr'»pnetors of such copies during the times there- 
in mentioned." And also to ilie act, entitled, "An act supplementary to 
an ast, eniitled, *' An act for the encouragement of learning, by securing the 
copits ot, charts, and boo!:?, to the authors and proprietors of such 
copies duriijsi \h.e. times therein mentioned, and e^ tending the benefits tl^ere- 
of tolhe arts ot desijlroing, engravings and etching historical and other prints." 

Ckrh of the District of Pennsylvania, 



Allow me to offer you the following pages, in which I have 
endeavoured to record the events of that memorable cam- 
paign which preserved our country from conquest and 
desolation. The voice of the whole nation has spared 
me the task of showing how much of these important re- 
sults are due to the energy, ability and courage of a 
single man. 

Receive, sir, with this inadequate tribute to your high merits, 
the assurance of respect and devotion with which I have 
the honour to be, 


Your most obedient 

and humble servant, 


JVf«! Orleans, August IG. 1815. 


The immense debt of Great Britain, and the ex- 
penses of a war carried on for nearly twenty years 
with hardly any intermission, having exhausted the or- 
dinary sources of her riches, while the war continued to 
rage with greater fury than ever, she found herself com- 
pelled to create new resources to enable her to perse- 
vere in the arduous struggle in which she was engaged. 
For this purpose the rights of neutral nations, founded 
on the principles of natural equity, established for many 
ages by the unanimous consent of civilized nations, and 
secured by the faith of a long succession of treaties, 
were openly violated by the English government, which, 
prompted by its inordinate ambition, wished to appro- 
priate to itself the lives and fortunes of their peaceable 
citizens. To accomplish this purpose, it became ne- 
cessary to set aside those principles which, until then, 
had been universally acknowledged, and to substitute 
new political axioms in their stead. By the mere ar- 
bitrary declaration of the British cabinet, the right of 
blockade was extended over the most extensive coasts, 
which all the maritime power of the world combined 


could not have blockaded with effect.* The obsolete 
right of searching neutral ships for enemy's property, 
this absurd remnant of the barbarous jurisprudence of 
the dark ages, justly rejected by the more enlightened 
policv of later times, was revived and enforced with in- 

* Th^ pretended right of blooKade never appeared in so ridi- 
culous a light as immediately after the departure of the emperor 
Napoleon from the island of Elba. It was then strongly surmised> 
and not without some probability, that the British government had 
connived at his escape, and to refute this charge, lord Liverpool 
was compelled to declare in the house of lords, on the 7th of April, 
1815, (seethe newspapers of the times) that the whole British 7ia- 
vtj would be insufficient to blockade the islatid of JSlba; it is true^ 
he added the qualifying sentence: so as to firevent the esca/ie of 
an individual who chose to leave it. But when we consider the 
manner in which Napoleon sailed from that island, with several 
armed vessels, and a considerable body of troops, who will not 
laugh at the blockading pretensions of Great Britain, if it is true, 
as lord Liverpool clearly meant to intimate, that the whole British 
navy was insufficient to prevent such an escape from a small 

Mathematical truth is not to be looked for in the speeches of 
British ministers; the blockade of the port of Rochefort by a sin- 
gle squadron, which afterwards so effectually prevented the same 
individual from escaping, even in an open boat, is an incontestible 
proof of lord Liverpool's exaggeration; but it is not the less true, 
that his assertion, exaggerated as it is, will ever remain the most 
c-utting satire against the absurd claims of his gfovernment on the. 
sub(.ect ef blockade 


creased severity, and the right of pressing seamen on 
board of neutral vessels was claimed as a consequence 
of the same principle, while, by a further extension of 
the rights of belligerents, the trade of neutrals with the 
colonial possession of enemies, was at times entirely 
prohibited, and at others partially tolerated, by decrees 
which the belligerent government could construe at plea- 
sure, and which only served to allure the unwary, and 
secure a certain prey to the hungry swarm of British 
cruisers. Thus the plunder of neutrals, and the im- 
pressment of their seamen, were erected into a system, 
the true principles of which could only be discovered 
from its effects. 

The United States of America, whose industrious 
citizens carried on a regular and immense commerce 
with all the nations of the globe, which had long ex- 
cited the jealousy of their powerfid rival, experienced 
more than any other nation the pernicious effects of the 
new system, conceived and executed by this over- 
bearing state; and indeed it appeared to have been es- 
tablished principally with a view to check their com- 
mercial pursuits. The American vessels were plun- 
dered, detained, or confiscated. The mariners were im- 
pressed upon the most frivolous pretences, put on board 
the ships of war of His Britannic majesty, and subject- 
ed to the most rigorous treatment, in order to compel 
them to shed their blood in a 6ause in which they were 


not interested. On the high seas, in neutral har- 
bours, upon the coasts, and even in the waters exclu- 
sively subject to the jurisdiction of the United States, 
the American seamen were seized by the petty offi- 
cers of the British navy, who constituted themselves 
judges, de facto ^ of the most sacred prerogatives of 
man, and from the mere similarity of names, or, as 
their caprice dictated, transformed a free citizen into a 
slave, without regard to the place of his birth, or to the 
natural and unalienable right, that all men have to 
choose their country. The sacred flag of the govern- 
ment itself was no longer a sufficient protection; the 
sanctuary of a ship of war was violated — freemen were 
dragged by force and carried away, in savage triumph, 
from an American frigate sailing quietly, in the midst 
of a profound peace; — the most ignominious punish- 
ment But I forbear. — This unheard of outrage, 

which then, for the first time, astonished the world, has 
been since sufficiently avenged. 

The Americaji government at first only opposed 
to these enormous violations of the law of nations mild 
and conciliating representations, and pacific measures, 
which produced only some partial and momentary dis- 
avowals and reparations. With the humane view of 
saving the country from the horrors of war, and in 
hopes of inducing England to adopt principles of equity 
&nd moderation, by making her government perceive 


that the people of America would never submit to mea- 
sures so tyrannical and degrading, the national legis- 
lature resolved to interdict every sort of foreign com- 
merce, and laid an embargo on all the ports of the 
United States. 

This measure received the approbation of the 
whole nation. The citizens no longer deceived them- 
selves with respect to the views and motives of the Bri- 
tish g'overnment. They preferred submitting for a time 
to the inconveniences which the stagnation of commerce 
would naturally produce, to seeing their country ex- 
posed to endless humiliations, or compelled to engage 
in a war, the eft'ects of which could not be calculated. 
For it was believed by many, that the constitution of 
the United States was only suited for a state of peace, 
and that war would infallibly produce a dissolution of 
the union. These considerations were weighty, and 
might well induce a nation to pause before it involved 
itself in a contest which seemed to threaten such a 
fatal issue. — The embargo was then a wise measure, 
as there appeared no alternative between it and war. 
Indeed it is probable that if it had been continued, we 
might have avoided a recourse to arms, and compelled 
Great Britain to return to the practice, if not to the prin- 
ciples of justice. 

But it was not so ordered, and after little more than 
one year the embargo was removed. Let us throw a 


patriotic veil over the causes which produced this un- 
expected step. It does not belong to me to inquire 
into its expediency or its motives. Such an inquiry 
is entirely foreign to the purposes of this work. As it 
was to be expected, the resumption of maritime com- 
merce was followed by a renewal of spoliations on tlic 
part of Great Britain, who mistook our patience for 
weakness, and ascribed to timidity and other unworthy 
motives, a conduct which merelv arose from an earnest 
and laudable desire to preserve peace, and avoid the 
effusion of human blood. Far from foreseeing the pri- 
vations and hardships to which the people of America 
would submit, and the exertions which they were ca- 
pable of making, if driven to extremity, Britain, blind- 
ed by her pride, saw in the removal of the embargo 
nothing else than the result of an inordinate thirst for 
maritime commerce, and an effeminate attachment to 
the luxuries with which she had been in the habit of 
supplying us. As little she foresaw how much she 
would have to suffer before she discovered her mis- 
take — how much of her treasure was to be spent, and 
of her blood was to be spilt, before she should be taught 
to know the spirit and perseverance of a nation which 
she affected to view wi:h contempt. At last the repC' 
tition of injuries filled the measure of American long- 
animity, and WAR was solemnly declared by the United 
States, on the 18th of June, 1812. So little premedi- 


tated was this measure — so much was it produced by a 
sudden burst of the national indignation, that no prepa- 
rations had been made to support die dreadful contest 
that was now about to take place. Our military es- 
tablishment was hardly sufficient to afford garrisons for 
the most exposed points of our widely -extended fron- 
tier — the numerous ports upon our sea-board were 
left exposed, unguarded and unfortified, and our ma- 
rine consisted only of a few ships of war. But the 
bravery and energy of our citizens promised abundant 
resources for our military operations on the land side, 
and the skill and martial ardour of our seamen, and 
particularly their excellent commanders, presaged cer- 
tain and glorious triumphs on the ocean. The riches 
of an immense soil, and the activity and patriotism of 
its inhabitants, gave a sufficient pledge to the govern- 
ment to justify the reliance which they had placed on 
the aid and co-operation of the nation, which, on another 
and ever-memorable occasion, had proved to the world 
tliat there are no sacrifices that it is not ready to make 
in support of its independence, and in the defence of its 
just rights. 

Thus the United States were forced into a war 
which they had not provoked; — America took up arms 
in support of her rights, and for the preservation of her 
national honour, with a firm determination not lay them 
down until the object should be attained, Provi- 


dence blessed our efforts, and our arms were crowned 
with the most brilliant triumphs over those of our ene- 
my. The army and navy exhibited a noble rivalship 
of zeal, devotion, and glory. In the one Lawrence, 
Bainbridge, Decatur, Perry, M'Donough, Porter; — 
in the other Pike, Scott, Brown, Jackson, and many 
more, proved to the enemy, and to the world, that we 
possessed resolution to defend our rights, and power to 
avenge our injuries. 

The relation of these various exploits is the proper 
province of history. An abler pen than mine will one 
day consecrate to posterity this monument of American 
fame. My humble task has been to collect a part of 
the materials that may serve to erect it, and which I 
offer in the present work. 

The volume which I present to the public is de- 
voted to the relation of the campaign of the end of 1814 
and beginning of 1815: that is to say, from the first ar- 
rival of the British forces on the coast of Louisiana, in 
September, until the total evacuation, in consequence of 
the treaty of peace, including a period of about seven 
months. During that space of time, particularly from 
the 14th of December to the 19th of January, events of 
the highest importance succeeded each other with ra- 
pidity; but it was in the short period, from the 23d of 
December, the day of the landing of the British troops, 


to the memorable 8th of January, that the American 
arms acquired that lustre which no time can efface. 

JVec Jioterit te7n/izis, nee edax abolere vetustas. 

The preparations which thii British government 
had made for the conquest of Louisiana were immense. 
So certain were they of complete success, that a full set 
of officers, for the administration of civil government, 
from the judge down to the tide-waiter, had embarked 
on board of the squadron with the military force. The 
British speculators, who are always found in the train of 
military expeditions, had freighted a part of the trans- 
ports for conveying the expected booty, which they es- 
timated beforehand at more than fourteen millions of 
dollars. The British government well knew that they 
could not keep Louisijtia, even if they should obtain 
the possession of it. They were not ignorant that the 
western states could pour down, if necessary, one hun- 
dred thousand men to repel the invaders; they therefore 
could only rely on a mon^entary occupation, which they 
hoped, nevertheless, to prolong sufficiently to give them 
time to pillage and lay waste the country. Therefore 
they had neglected no means of securing the plunder 
which they expected to make. Such, indeed, was their 
certainty of success that it was not thought necessary 
in Europe to conceal the object of the expedition. At 
Bordeaux, at the time of the embarkation of the troops, 
the conquest of Louisiana was publicly spoken of as an 


enterprize that could not fail of succeeding, and the 
British officers spoke of that campaign as of a party of 
pleasure, in which there was to be neither difficulty nor 
danger. It is even asserted, (though I will not vouch 
for the truth of the assertion) that the prime minister of 
Great Britain, lord Castlereagh, being at Paris when 
the news of the capture of Washington arrived there, 
boasted publicly that New Orleans and Louisiana would 
soon be in the power of his countrymen.* Yet this 
formidable expedition had already sailed from Europe 
when its precise object and destination were not known 
in America. It will be seen, in the course of this me- 
moir, that about the beginning of December, the great- 
est part of the British force had arrived on our coast, 
when general Jackson had hardly sufficient time to 
make the first preparations for defence. Without fear- 
ing to be accused of flattery, we may justly call him 
(under God) the saviour of Louisiana: for, in the space 
of a few days, with discordant and heterogeneous ele- 
ments, he created and organized the little army which 
succeeded so well in humbling the British pride. It is 
true, that the love of country, the hatred of England, 
the desire of avenging the outrages which we had suf- 
fered from that haughty power, fired every heart; — but 
ail this would have availed nothing without the energy 
of the commander-in-chief: which will appear so much 

* Niles's Historical Register, vol. vii. p. 389. 


the more extraordinary, when it is considered that he 
was constantly sick during this memorable campaign, 
so much so that he was on the point of being obliged 
to resign his command. Although his body was ready 
to sink under the weight of sickness, fatigue, and con- 
tinual watching, his mind, nevertheless, never lost for a 
moment that energy which he knew so well how to 
communicate to all that surrounded him. To obstacles, 
which to others would have appeared insurmountable — 
to the want of the most indispensable supplies for the 
army, he opposed the most constant perseverance,^ until 
he succeeded either in obtaining what was required, or 
in creating supplementary resources. ' 

I have already said, that the energy manifested by 
general Jackson spread, as it were, by contagion, and 
communicated itself to the whole army. I shall add, 
that there was nothing which those who composed it 
did not feel themselves capable of performing, if he or- 
dered it to be done; it was enough that he expressed a 
wish, or threw out the slightest intimation, and imme- 
diately a crowd of volunteers offered themselves to carry 
his views into execution. Such perfect harmony — so 
entire and reciprocal a confidence between the troops 
and their commander, could not fail to produce the hap- 
piest effects. Therefore, although our army was, as I 
have already observed, composed of heterogeneous ele- 
ments, of men speaking different languages, and brought 


up in different habits, the most perfect union and har- 
mony never ceased for a moment to prevail in our camp. 
No one can better than myself bear testimony to the 
good understanding that reigned among our troops. In 
the course of the labours at the fortifications, vv^hich 
were erected under my direction, I had occasion to em- 
ploy soldiers in fatigue duty, who were drafted by de- 
tachments from each of the several corps. These men 
were kept hard at work even to the middle of the night, 
and by that means lost the little portion of sleep which 
they could have snatched in the interval of their mili- 
tary duties. I was almost constantly with them, su- 
perintending their labours; but I may truly say, that I 
never heard among them the least murmur of discon- 
tent, nor saw the least sign of impatience. Nay, more, 
four-fifths of our army were composed of militia-men 
or volunteers, who, it might be supposed, would with 
difficulty have submitted to the severe discipline of a 
camp, and of course would often have incurred punish- 
ment; yet nothing of the kind took place; and I solemn- 
ly declare, that not the smallest military punishment 
was inflicted. This is a fact respecting which I defy con- 
tradiction in the most formal manner. What, then, was 
the cause of this miracle? The love of country, the 
love of liberty. It was the consciousness of the dignity 
of man — it was the noblest of feelings, which pervaded 
and fired the souls of our defenders — which made them 


bear patiently with their sufferings, because the country 
required it of them. They felt that they ought to resist, 
an enemy who had come to invade and to subdue their 
country; — they knew that their wives, their children, 
their nearest and dearest friends were but a few miles 
behind their encampment, who, but for their exertions, 
would inevitably become the victims and the prey of 
a licentious soldiery. A noble city and- a rich territory 
looked up to them for protection; those whom their con- 
duct was to save or devote to perdition, were in sight, 
extending to them their supplicating hands. Here was a 
scene to elicit the most latent sparks of courage. What 
wonder, then, that it had so powerful an effect on the 
minds of American soldiers — of Louisianian patriots! 
Every one of those brave men felt the honour and im- 
portance of his station, and exulted in the thought of 
being the defender of his fellow citizens, and the 
avenger of his country's wrongs. Such are the men 
who will always be found, by those who may again pre- 
sume to insult a free nation, determined to maintain and 
preserve her rights. 

I have in this work endeavoured to relate in de- 
tail, with the utmost exactness and precision, the prin- 
cipal events which took place in the course of this cam- 
paign. I have related facts as I myself saw them, or as 
they were told me by credible eye-witnesses. I do not 
believe, that through the whole of this narrative I have 


swerved from the truth in a single instance; if, how- 
ever, by one of those unavoidable mistakes to which 
every man is subject, I have involuntarily mis-stated, or 
omitted to state, any material circumstance, I shall be 
ready to acknowledge my error whenever it shall be 
pointed out to me. I therefore invite those of my rea- 
ders, who may observe any error in my narrative, to 
be so good as to inform me of it, that I may correct it 
in a subsequent edition. 

Although several documents contained in the Ap- 
pendix have been already published, I have nevertheless 
thought proper to insert them as necessary parts of the 
whole, and as the vouchers of the facts which I have 
related. I might, indeed, have reduced some of them 
to the form of an extract, but they would thereby have 
lost something of their original character. Some might, 
perhaps, have doubted their authenticity. I therefore 
preferred giving them entire. 





Th e abdication of the emperor of the French, 
and the temporary pacification of Europe, consequent 
on that event, enabled Great Britain to dispose of the 
numerous forces which she had till then employed 
against France. The British cabinet resolved that 
the war against the United States should be vigor- 
ously prosecuted. The British presses were set to 
work, in order to prepare the mind of the nation, and 
give it a bias favourable to the views of the govern- 
ment. The same journals which for several years 
had been filled with invectives against the emperor 
Napoleon, now began to vilify the chief magistrate of 
the United States. The artifices so long employed 
to alienate the French nation from her chief, were 
now resorted to against Mr. Madison. The friends, 
or rather the agents of Britain, in the United States, 
repeated the same calumnies, invented the same fic- 
tions, advanced the same specious falsehoods, to de- 



stroy the President's popularity, and incite the nation 
to an insurrection against the government, which, ac- 
cording to British writers and emissaries, had drawn 
her into an impolitic, unjust, parricidal and sacrilegi- 
ous war. It was, they maintained, become necessary to 
punish the inhabitants of the United States, for having 
preferred a free government, of their own choice, to 
that of a British king: nay, the United States must be 
reduced to their original colonial subjection, as a chas- 
tisement for their having dared to declare war against 
Great Britain, rather than suffer the lives and fortunes 
of their citizens to be forcibly employed in support of 
the British flag; and for their having presumed to op- 
pose those pretended maritime rights, to which all the 
governments of Europe had thought proper to submit. 
The ministerial papers denounced the Americans as 
rebels,the devoted objects of vengeance. British pub- 
lications now breathed the same rage as at the period 
of the declaration of our independence; and the minis- 
terial writers had recourse to the grossest scurrilities 
in their endeavours to vilify our government. As they 
pretended that it was not against France that they had 
waged so long a war, but against the chief who pre- 
sided over her councils; so now they affected to pro- 
claim that their hostilities were not directed against 
the people of the United States, nor against the 
American nation, but merely against the leader of a 
dominant faction. It was to restore to our nation the 
enjoyment of prosperity, that they were determined 
to overturn our government! It was obvious that 
the cessation of hostilities in Europe, would afford 
Britain the means of executing a part of her threats; 


and reflecting men considered the fall of the emperor 
of the French (so long wished for by the friends of 
Britain) as a sure presage that we should soon have to 
contend with a formidable British force by sea and 
land; nor was it long before these apprehensions were 

On the frontiers of Canada, the British had hither- 
to conducted the war with much dexterity and in- 
trigue, but without any considerable number of troops. 
The courage of our soldiers could not remedy the 
faults of our generals, and the two first campaigns 
produced nothing more than some brilliant exploits, 
some particular instances of bravery, that could have 
no influence on great military operations. Courage 
without military tactics, an ill-disciplined army con- 
ducted without any fixed plan, with a defective sys- 
tem of organization, were the means with which we 
long opposed the British troops; and it may be truly 
said that the two first campaigns in Canada were con- 
sumed in a war of observation, and in the taking and 
retaking of a few posts. The British, by all possible 
means of seduction, had stirred up against us a great 
number of Indians on the north-western confines of 
the United States, and excited them to commit depre- 
dations on our frontiers, and massacre our citizens. 
History cannot record all the atrocities committed 
by those allies of Great Britain, some of which are 
of such a description that the most credulous would 
disbelieve them, were not the facts supported by the 
most creditable witnesses and the most authentic 


Experience at last opened the eyes of our go- 
vernment, and more mimerotis armies, under able 
and faithful officers, were sent into Canada, to carry on 
the war more effectually. It is foreign from the de- 
sign of this work, to enter into any discussion on that 
subject; and I will merely observe that it was in some 
measure owing to a defect in the law then in force 
for calling out the militia, that our military operations 
in Canada, during the two first campaigns, were at- 
tended with so little success. I allude to the law 
which called out certain portions of the militia for six 
months only, at the expiration of which term the 
men were allowed to return home. Independent- 
ly of th^ time necessar}^ to repair from the middle 
states to the frontiers of Canada, or to Louisiana, 
six months are hardly sufficient to train a soldier 
to military discipline and evolutions, so as to ren- 
der him fit to contend in the field against veteran 
troops. A subsequent law has, indeed, partly re- 
medied this evil, by prolonging the time of ser- 
vice to twelve months; but even this term would pro 
bably be insufficient, had we to carry on a war with 

The arrival of reinforcements to the British army 
in Canada, was the prelude to more extensive opera- 
tions. The taking of Washington, and the several 
attacks made on different points of the Chesapeake, 
sufficiently evinced the intention of the British go- 
vernment, to endeavour to execute the threats de 
nounced against us through their newspapers. The 
burning of Havre-de-Grace, the excesses committed 
at Hampton, and at Frenchtown, enabled us to foT'm n 


just idea of the men who professed the intention of 
delivering us from a " government ridiculously despo- 
tic," and who in the meantime insulted our wives and 
daughters, destroyed or plundered our property, and 
indiscriminately set fire to humble cottages and state- 
ly palaces. The capitol itself, that noble monument 
that might have commanded respect even from bar- 
barians, became a prey to the flames; and that we 
should not remain in doubt as to the fate we were 
to expect, the commander of the British naval forces, 
in an official comnmnication to the secretary of 
state, explicitly avowed his determination to continue 
the same system of inhuman warfare, and to lay waste 
and destroy the American coast, wherever assaila- 
ble.* From that moment all eyes were opened; the 
cry of indignation was heard from one extremity of 
the union to the other, and all minds were now bent 
on an obstinate and determined resistance. It was 
evident to all that we had no longer to contend for 
the precarious possession of an inconsiderable extent 
of country, but that we were called on to defend our 
wives and children from British insult and brutality; 
our fortunes from the rapacity of British invaders, and 
our homes from pillage, fire and devastation. Those 
who had hitherto considered the war only as an ho- 
nourable contest between two nations, mutually es- 
teeming each other, but set at variance by conflicting 
interests, were now convinced that our enemies were 
determined to wage against us a war of extermina- 
tion, and that we had to repel a savage foe, who came 

* See admiral Cochrane's letter in the Appendix, No. 1. 


to cover our country with mourning and desolation. 
The Hahfax papers announced the embarkation of 
troops that had composed part of lord Wellington's 
army. In the list of the regiments and of the general 
officers, appear several of the former and of the latter 
who since came to the banks of the Mississippi. The 
expedition against New Orleans was to, consist of 
eighteen thousand men. The same papers predicted 
that the calamities of war would be severely and 
extensively felt by the inhabitants of the United 

From that time it was generally believed that the 
British would attack the southern states in the ensu- 
ing autumn or winter, and Louisiana was particularly 
pointed out as their most probable object of invasion: 
yet so ill does the general government appear to have 
been served by its agents in that remote part of the 
union, that as late as in the month of September, 
nothing had been done in the way of effectual prepa- 
rations, to put that country in a state of defence. 

Louisiana, which was particularly marked out as 
the principal point against which was to be directed 
a formidable British force, with a considerable extent 
of coast, numerous communications by water, and 
with hardly any fortified points, open on all sides, 
having in its neighbourhood a Spanish settlement 
freely admitting the enemy's ships, and a great pro- 
portion of whose population was disposed to aid him, 
had no force on which to rely for the defence of her 
shores, except six gun-boats and a sloop of war. 
From the gallant defence made by the brave crews of 
these vessels, we may judge what would have been 


effected by a number proportionate to the extent of 
coast to be defended. Fort Plaquemines, that of 
Petites Coquilles, and fort Bowyer at Mobile point, 
were the only advanced points fortified; and none 
of them capable of standing a regular siege. 

It may now be made known, without any other 
danger than that of its appearing incredible, that Lou- 
isiana, whose coasts are accessible to such flat-bot- 
tomed vessels as are used in conveying mortars, had 
but two of these engines which belonged to the 
navy, and which were landed from bomb-ketches 
that had been condemned. Nor is this all: there 
were not a hundred bombs of the calibre of those 
mortars; nor, indeed, could much advantage be deri- 
ved from them, however well served or supplied. 
Professional men will understand, that from the con- 
struction of their carriages, they were only fit to be 
mounted on board of vessels, and by no means calcu- 
lated for land batteries. 

The fort of Petites Coquilles was not finished at 
the time of the invasion, nor was it in a condition to 
m.ake an ordinary resistance. As to fort Bowyer, at 
Mobile point, it will appear from the particular ac- 
count given in this work of the two attacks it sustain- 
ed, that the brave garrison defending it did all that 
could be reasonably expected from its local situation 
and means of resistance. Such was the inconsidera- 
ble defence that protected the shores of Louisiana, 
and covered a country that has an extent of coast of 
upwards of six hundred miles, and of which even a 
temporary possession by an enemy might be attend 


ed with consequences baneful to the future prosperity 
of the western states. The general government 
might and ought to have been well informed of 
the vulnerable points of Louisiana. Accurate maps 
of the country on a large scale had been made, by 
the engineer B. Lafon and myself, and delivered to 
brigadier- general Wilkinson, who, it is presumable, 
did not fail to forward them to the secretary of war. 
That part of the state, in particular, by which the 
enemy penetrated, was there laid down, and in 1813 
brigadier- general Flournoy ordered major Lafon, then 
chief engineer of the district, to draw up an exact 
account of all the points to be fortified for the general 
defence of Louisiana. The draughts, which were 
numerous, and formed an atlas, were accompanied 
with very particular explanatory notes. That work, 
which reflects great credit on its author, pointed out 
in the most precise and clear manner what was expe- 
dient to be done, in order to put the country in a 
state of security against all surprise. I have always 
understood that those draughts were ordered and ex- 
ecuted for the purpose of being sent to the then se- 
cretar}' of war, to enable the government to determine 
in their wisdom the points proper to be fortified. To 
what fatality then was it owing, that Louisiana, 
whose means of defence were so inadequate; which 
had but a scanty white population, composed, in a 
great proportion, of foreigners speaking various lan- 
guages; so remote from any succours, though one of 
the keys of the union — was so long left without the 
means of resisting the enemy? I shall be told that to 
fortify the coast in time of peace, were to incur an 


unnecessary expense. This position I by no means 
admit; but I further observe that the war had already 
existed two years; and we ought to have presumed, 
had positive proof been wanting, that the British, 
having numerous fleets, and every means of trans- 
porting troops to all points of the coast of the United 
States, would not fail to make an attempt against 
Louisiana; — a country which already by its prodigi- 
ous and unexampled progress in the culture of sugar, 
was become a dangerous rival to the British colonies^ 
The city of New Orleans contained produce to a 
vast amount. The cotton crops of the state of Lou- 
isiana and the Mississippi territory, accumulated du- 
ring several years, were stored in that city, surround- 
ed with considerable plantations, having numerous 
gangs of slaves. It was, in a word, the emporium 
of the produce of a great portion of the western 
states. The Mississippi on which it lies, receives 
the streams that water upwards of a million of square 
miles, and wafts to New Orleans the annually in- 
creasing productions of their fertile banks. — It is by 
the Mississippi and the rivers emptying into it, that 
the communication is kept up between the western 
and northern states. — And by the Mississippi and 
the Missouri, there will, at no distant period, be car- 
ried on, without difficulty, or with very little obstruc- 
tion, the most extensive inland navigation on the 

All these advantages were calculated to excite 
the cupidity of the British, and inspire them Avith the 
desire of getting possession of a country which, be- 
sides its territorial wealth, insured to whoever might 


hold it, an immediate control over the western states. 
In possessing themselves of Louisiana, the least fa- 
vourable prospect of the enemy was the plunder of a 
very considerable quantity of produce, the destruction 
of a city destined to become commercial, and opu- 
lent in the highest degree, and the ruin of numerous 
plantations which must one day rival in their pro- 
ductions, those of the finest colonies of European 
nations. Their other prospects, less certain indeed, 
but in which they were not a little sanguine, were 
the separation of the western states from the rest of 
the union; the possibility of transferring the theatre 
of war to the westward, by the possession of the 
Mississippi, and effecting a junction with their army 
in Canada; and lastly, being masters of Louisiana, to 
import by the river their various manufactures, and 
secure to themselves the monopoly of the fur trade. 
Let us now see in what manner the British began 
to execute their hostile designs against Louisiana: In 
the course of the summer of 1814, the brig Orpheus 
had landed arms and officers in the bay of Apalachi- 
cola, and entered into arrangements with the Creeks, 
to act against fort Bowyer at Mobile point, justly 
looked upon as a place the possession of which was 
of the greatest importance towards the execution of 
the grand operations projected against Louisiana. 
The British officers diligently executed the object of 
their instructions, and had completely succeeded in 
rallying under their standard all the tribes of Indians 
living to the cast of the Chactaws, when an expedi- 
tion of some troops, on board the sloops of war 
Hermes and Caron, sailed from Bermuda under the 


command of colonel Nicholls, of the artillery, an en- 
terprising, active, and brave officer, and on the 4th of 
August touched at the Havanna, in hopes of obtain- 
ing the co-operation of the Spanish governor, the as- 
sistance of some gun-boats and small vessels, with 
permission to land their troops and artillery at Pen- 
sacola. On the refusal of the captain- general, they 
sailed for Pensacola, determined to land there; al- 
though the captain-general had positively refused to 
grant them permission. (See Appendix, No. 2.) 

Colonel Nicholls accordingly landed at Pensacola, 
where he established his head-quarters, and enlisted 
and publicly drilled Indians, who wore the British 
uniform in the streets. 

The object of that inconsiderable expedition ap- 
pears to have been to sound the disposition of the in- 
habitants of the Floridas and Louisiana; to procure 
the information necessary for more important opera- 
tions, and to secure pilots to conduct the expedition 
on our coast and in our waters, rather than to attempt 
any thing of importance. 

Colonel Nicholls directed captain Lockyer of the 
brig Sophia, to convey an officer to Barataria with a 
packet for Mr. Lafitte, or whoever else might be at 
the head of the privateers on Grande Terre. 

To give a correct idea of that establishment at 
Barataria, of which so much has been said, it is ne- 
cessary to enter into some details, by a digression 
which will naturally bring us back to our subject. 



At the period of the taking of Guadaloupe by the 
British, most of the privateers commissioned by the 
government of that island, and which were then on 
a cruise, not being able to return to any of the West- 
India islands, made for Barataria, there to take in a 
supply of water and provisions, recruit the health of 
their crews, and dispose of their prizes, which could 
not be admitted into any of the ports of the United 
States; we being at that time in peace with Great Bri- 
tain. Most of the commissions granted to privateers 
by the French government at Guadaloupe, having ex- 
pired some time after the declaration of the inde- 
pendence of Carthagena, many of the privateers re- 
paired to that port, for the purpose of obtaining from 
the new government, commissions for cruising against 
Spanish vessels. They were all received by the 
people of Carthagena with the enthusiasm which is 
ever observed in a country that for the first time 
shakes off the yoke of subjection; and indeed a con- 
siderable number of men, accustomed to great politi- 
cal convulsions, inured to the fatigues of war, and 
who^by their numerous cruises in the gulf of Mexi- 
co and about the West- India islands, had become 
well acquainted with all those coasts, and possessed 
the most effectual means of annoying the royalists, 
could not fail to be considered as an acquisition to 
the new renublic- 


Having duly obtained their commissions, they in 
a manner blockaded for a long time all the ports be- 
longing to the royalists, and made numerous cap- 
tures, which thev carried into Barataria. Under this 
denomination is comprised part of the coast of Loui- 
siana to the west of the mouths of the Mississippi, 
comprehended between Bastien bay on the east, and 
the mouths of the river or bayou la Fourche on 
the west. Not far from the sea ai-e lakes called the 
great, the small, and the larger lake of Barataria, com- 
municating with one another by several large bayous 
with a great number of branches. There is also the 
island of Barataria, at the extremity of which is a place 
called the Temple, which denomination it owes to 
several mounds of shells thrown up there by the Indi- 
ans, long before the settlement of Louisiana, and which 
from the great quantity of human bones, are evident- 
ly funereal and religious monuments. 

The island is formed by the great and the small 
lakes of Barataria, the bayou Pierrot, and the bayou 
or river of Ouatchas, more generally known by the 
name of bayou of Barataria; and finally the same de- 
nomination is given to a large basin which extends 
the whole length of the Cypress swamps, lakes, prai- 
ries and bayous behind the plantations on the right 
bank of the river, three miles above New Orleans, as 
far as the gulf of Mexico, being about sixty miles in 
length and thirty in breadth, bounded on the west bv 
the highlands of la Fourche, and on the east by those 
of the right bank of the Mississippi. These waters 
disembogue into the gulf by two entrances of the 
lake or rather the bavou Barataria, between which 


lies an island called Grande Terre, six miles in length 
and from two to three miles in breadth, running pa- 
rallel with the coast. In the western entrance is the 
great pass of Barataria, which has from nine to ten 
feet of water. Within this pass, about two leagues 
from the open sea, lies the only secure harbour on all 
that coast, and accordingly this is the harbour fre- 
quented by the privateers, so well known by the 
name of Baratarians.* Social order has indeed to re- 
gret that those men, mostly aliens, and cruising un- 
der a foreign flag, so audaciously infringed our laws 
as openly to make sale of their goods on our soil; 
but what is much more deplorable and equally as- 
tonishing is, that the agents of government in this 
country so long tolerated such violation of our laws, 
or at least delayed for four years to take effectual 
measures to put a stop to these lawless practices. 
It cannot be pretended that the country was desti- 
tute of the means necessary to repress these outrages. 
The troops stationed at New Orleans were sufficient 
for that purpose, and it cannot be doubted but that 
a well conducted expedition would have cleared our 
waters of the privateers, and a proper garrison sta- 
tioned at the place they made their harbour, would have 
prevented their return. The species of impunity with 
which they were apparently indulged, inasmuch as no 
rigorous measures were resorted to against them, made 
the contraband trade carried on at Barataria, be con- 
sidered as tacitly tolerated. In a word, it is a fact 
no less true than painful for me to assert, that at 
Grande Terre, the privateers publicly made sale, by 
* See plate No. 1, in the Atlas. 


auction, of the cargoes of their prizes. From all 
parts of Lower Louisiana people resorted to Barataria, 
without being at all solicitous to conceal the object 
of their journey. In the streets of New Orleans it 
was usual for traders to give and receive orders for 
purchasing goods at Barataria, with as little secrecy 
as similar orders are given for Philadelphia or New- 
York. The most respectable inhabitants of the state, 
especially those living in the country, were in the 
habit of purchasing smuggled goods coming from 
Barataria. The frequent seizures made of those 
goods, were but an ineffectual remedy of the evil, as 
the great profit yielded by such parcels as escaped 
the vigilance of the custom-house officers, indemni- 
fied the traders for the loss of what they had paid for 
the goods seized; their price being always very mode- 
rate, by reason of the quantity of prizes brought in, 
and of the impatience of the captors to turn them 
into money, and sail on a new cruise. This traffic 
was at length carried on with such scandalous noto- 
riety, that the agents of government incurred very 
general and open reprehension, many persons con- 
tending that they had interested motives for conniv- 
ing at such abuses, as smuggling was a source of 
confiscation, from which they derived considerable 

It has been repeatedly asserted in the public prints 
throughout the union, that most of those privateers 
had no commissions, and were really pirates. This 
I believe to be a calumny, as I am persuaded they 
all had commissions either from Carthagena or from 
France, of the validity of which it would seem the 


government of those respective countries were alone 
competent judges. 

The privateers of Barataria committed indeed a 
great offence against the laws of the United States 
in smuggling into their territory goods captured from 
nations with which we were at peace; and for this 
offence they justly deserved to be punished. But 
in addition to this acknowledged guilt, to charge them 
with the crime of piracy, when on the strictest inquiry 
no proof whatsoever of any act amounting to this 
species of criminality has been discovered, and though 
since the pardon granted to them by the president of 
the United States, they have shown their papers and 
the exact list of the vessels captured by them, to eve- 
ry one who chose to see them, seems evidently un- 
just. Without wishing to extenuate their real crime, 
that of having for four years carried on an illicit trade, 
I again assert that the agents of government justly 
merit the reproach of having neglected their duty. 
The government must surely have been awarf of the 
pernicious consequences of this contraband trade; and 
they had the means of putting a stop to it. It is true 
that partial expeditions had been fitted out for that 
purpose; but whether through want of judgment in the 
plan, or through the fault of the persons command- 
ing those expeditions, they answered no other purpose 
than to suspend this contraband trade in one part, by 
making it take a more western direction. Cat island, 
at the mouth of the bayou or river la Fourche, 
became the temporary harbour of the privateers, 
whose vessels were too well armed to apprehend an 


attack from land troops in ordinary transports. Hence 
the troops stationed at Grande Terre, la Fourche, &c. 
could do no more than prevent the continuance of 
the illegal trade, while they were on the spot; but on 
their departure, the Baratarians immediately return- 
ed to their former station. 

There have been those who pretended that the pri> 
vateers of Barataria were secretly encouraged by the 
English, who were glad to see a commerce carried on 
thatmust prove so injurious to the revenue of the Uni- 
ted States. But this charge is fully refuted by this fact, 
that at different times the English sought to attack 
the privateers at Barataria, in hopes of taking their 
prizes, and even their armed vessels. Of these at- 
tempts of the British, suffice it to instance that of the 
23d of June, 1813, when two privateers being at an- 
chor oflP Cat island, a British sloop of war anchored at 
the entrance of the pass, and sent her boats to en- 
deavour to take the privateers; but they were repuls- 
ed after having sustained considerable loss. 

Such was the state of affairs when on the 2d of 
September 1814, there appeared an armed brig on the 
coast opposite the pass. She fired a gun at a vessel 
about to enter and forced her to run aground; she 
then tacked and shortly after came to an anchor at 
the entrance of the pass. It was not easy to un- 
derstand the intentions of this vessel, who havini^ 
commenced with hostilities on her first appearance, 
now seemed to announce an amicable disposition - 
Mr. Lafitte, the younger, went off in a boat to ex- 
amine her, venturing so far that he could not es- 



cape from the pinnace sent from the brig and making 
towards the shore, bearing British colours and a flag 
of truce. In this pinnace were two British naval 
officers, captain Lockyer, commander of the brig, 
and an officer who interpreted for him, with captain 
Williams of the infantry. The first question they 
asked was, where was Mr. Lafitte? He, not choos- 
ing to make himself known to them, replied that the 
person they inquired for was on shore. They then 
delivered him a packet directed "To Mr. L.afitte — Ba- 
rataria;" requesting him to take particular care of it, 
and to deliver it into Mr. Lafitte's own hands. He pre- 
vailed on them to make for the shore, and as soon 
as they got near enough to be in his power, he made 
himself known, recommending to them at the same 
time to conceal the business on which they had 
come. Upwards of two hundred persons lined the 
shore, and it was a general cry amongst the crews of 
tlie privateers at Grande Terre, that those British 
officers should be made prisoners and sent to New- 
Orleans, as being spies who had come under feigned 
pretences to examine the coast and the passages, 
with intent to invade and ravage the country. It 
was with much difficulty that Mr. Lafitte succeeded 
in dissuading the multitude from this intent, and led 
the officers in safety to his dwelling. He thought, 
very prudently, that the papers contained in the pack- 
et might be of importance towards the safety of the 
country, and that the officers, being closely watched, 
could obtain no intelligence that might turn to the 
detriment of Louisiana. He took the earliest oppor- 
tunity, after the agitation among the crews had sub 


sided, to examine the contents of the packet; in 
which he found a proclamation addressed by colonel 
Edward Nicholls, in the service of his Britannic Ma- 
jesty and commander of the land forces on the coast 
of Florida, to the inhabitants of Louisiana, dated Head- 
quarters^ Pensacola^ 29th August^ 1814; a letter from 
the same, directed to Mr. Lafitte, or to the com- 
mandant at Barataria; an official letter from the ho- 
nourable W. H. Percy, captain of the sloop of war 
Hermes, and commander of the naval forces in the 
gulf of Mexico, dated September 1st, 1814, directed 
to himself; and finally, a letter containing orders from 
the same captain Percy, written on the 30th of Au- 
gust on board the Hermes, in die road of Pensacola, 
to the same captain Lockyer commanding the sloop 
of war Sophia. (For these different papers see Ap- 
pendix, No. 3.) 

When Mr. Lafitte had perused these papers, cap- 
tain Lockyer enlarged on the subject of them, and 
proposed to him to enter into the service of his Bri- 
tannic majesty with all those who were under his 
command, or over whom he had sufficient influence; 
and likewise to lay at the disposal of the officers of 
his Britannic majesty the armed vessels he had at 
Barataria, to aid in the intended attack of the fort of 
Mobile. He insisted much on the great advantages 
that would thence result to himself and his crews; 
offered him the rank of captain in the British service., 
and the sum of thirty thousand dollars, payable, at his 
option, in Pensacola or New Orleans, and urged him 
not to let slip this opportunity of acquiring fortune and 
consideration. On Mr. Lafitte's requiring a few days 


to reflect upon these proposals, captain Lo^kyer ob- 
served to him that no reflection could be necessary, re- 
specting proposals thatobviously precluded hesitation, 
as he was a Frenchman, and of course now a friend 
to Great Britain, proscribed by the American govern- 
ment, exposed to infamy, and had a brother at that 
very time loaded with irons in the jail of New-Or- 
leans. He added, that in the British service he would 
have a fair prospect of promotion; that having such 
a knowledge of the country, his services would be 
of the greatest importance in carrying on the opera- 
tions which the British government had planned 
against Lower Louisiana; that, as soon as posses- 
sion was obtained, the army would penetrate into 
the upper country, and act in concert with the forces 
in Canada; that every thing was already prepared for 
carrying on the war against the American govern- 
ment in that quarter with unusual vigour; that they 
were nearly sure of success, expecting to find little 
or no opposition from the French and Spanish popu- 
lation of Louisiana, whose interests, manners and 
customs were more congenial with theirs than with 
those of the Americans; that finally, the insurrection 
of the negroes, to whom they would offer freedom, 
was one of the chief means they intended to employ, 
being confident of its success. 

To all these splendid promises, all these ensnaring 
insinuations, Mr. Lafitte replied, that in a few days he 
would give a final answer; his object in this procras- 
tination being to gain time to inform the officers of 
the state government of this nefarious project. Hav- 
ing occasion to go to some distance for a short time, 


the persons who had proposed to send the British offi- 
cers prisoners to New- Orleans, went and seized them 
in his absence, and confined both them and the crew 
of ' iie pinnace, in a secure place, leaving a guard at 
the door. The British officers sent for Mr. Lafitte; 
but he, fearing an insurrection of the crews of the pri- 
vateers, thought it advisable not to see them, until he 
had first persuaded their captains and officers to desist 
from the measures on which they seemed bent. With 
this view he represented to the latter that, besides 
the infamy that would attach to them, if they treated 
as prisoners, persons who had come with a flag of 
truce, they would lose the opportunity of discovering 
the extent of the projects of the British against Lou- 
isiana, and learning the names of their agents in the 
country. While Mr. Lafitte was thus endeavour- 
ing to bring over his people to his sentiments, the 
British remained prisoners the whole night, the sloop 
of war continuing at anchor before the pass, waiting 
for the return of the officers. Early the next morn- 
ing, Mr. Lafitte caused them to be released from 
their confinement, and saw them safe aboard their 
pinnace, apologizing for the disagreeable treatment 
they had received, and which it had not been in his 
power to prevent. Shortly after their departure, he 
wrote to captain Lockyer the letter that may be seen 
in the Appendix, No. 4. 

His object in writing that letter was, by appearing 
disposed to accede to their proposal, to give time to 
communicate the affiiir to the officers of the state go- 
vernment, and to receive from them instructions how 


to act, under circumstances so critical and important 
for the country. He accordingly wrote on the 4th 
of September to Mr. Blanque, one of the representa- 
tives of the state, sending him all the papers deliver- 
ed to him by the British officers, with a letter ad- 
dressed to his excellency W. C. C. Claiborne, gover- 
nor of the state of Louisiana. (See Appendix, No. 5.) 
The contents of these letters do honour to Mr. La- 
fitte's judgment, and evince his sincere attachment to 
the American cause. 

Persuaded that the country was about to be vi- 
gorously attacked, and knowing that at that time it 
was little prepared for resistance, he did what his duty 
prescribed; apprising government of the impending 
danger; tendering his services, should it be thought 
expedient to employ the assistance of his crews, 
and desiring instructions how to act; and in case of his 
offers being rejected, he declared his intention to quit 
the country, lest he should be charged with having co- 
operated with the invading enemy. On the receipt of 
this packet from Mr. Lafitte, Mr. Blanque immediate- 
ly laid its contents before the governor, who convened 
the committee of defence lately formed, of which he 
was president; and Mr. Rancher, the bearer of Mr. 
Lafitte 's packet, was sent back with a verbal answer, 
of which it is understood that the purport was to de- 
sire him to take no steps until it should be determin- 
ed what was expedient to be done; it is added, that 
the message contained an assurance that, in the mean- 
time, no steps should be taken against him for his 
past offences against the laws of the United States. 


At the expiration of the time agreed on with cap- 
tain Lockyer, his ship appeared again on the coast 
with two others, and continued standing off and on 
before the pass for several days. 

Mr. Lafitte now wrote a second letter to Mr. 
Blanque, urging him to send him an answer and 
instructions. (See Appendix No. 6.) In the mean- 
time he appeared not to perceive the return of the 
sloop of war, who, tired of waiting to no purpose, 
and mistrusting Mr. Lafitte's intentions, put out to 
sea and disappeared. 

About this time, Mr. Lafitte received informa- 
tion that instead of accepting his services, and en- 
deavouring to take advantage of the confidence the 
British had in him, to secure the country against an 
invasion, and defeat all their projects, the constituted 
authorities were fitting out at New- Orleans a formi- 
dable expedition against Barataria. He then retired to 
the German coast, where, strictly adhering to the 
principles he had professed, he warned the inhabit- 
ants of the danger with which they were threatened 
from the means intended to be employed by the 

About this time, there fell into Mr. Lafitte's hands 
an anonymous letter directed to a person in New-Or- 
leans, the contents of which left no doubt as to the 
intentions of the British, and which is the more in- 
teresting, as all that it announced has since been fully 
verified. (See Appendix, No. 2.) 

Such are the particulars of the first attempt made 
by the British against Louisiana— an attempt in which 


they employed such unjustifiable arts, that it may 
fairly be inferred that the British government scru- 
ples not to descend to the basest means, when such 
appear likely to contribute to the attainment of its 
ends. Notwithstanding the solemn professions of 
respect for the persons and property of the inhabit- 
ants, so emphatically made in the proclamation of 
colonel Nicholls, we see that one of their chief 
reliance for the success of operations in Louisiana, 
was on the insurrection of the negroes. Is it not 
then evident from this, that the British were bent on 
the destruction of a country whose rivalship they 
feared in their colonial productions, and that the ca- 
binet of St. James had determined to carry on a 
war of plunder and devastation against Louisiana? 

In coming to Barataria, to endeavour to gain over 
the privateers to their interests, they acted consist- 
ently with their known principles, and on a calcula- 
tion of probabilities; for it was an obvious presump- 
tion that a body of men proscribed in a country whose 
laws they had violated, reflecting on their precarious 
existence, would embrace so favourable an opportu- 
nity of recovering an erect attitude in society, by 
ranging themselves under the banners of a powerful 
nation. But this calculation of the British proved 
fallacious; and in this instance, as in every other, they 
found in every individual in Louisiana, an enemy 
to Britain, ever ready to take up arms against her; 
and those very men, whose aid they so confidently 
expected to obtain, signally proved throughout the 
campaign, particularly in the service of the bat- 


teries at Jackson's lines, that the agents of the Bri- 
tish government had formed a very erroneous opinion 
of them. (See Note No. 1, at the end of the volume.) 

The British finding themselves disappointed in 
their expectation of drawing over to their interests 
the privateersmen of Barataria, concentrated their 
preparations at Pensacola and Apalachicola. In this 
latter place, they had landed not only troops, but also 
twenty-two thousand stand of arms, with ammuni- 
tion, blankets, and clothing, to be distributed among 
the Indians; and it was generally reported at that time, 
that several of their vessels had already sailed for 
Jamaica, to take in black troops. 

General Armstrong, the then secretary of war, by 
a circular letter of the 4th of July, had informed the 
different state governments of the quota of militia 
they were respectively to furnish, pursuant to the 
president's requisition of the same date. (See Ap- 
pendix, No. 7.) On the 6th of August, the go- 
vernor of the state of Louisiana published, conform- 
ably to that requisition, militia general orders, in 
\%hich, after having laid before his constituents the 
views and intentions of the general government, to 
employ an adequate force to maintain with honour 
the contest in which our country was engaged, he 
exhorted the citizens of the state zealously to stand 
the necessary draught for completing the thousand 
men demanded by the above mentioned requisition. 
fSee Appendix, No. 8.) 



All the western and southern newspapers were at 
that time loudly inveighing against the shameful as- 
sistance afforded by the governor of Pensacola to the 
British, at least inasmuch as he suffered the charac- 
ter of his nation to be sullied, by permitting them 
publicly to make hostile preparations in that town, 
where they had established their head-quarters, and 
where they were, if not the nominal, at least the vir- 
tual masters. Such repeated violations, and the suc- 
cours constantly furnished to the Indians, who were 
evidently the allies of our enemy, contributed not a 
little to rouse the national spirit in that part of the 
union. I cannot refrain from giving here an extract 
from one of the papers that appeared about that time, 
in which the writer, after having enumerated all the 
grievances that the United States had to complain of 
against the Spanish governor of Florida, says: " who 
of us would not prefer to take his fortune as a com- 
mon soldier, to remaining at home in affluence, while 
the community of which he is a member, submits 
tamely, silently and unresistingly to such indignities." 
The commander-in-chief of the 7th district, wrote 
to the governor of the state, from fort Jackson, on 
the 15th of August, announcing to him the necessity 
of holding all the forces of Louisiana militia in readi- 
ness to march at the first signal, in consequence of 
the preparations making at Pensacola, of which he 
had received certain information. (See Appendix, 
No. 9.) Conformably to this or(Jer, the governor 
published in militia general orders, an extract from 
his letter to the commanders of the two divisions of 
state militia, in which he gave them instructions and 
regulations for their respective divisions. Commo- 


dore Patterson, commanding the station of New Or- 
leans and its dependencies, received intelligence of 
the appearance of five British ships of war, which had 
landed a small number of men on the point at Dau- 
phine island. 

General Jackson had at this time removed his 
head-quarters to Mobile, from which place he wrote 
to the governor, on the 22d of August, a letter of 
which the following is an extract: 

" I have no power to stipulate with any particu- 
lar corps, as to particular or local service; but it is 
not to be presumed at present, that the troops of Lou- 
isiana will have to extend their services beyond the 
limits of their own state. Yet circumstances might 
arise, which would make it necessary they should be 
called to face an invading enemy beyond the bounda- 
ry of the state, to stop his entry into their territory." 

In consequence of this letter, the governor pub- 
lished, on the 5th of September, militia general or- 
ders, and afterwards general orders, directing the mi- 
litia of the two divisions of the state, to hold them- 
selves in readiness to march, the first division under 
major-general Viliere, being to be reviewed on the 
10th of the same month, by major Hughes, assistant 
inspector-general of the district, in the city of New 
Orleans; and the second, under the command of ma- 
jor-general Thomas, tol^e reviewed at Baton Rouge 
on the first of October. (See Appendix, No. 10.) 

By another general order, dated New Orleans, 
8th September, governor Claiborne ordered the dif- 
ferent militia companies in the city and suburbs of 
New Orleans, to exercise twice, and those of the 

28 HisreRicAL memoih. 

other parts of the state, once a week. He also re- 
commended to fathers of families, and men whose 
advanced age exempted them from active service in 
the field, to form themselves into corps of veterans, 
choose their own officers, procure arms, and to exer- 
cise occasionally. The governor announces to his 
fellow citizens the dangers with which the country is 
threatened, urging to them that the preservation of 
their property, the repose and tranquillity of their 
families, call on every individual to exert all his ef- 
forts and vigilance; his order enters into minute de- 
tails as to the precautions and police to be observed in 
the existing circumstances; it recommends the great- 
est diligence to be exerted in procuring arms, and 
the greatest care to be taken of them; and finally pre- 
scribes the conduct to be observed by all the militia 
officers, in case of the enemy's penetrating into the 
state. (See Appendix, No. 11.) 

About that time, there appeared a Spanish trans- 
lation of an order of the day published at Pensacola, 
addressed to a detachment of the royal marines at the 
moment of their landing. This piece, written in a 
style of importance that might be used in addressing 
a numerous army, from which might be expected 
the most brilliant military achievements, breathes in- 
veterate hatred against the Americans, loudly an- 
nouncing that the object of the expedition is to 
avenge the Spaniards for the pretended insults offered 
them bv the United States. 

That document, replete with invectives against 
the American character, contains moreover a strong 
recommendation to sobriety; and from the earnest 



manner in which the author insists on that subject, 
one would be led to beUeve that the soldiers whom 
he addresses, stood in great need of his exhortations. 
This piece requires no further comment, as it speaks 
for itself; the tone of falsehood and duplicity that per- 
vades it, has induced me to publish it, especially as it 
may furnish some features in the portrait of our ene- 
my. (See Appendix, No. 12.) 

On the 16th of September, a meeting of a great 
number of the citizens of New Orleans was held at 
the Exchange Coffee-house, in that city, and by them 
was appointed a committee of defence to co-operate 
with the constituted authorities of the state, and with 
the general government, towards the defence of the 
country. The president of that committee, Mr. Ed- 
ward Livingston, after an eloquent speech, in which 
he showed the expediency of making a solemn decla- 
ration of the patriotic sentiments which prevailed 
among the inhabitants of Louisiana, who had, on 
several occasions, been calumniated, and represented 
as disaffected to the American government, and dis- 
posed to transfer their allegiance to a foreign power, 
proposed a spirited resolution which was unanimous- 
ly adopted. (See Appendix, No. 13.) 

This resolution was, within a few days, followed 
by I an address from the committee of defence to 
their fellow citizens. The patriotic sentiments ex- 
pressed in this address, were such as need no 
comment, as the mere perusal of it will suffice to 
evince the spirit which animated the people, of whom 
the committee of defence were on that occasion the 
organ. (See Appendix, No. 14.) 



The preparations Avhich the British had been 
long making at Pensacola, where, regardless of the 
rights of neutrality, the Spanish governor permitted 
the enemy of a nation with which his government 
was at peace, publicly to recruit, nay, even exercise 
his troops and the savage Indians whom he had en- 
listed, and whom he excited by every means of se- 
duction, to renew the horrid scenes exhibited at fort 
Mims; the little care they took in their proud and 
frantic spirit to conceal their projects; the advanta- 
geous situation of the point of Mobile, as a military 
post, were among the circumstances which made it 
probable that fort Bowyer was the object of the expe- 
dition the British were fitting out at Pensacola. 

Major Lawrence, who commanded that fort, was 
well aware of the means which the enemy intended 
to employ against him; and accordingly he made the 
utmost exertions to put the post confided to him, in 
a condition to make a vigorous resistance; while the 
brave garrison under his command ardently longed 
for an opportunity of evincing their zeal and devoted- 
ness for the honour and interest of their beloved coun- 

Before I enter on the glorious defence made by 
that garrison, it seems proper that I describe the 
situation of fort Bowyer, and that of Mobile point. 
It is indeed unnecessary to show how important 
the occupation of that spot must necessarily have 


been towards the success of military operations in- 
tended against Louisiana, as that will sufficiently 
appear from the bare inspection of the map. I will, 
therefore, merely observe that the point of the Mo- 
bile commands the passes at the entrance of the bay, 
and consequently the navigation of the rivers which 
empty into it; that on the eastern side it commands 
the species of archipelago which extends in a paral- 
lel direction as far as the passes Mariana and Christi- 
ana; that from its situation advancing into the gulf, it 
must ever afford to those who hold it, the means of 
exercising an almost exclusive control over the navi- 
gation of the coast of West Florida; and that its prox- 
imity to Pensacola secures to it a prompt and easy 
communication with that town. 

This point, forming the extremity of a peninsula, 
joined to the continent by an isthmus four miles wide, 
between the river and bay of Bonsecours and the bay 
Perdido, extends in an east and west direction, in- 
clining a little towards the south, for the space of 
twenty-nine miles in length, from the mouth of the 
Perdido. A large oblong lake, called Borgne, occu- 
pies the greater portion of its interior towards the 
east, which, independently of the narrow neck of 
land formed by the two bays, affords in several points 
the facility of cutting ofl'all communication with the 
continent. The breadth of the peninsula decreases 
as it extends towards the west, so that three miles 
from the point it is only half a mile wide. This part 
aflfords another means of defence, of which the Brit- 
ish availed themselves when they encamped on the 
peninsula during their last attack; I mean a ditch or 


coulee, communicating with a lagoon, the whole oc- 
cupying upwards of half the breadth of the peninsula. 
Some briars and stunted fir trees and live oaks 
grow here and there on a soil almost entirely formed 
of sand and shells, which mixture gives it a very firm 
consistency. Within two miles of the point vege- 
tation ceases almost entirely, and the soil becomes a 
succession of dowjis, ditches, ravines, and hillocks of 
sand, arid and moving in some places, and in others 
as hard as beaten e^round. These ditches are from 
four to eight feet deep, forming several sinuosities, 
where one sees here and there a few tufts of grass. 
It is nearly at the extremity of this tongue of land, 
on the point rounding towards the northeast, that 
fort Bowyer is situated. The part that is nearest the 
shore is the angle of the north curtam and the semi- 
circular battery facing the pass, and opening a little 
at the distance of fifty yards, contiguous to a bluff 
which skirts the peninsula on both sides, nearly in its 
whole length. 

Fort Bowyer is a redoubt formed on the sea- 
side, by a semi-circular battery of four hundred feet 
in development, flanked with two curtains sixty feet in 
length, and joined to a bastion whose capital line pass- 
es through the centre of the circular battery. This 
bastion has but thirty-five feet in its gorge, with two 
flanks, each capable of receiving but one piece of ar- 
tillery, and fifty feet in length on its front and rear 

Its interior dimensions are one hundred and 
eighty feet in length fjom the summit of the bastion 
to the parapet of the circular battery, and two hun- 


dred feet for the length of the cord of the arc descri- 
bed by the battery. The receding angles formed by 
the curtains with the flanks of the bastion and those 
of the battery, considerably diminish the dimensions 
of this fort, the superficies of which may be estimated 
at twenty-two thousand feet. 

The circular parts and the flanks which join it 
to the curtains, have a parapet fifteen feet thick at 
the summit, and in all the rest of the perimeter of 
the fort, the parapet does not exceed the thickness of 
three feet above the platforms; a fosse twenty feet 
wide surrounds the fort, and a very insufficient glacis 
without a covered way completes the fortification. 
The interior front of the parapet is formed of pine, a 
resinous wood which a single shell would be sufficient 
to set on fire. The fort is destitute of casemates (the 
only shelter from bombs) even for the sick, the am- 
munition or provisions. To these inconvenicncies 
may be added the bad situation of the fort, command- 
ed by several mounds of sand, as above described, at 
the distance of from two to three hundred yards. 
On the summit of those mounds it would be very 
easy to mount pieces of artillery, whose slanting fire 
would command the inside of the fort. 

From the first information of the preparations 
making by the British at Pensacola, until the 12th of 
September, on which day four large vessels were 
discovered in the ofling, the garrison of the fort had 
been constantly employed in putting the fortifications 
in a condition to resist the enemy. Major Lawrence / 
now ordered all the men of the garrison to enter 
within the fort, and to keep themselves in readiness 



for action. From that moment the garrison passed 
each night under arms, every man at his post. 

Before I enter on the particulars of the events 
posterior to the 12th, it may be proper to give a state- 
ment of the strength of the garrison, and of the 
means of defence. 

The garrison consisted of one hundred and thirty 
men including officers, and the whole artillery of 
the fort was twenty pieces of cannon, distributed 
in the following manner: two twenty-fours, six 
twelves, eight nines, and four fours; the twen- 
ty-fours and tv/elves being alone mounted on 
coast carriages, and all the others on Spanish carri- 
ages little fit for service. One nine-pounder and 
three fours were mounted on the bastion, all the rest 
on the circular battery and its flanks. Those guns 
in the rear bastion and on the flanks, were on tem- 
porary platforms, and the men exposed from their 
knees upwards. 

On the 12th of September, the sentinel stationed 
towards lake Borgne, reported that on the morning 
of that day the enemy had landed six hundred 
Indians or Spaniards, and one hundred and thirty 
marines, and on the evening of the same day, two 
English sloops of war, with two brigs, came to an- 
chor on the coast, within six miles east of the fort. 

On the 13th, the enemy sent reconnoitring par- 
ties towards the back of the fort, who approached 
to within three quarters of a mile of it. At half after 
twelve, the enemy approached Vv'ithin the distance 
of seven hundred yards, whence they threw against 
the fort three shells and one cannon ball. The shell? 


did no injury, having exploded in the air; but the 
bail, which was a twelve pound shot, struck a piece 
of timber that crowned the rampart of the curtain, 
part of which it cairied away and then rebounded. 
The fort returned a few shots in the direction of the 
smoke of the ejiemy's guns, they being covered by 
the mounds of sand. 

Meanwhile, the enemy, under cover of those 
mounds, retired a mile and a half behind the fort, and 
appeared to be employed in raising intrenchments. 
Three discharges of cannon were once more sufficient 
to disperse them. In the afternoon, several light boats 
having attempted to sound the channel nearest the 
point, were forced, by the balls and grape-shot fired 
against them, to return to their ships. 

On the 14th, at six in the morning, the enemy 
still continued at the same distance, apparently em- 
ployed in some works of fortification; the ships like- 
wise remained at the same anchorage. 

On the 15th of September, a day ever memora- 
ble for the garrison of fort Bowyer, the enemy by 
his movements gave early indications of his intention 
to attack; for by break of day, a very active com- 
munication was perceived between the ships and the 
troops on shore. 

Towards noon, the wind having slackened to a 
light breeze from the southeast, the ships weighed 
anchor and stood out to sea: at two o'clock they 
tacked and bore down against the fort before the 
wind in line of battle, in the channel, the foremost 
ship being the Hermes, on board of which was the 
commodore, captain Percy, 


Major Lawrence seeing the enemy determined 
on making a regular attack, called a council of all his 
officers. They unanimously agreed to make the 
most obstinate resistance, vigorously exerting every 
means of defence, and came to the following resolu- 

" That in case of being, by imperious necessity, 
compelled to surrender (which could only happen in 
the last extremity, on the ramparts being entirely 
battered down, and the garrison almost wholly de- 
stroyed, so that any further resistance would be evi- 
dently useless,) no capitulation should be agreed on, 
unless it had for its fundamental article that the offi^ 
cers and privates should retain their arms and their 
private property, and that on no pretext should the 
Indians be suffered to commit any outrage on their 
persons or property; and unless full assurance were 
given them that they would be treated as prisoners 
of war, according to the custom established among 
civilized nations." 

All the officers of the garrison unanimously swore, 
in no case, nor on any pretext, to recede from the 
above conditions; and they pledged themselves to 
each other, that, in case of the death of any of them, 
the survivors would still consider themselves bound 
to adhere to what had been resolved on. 

By 4 o'clock in the afternoon, the commodore's 
ship being within the reach of our great guns, a fire 
was opened on her from two twenty-four-pounders, 
but with little effect. The ship then fired one of her 
fore guns, but her shot did not reach the fort. As 


the ships appeared, all the guns that could be brought 
to bear opened on them a brisk fire. 

At half past four, the Hermes came to anchor 
under our battery, within musket shot of the fort; 
and the other three took their station behind that 
ship, forming a line of battle in the channel. The 
engagement now became general, and the circular, 
battery kept up a dreadful firj against the most ad- 
vanced ships, whilst, on the other hand, the four 
ships discharged against the fort whole broadsides, 
besides frequent single shots. Meanwhile captain 
Woodbine, the person who had enli ted and trained 
the Indians in Pensacola, opened the fire of a battery 
that he had established behind the bluff on the south- 
east shore, at the distance of seven hundred yards 
from the fort. That battery had one twelve-pounder 
and a six-inch howitzer, firing balls and shells: these 
the south battery of the fort soon silenced. It was 
now that the fire on both sides raged with the great- 
est fury; the fort and the ships being enveloped in a 
blaze of fire and smoke, until half past five, when the 
haliards of the commodore's flag were carried away 
by a ball, and the flag fell. 

On this major Lawrence, with his characteristic 
humanity, instantly caused the firing to cease, with a 
view to ascertain the real intention of the enemy, 
who discontinued firing for five minutes; at the ex- 
piration of which, the brig next to the Hermes, dis- 
charged a M'hole broadside against the fort, and at the 
same time the commodore hoisted a new flag. All 
the guns of the battery being at that moment loaded, 
they were all fired at once, and produced such a com- 


motion that it shook the ground. A few moments: 
of silence succeeded. The enemy began to perceive 
the effect his conduct had on the minds of the garri- 
son, who indignant at the manner in which the British 
made war, resolved, from the moment of the flag's 
being replaced, to bury themselves under the ruins 
of the fort, rather than surrender. The fire being 
renewed, continued for some time on both sides with 
the same violence. The Hermes having had her ca- 
ble cut, was carried away by the current, and pre- 
sented her head to the fort, and in that position she 
remained from fifteen to twenty minutes, whilst the 
raking fire of the fort swept fore and aft almost every 
thing on deck. ^Vt the moment when the fire was 
most intense, the flagstaff was carried away. This 
the British plainly perceived; but instead of following 
the example of major Lawrence, in suspending their 
fire, they redoubled it, and each of the ships discharg- 
ed her whole broadside against the fort. 

Major Lawrence immediatel)' hoisted another flag 
on the edge of the parapet, having fastened it to a 
sponge- staff. 

No sooner had the flag of the fort fallen, than the 
enemy's troops on shore advanced towards the fort, 
believing it had surrendered; but a few discharges 
of grape-shot soon convinced them of their error, 
and forced them to retire again behind the mounds 
of sand. The Hermes no longer holding by her ca- 
ble, drifted with the current about half a mile, and 
having run aground on the bank, the commodore set 
her on fire. The brig that was next in the line to 
the Hermes, had suffered so much, that it was with 


difficulty she could retire beyond the reach of the 
guns of the fort; but at last the three remaining ships 
g^ot out to sea. The fort continued firing on the 
Hermes until night, by \vhich time she appeared in 
flames, and burned until eleven, when the fire having 
reached the powder, she blew up with a tremendous 

During the action, two of the guns of the fort 
were dismounted, and one broken off by a thirty-two 
pound ball, and another burst. I must observe, that 
of the whole number of guns that were in the fort, 
eight could not be brought to bear on the ships, and 
that the greater part of the men who served at the guns, 
belonged to the infantry, and had never seen artillery 
service before they were stationed at fort Bowyeru 
• several of their officers also were litde acquainted with 
artillery. (See Atlas, plate No. 3.) 

To form a just estimate of the merit of the brave 
garrison of fort Bowyer, it is necessary to know the 
force they had to contend against; I therefore give 
here the statement of that force, as follows: 

The ship Hermes of 28 32-pound carronades. 
The ship Caron 28 do. 

The brig Sophia 18 do. 

The Anaconda 16 do. 

90 guns 

A land battery, one 12 pound- 
er and a 6 inch howitzer. 

Total pieces of artillery 92 


The enemy's force in men was as follows: 
The Hermes had 175 men 

The Caron 175 do. 

The Sophia 125 do. 

The Anaconda 115 do. 


Marines 130 

Indians 600 


The whole effective force 1330 men. 

From the above statement, the proportion appears 
to have been above ten to one; and five to one pieces 
of artillery. 

The loss sustained by the garrison was four kil- 
led and four wounded. That of the enemy was: 
On board the four ships killed 160 
Wounded 70 

On land killed 2 

Total 232 
The proportion appears thus to be twenty-nine 
killed on the side of the British to one on the side of 
the garrison. 

Such was the result of the expedition fitted out 
at Pensacola with the greatest care, and with all man- 
ner of assistance on the part of the Spaniards. 

This victory of the American arms over the Bri- 
tish troops under such circumstances, with so extra- 
ordinary a disproportion of force and of loss, was but 
the harbinger of the brilliant successes which the sons 
of liberty were very soon to obtain on the banks of the 


Mississippi, and of the humiliation that awaited Bri- 
tish pride. 

Commodore Percy relied so much on the superi- 
ority of the number of troops with which he was 
about to attack fort Bowyer, that he made no secret 
of his intention to allow the garrison but twenty mi- 
nutes to capitulate. But how wofuUy he was disap- 
pointed in his expectations! 

Instead of the laurels he was so confident of gather- 
ing, he carried off the shame of having been repuls- 
ed by a handful of men, inferior by nine-tenths to the 
forces he commanded. Instead of possessing him- 
self of an important point, very advantageous for the 
military operations contemplated by his government, 
he left under the guns of fort Bowyer tlie wrecks of 
his own vessel, and the dead bodies of one hundred 
and sixty-two of his men. Instead of returning to 
Pensacola in triumph, offering the Spaniards, as a re- 
"ward of their good wishes and assistance, a portion of 
the laurels obtained, and the pleasure of seeing the 
American prisoners he was confident of taking, he 
brought back to that port, which had witnessed his 
extravagant boasting, nothing but three shattered 
vessels full of wounded men. 

The Spaniards, too timid and too weak to dare to 
attempt any thing by themselves, saw in the British 
avengers sent to realize the chimerical dreams with 
which they had fondly suffered themselves to be de- 
luded. At the Havanna, in Pensacola, and even in 
New Orleans, six months before the attack on fort 
Bowyer, it had been currently reported that the time 
was not far off when the Spanish government was to 



recover possession of that part of Florida annexed to 
the state of Louisiana and to the Mississippi territory. 

Too prudent to attempt any thing without being 
sure of success, too weak for any undertaking by 
themselves, the Spaniards relied on the English for 
the recovery, without danger to them, of that which, 
with so little foundation, they claimed as a portion 
of their territory. 

This guile and duplicity of the Spaniards, was 
seen through by the Americans, and it will hereafter 
appear that the commander of the seventh military 
district of the United States, thought it his duty to 
put a stop to their infamous proceedings. 

The important service rendered by the garrison 
effort Bovvyer could not fail to be justly estimated. 
On the 17th general Jackson, then at Mobile, wrote 
a complimentary letter to major Lawrence, expres- 
sive of the joy he felt on hearing of the glorious de- 
fence made by the garrison under his command, and 
acquainting him that he had despatched information 
of it to the general government, who would not fail 
duly to reward the brave defenders of the rights and 
honour of the American people. 

The New Orleans committee of defence resolved 
that their president, Ldward Livingston, esqr. should 
be directed to write in their name to major Lawrence, 
to assure him of the sentiments of gratitude and joy 
with which the inhabitants of that city had learned 
the gallant defence of fort iiovvyer, and the impor- 
tant service rendered by the garrison, not only to 
Louisiana, but to the whole union, in preserving to 
them so important a point. At the same time it was 


resolved that, in testin>ony of these sentiments, there 
should be presented to major Lawrence a sword 
adorned with suitable emblems. (See Appendix, 
No. 15.) 

On the 21st of September, major-general Jack- 
son, whose head- juarrers wt 1 1 at that time at Mobile, 
issued a proclamation to the inhabitants oi Louisiana, 
in which he sets forth the peifidious conduct of the 
British on our coasts, and the proposal made to the 
privateers of Barataria, to join them, and rally round 
their standard. That proclamation announces to the 
Louisianians that the government and the general 
rely on their zealous assistance in repelling the enemy, 
should he dare to set foot on our soil. (See Appendix 
No. 16.) On the same day, general Jackson issued a 
proclamation addressed to the free men of colour of 
Louisiana, inviting them to unite under the banners 
of their country for the purpose of contributing to its 
defence. That proclamation refers them to governor 
Claiborne for instructions as to the mode of forming 
corps. (See Appendix, No. 17.) 

The spirit of patriotism and zeal which had been 
evinced with so much ardour for the defence of the 
country, in Tennessee, by the levying of the troops, 
that had already joined general Jackson, and were 
encamped on the Alabama, under the command of 
general Coffee, was again manifested in the further 
levy of five thousand men, which took place in that 
state about the middle of October. The general 
government had received information that the enemy 
was preparing an expedition against the state of Lou- 
isiana, by the way of Mobile, and that his intention 


was to obtain possession of all the coast, from cape 
Floriia, as far as the Spanish provinces to the west of 
the Mississippi. 


The Creek Indians in the year 1813 had been de- 
feated and routed by a body of the Tennessee militia 
commanded by major general Andrew Jackson, and 
deputies of the Creek nation having sued for peace, 
had agreed to meet him or some American commis- 
sioners on the 1 0th of August 1814, to determine 
the boundaries of their nation with the United States. 
The treaty, as now in force, was settled; but a cer- 
tain proportion of the Creeks having refused to par- 
ticipate in it, remained still at war with the United 
States, committing depredations on our settlements 
on the Alabama, the Tombigbee, and Mobile bay, and 
they were aided and abetted by the Spaniards, wl)o 
supplied them with arms and ammunition, and receiv- 
ed in Pensacola the property plundered from our citi- 
zens. General Jackson demanded satisfaction from 
the Spanish governor of Pensacola, who in a haughty 
answer said, that he would protect, clothe and arm, his 
Indians (as he termed them) — that in the ensuing fall 
he would expatiate more largely on the subject, evi- 
dently alluding to the intended attack of the south- 
ern states by the British. The messenger v.ho 
brought this answer had hardly arrived, when a Bri- 
tish force, allied with the Creek Indians, came from 
Pensacola and attacked, on the 15th September 1814, 


fort Bowyer on Mobile Point; and after having been 
repulsed, as has been above related, with the loss 
of a ship and a great number of men, they returned 
to Pensacola, and there were received, as the friends 
and allies of the Spaniards, who suffered them to gar- 
rison their forts, and even arrest.-d and confined some 
American citizens, who were suspected of being un- 
friendly to the British government. 
- Major-general Jackson, to put an end to this 
breach of the law of nations, determined to take 
possession of Pensacola, thereby to deprive the Indi- 
ans and their British allies of a place of shelter and 
refuge, after their aggressions on our territory. He 
accordingly assembled, near fort Montgomery on the 
Alabama, an army of about four thousand men, com- 
posed of detachments of the 3d, 39th, and 44th re- 
giments of infantry, the miiilia of Tennessee, and a 
battalion of volunteer dragoons of the Mississippi ter- 

A detachment of cavalry under lieutenant Mur- 
ray of the Mississippi dragoons were sent to recon- 
noitre. They made prisoners a Spanish advanced 
picket, but could perceive nothing; and lieutenant 
Murray having imprudently followed alone an Indian 
whom he saw at some distance, was shot by him. He 
was regretted as a brave and excellent officer. The 
army arrived on the 6th of November 1814, withia 
two miles of Pensacola. (See Atlas, plate No. 2.) 

Major-general Jackson despatched major Peire to 
the governor with a summons; but when that officer 
was at about two or three hundred yards distance of 
fort St. Michael, in defiance of the sacred laws of na- 


tions, he was fired upon from a twelve-pounder, al- 
though his character, as a flag of truce, could not be 
mistaken, he having a large white flag and approach- 
ing alone; major Peire, alter having reconnoitred the 
fort and seen it occupied by British trooi)s, reported 
to the commanding general, who had been previously 
informed that two flags (one Spanish the other British) 
had been displayed on the walls of the fort, and that 
the latter had only been withdrawn the day before 
the arrival of the American army; and making no 
doubt that this wanton behaviour towards the sacred 
character of a flag of truce, was only to be attributed 
to the British, who, doubtless, did not wish to be seen 
in the act of violating the neutrality of the Spanish 
territory, the major-general impelled by a sense of hu- 
manity towards the oppressed Spaniards sent a letter 
by a prisoner, to the governor, demanding an expla- 
nation and satisfaction of the aftVont offered to his flag. 
The army was at the same time encamped one 
mile and a half from the town. The Spanish governor 
immediately despatched an officer with Assurances of 
his not having had any participation in the transac- 
tion of the morning, and added that if the major-ge- 
neral was pleased to renew the communication, he 
pledged himself that his messenger should be receiv- 
ed with due respect. Major Peire went again at 
midnight, with instructions. The governor having 
assembled his principal oflacers, was iniormed of the 
conditions proposed by general Jackson, viz: to re- 
ceive an American garrison in the forts St. Michael 
and Barrancas, until the Spanish government could 
procure a sufficient force to enable them to maintain 


their neutrality ngainst its violation by the British who 
had possessed themselves of the fortresses, notwith- 
standing the remonstjances and protest of the Spa- 
nish governor. 1 hat the American forces should be 
withdrawn as soon as such a respectable force should 
arrive. These conditions having been refused, ma- 
jor Peire declar. d, agreeably to his instructions, that 
however reluctant to the feelings of the general, re- 
course would be had to arms. 

On his return, the 7th November, 1814, three 
thousand men were marched from the encampment 
mthree columns: the centre, composed of detachments 
of the 39th and 44th regiments of infantry, command- 
ed by major Woodruff, and two pieces of artillery. 
The right column, composed of general Coffee's vo- 
lunteers of Tennessee, and the left of the drafted mi- 
litia of Tennessee and the Chactaw Indians, command- 
ed by major Blue, marched in the rear, with a batta- 
lion of volunteer dragoons of the Mississippi territo- 
ry, under major Hinds. 

The column was directed to proceed along the sea 
beach towards the eastward of the town, to avoid pass- 
ing under the fire of fort St. Mi( hael; when in sight of 
the town, the sand proving too heavy for the artillery 
to make any progress, the centre column was ordered 
to charge, which was done in the most gallant manner. 
As soon as the head of the column appeared in the 
principal street, a Spanish battery of two pieces was 
opened against them, but was immediately carried at 
the point of the bayonet, with the loss of eleven men 
killed and wounded; amongst the latter were the gal- 
lant captain Laval of the 3d, and Heutenant Flournoy 



of the 44th regiment. The Spaniards lost only a 
few men, four killed and six wounded; the American 
soldiers, with that mild disposition which character- 
izes the brave, having spared the vanquished. 

The governor of Pensacola, don Gonzales Man- 
riques, having sent a flag of truce to the American 
general, hostilities immediately ceased, and it was 
agreed that the block houses in town, fort St. Michael, 
and Barrancas, should receive an American garrison. 
But the commandant of fort St. Michael refused to 
obey the order of the governor. The general sent 
him a summons ofl^ering him the same advantageous 
propositions which had been made the night before, 
and giving him half an hour to determine; and having 
given the command of the town to major Peire and 
left. him eight hundred men, with instructions to get 
possession of the fort before night, either by ncgoci- 
ating or by force, retired to his camp with the remain- 
der of the troops. As he left the town, the British 
shipping attempted to annoy him with long guns, but 
without efibct. 

It was of the utmost importance that the forts 
should be taken possession of before morning, as 
the British frigate the Seahorse, the Sophia sloop 
of war, and the had springs to their ca- 
bles and were ready either to set fire to the tOAvn 
or effect a landing. The following measures were 
taken. Two companies, with three pieces of can- 
non, under the command of captain Denkins, were 
placed on mount St. Bernard, a position which com- 
mands fort St. Michael, and five hundred men were 
placed on tlie beach to oppose a landing if attempted. 
At six o'clock P. M. colonel Sotto, commandant of 


fort St. Michael, after having sent by two captains a 
verbal acceptance of the conditions offered him, refu- 
sed to receive captain Denkins with his command, 
whom major Peire had sent to take possession of 
the fort, saying they could not evacuate it before 
morning. These delays and the bad faith of the 
Spanish commandant were evidently designed to give 
the British time to prepare to come to their assistance. 
This did not escape the American commandant, who 
ordered captain Denkins to commence an attack up- 
on the fort immediately, and was about to march his 
forces to storm the place, when colonel Sotto, aware 
of the consequences, surrendered, under the same 
conditions proposed at first by the general in chief—- 
and possession was taken of the fort at eleven o'clock 
P. M. On tiie same afternoon a battery called St. 
Rose, situated opposite fort Barrancas at the entrance 
of the bay, was blown up by the Spaniards. 

It is here worthy of remark that property was 
respected and good order and decorum as much ob- 
served as if the American troops had efnteced a friend- 
ly town; and although it had lp<^,en taken by storm, 
not a single act of insubordination was complained 
of. The Spaniards were so tnuch pkaUfjc^, with liiis 
behaviour, that they expressed their admiration and 
astonishment, at being better treated by the Ameri- 
cans, who seemingly had entered their town as foes, 
than by their British allies and friends, who used 
them very cavalierly and secreted on board their ships 
nearly four hundred slaves, who had ran away from 
their masters, and who, notwithstanding severe remon- 


stranccs and repeated applications from the Spanish 
authorities, refused to restore them. 

Next morning, the 8th, the governor having been 
applied to, for his order to the commandant of the 
Barrancas to receive an American garrison, refused 
to give it, alleging that it would not be obeyed. 
General Jackson then resolved to go down and take 
that fortress. The Barrancas is a strong battery, of 

twenty-four pounders, and together with 

fort St. Rose, on a small island situated opposite, com- 
mands eftectually the entrance^of Pensacola bay; but 
on the land side it is not so well defended. Prepara- 
tions were making to march the army down to take that 
fort; when in the evening, an explosion was heard and 
flames were seen proceeding from the same direction. 
General Jackson soon heard by a prisoner, (which af- 
terwards proved to be the fact, the general having 
sent to the spot to reconnoitre) that the British had 
persuaded the Spanish commandant to blow up the 
fortifications, and to retreat to the Havanna, with all 
his force, amounting to three or four hundred men. 

Tlie British shipping by this occurrence dropped 
down. unmolested, aiid put to sea. The following 
was the situaiion of .ufij^irs. The British expelled 
from Pensacola bay; the Indians wandering in those 
low islands, perishing for want of food; the Spaniards 
punished for their want of good faith, and taught by 
sad experience, that they could not expect to injure 
their peaceable neighbours with impunity. On the 
other hand, the American army, composed of about 
four thousand men, of whom one thousand were 
mounted, could be supplied only by land conveyance 


(the British commanding the sea) from a country 
which was itself in want of provisions: — the winter 
was setting in. — The object of the expedition being 
accomplished, the major-general seeing that the pre- 
sence of most of the troops would be wanted for the 
defence of New Orleans, determined to withdraw 
them from the Spanish territory, and march the army 
back to Mobile and New Orleans. The army set 
out on the 9th of November, for fort Montgomery on 
the Alabama, whence the troops were marched to 
their respective destinations, and the gentral, after 
having made some dispositions at Mobile for the 
protection of that place, set out the 21st November, 
by land, and arrived at New Orleans the 2d of De- 
cember, 1814. 

The legislature of the state of Louisiana, which 
had convened by the governor's proclamation of the 
5th of October, met on the 10th of November. The 
following day, the governor delivered to both houses, 
a speech, on which the limits of this work do not 
permit us to enlarge; we shall, therefore, merely ob- 
serve, that after taking a cursory view of the military 
events that had taken place from the commencement 
of the war, and particularly during the last campaign, 
the governor informed the legislature of the well- 
founded apprehensions entertained of an attack on 
Louisiana by the British, with a force, as was pre- 
sumed, of from twelve to fifteen thousand men. The 
governor next entered into minute details as to the 


forces we had to oppose to those of the Aiemy. He 
informed the legislature, that the troops which had 
already taken the field, were shortly to be joined by 
considerable reinforcements of Tennessee and Ken- 
tucky militia. He expressed his satisfaction at the 
zeal, patriotism, and military ardour, displayed by the 
inhabitants of the country, in this critical conjuncture; 
commended the alacrity with which the several militia 
officers had effected the levy of the quota of militia 
called out; and bestowed particular expressions of 
commendation, on the zeal of the inhabitants of Attak- 
apas and Feliciana, who had already formed two 
companies of cavalry. 

The governor finally recommended to the legisla- 
ture to order the expenses to be incurred by the move- 
ments of the militia, in the event of the enemy's effect- 
ing a landing in any part of the state, to be advanced 
out of the state treasury, saving a claim on the general 
government for the reimbursement of the sums ad- 

On the 2d of December, general Jackson arrived 
at New Orleans, where he established his head-quar- 
ters. On the same day he reviewed the battalion of 
the uniform companies of New Orleans militia, com- 
manded by major Daquin. The military appearance 
of those companies, completely equipped, and the 
precision of their manoeuvres, gave the general great 
pleasure, and he testified his satisfaction to the offi- 
cers. From that day the general foresaw what he 
might expect from that gallant battalion; and we shall 
see in the course of the campaign that it realized his 


The situation of our country at that period, owing 
lo the proximity of the enemy — the number of whose 
ships of war on our coast was daily increasing — was 
critical in the extreme: but the unbounded confidence 
which the nation in general had in the talents of gene- 
ral Jackson, made us all look up to that officer, as a 
commander destined to lead our troops to victory, 
and to save our country. It is hardly possible to form 
an idea of the change which his arrival produced on 
the minds of the people. Hitherto partial attempts 
■iiad been made to adopt measures of defence; the 
legislature had appointed a joint committee of both 
houses, to concert with the governor, commodore 
Patterson, and the military commandant, such mea- 
sures as they should deem most expedient; but nothing 
had been done. There was wanting that concen- 
tration of power, so necessary for the success of mili- 
tary operations. The citizens, having very little con- 
fidence in their civil or military authorities, for the 
defence of the country, were filled with distrust and 
gloomy apprehension. Miserable disputes on account 
of two different committees of defence; disputes, un- 
fortunately countenanced by the presence and influ- 
ence of several public officers, had driven the peo- 
ple to despondency; they complained, and not with- 
out cause, that the legislature wasted time, and con- 
sumed the money of the state, in idle discussions on 
empty formalities of election, while all their time, and 
all the wealth they squandered, might be profitably 
employed in the defence of the country. Credit 
was anniliilated — already for several months had the 
banks suspended the payment of their notes; to sup- 


ply the want of specie, one and three dollar notes had 
been issued, and dollars had been cut as a substitute 
for small change. On the banks' refusing specie, 
the monied men had drawn in their funds, which 
they no longer lent out, without an usurious interest 
of three or four per cent, per month. Every one was 
distressed; confidence had ceased; and with it, almost 
every species of business. 

Our situation seemed desperate. In case of an 
attack, we could hope to be saved only by a miracle, 
or by the wisdom and genius of a commander-in- 
chief. Accordingly, on his arrival, he was immedi- 
ately invested with the confidence of the public, and 
all hope centered in him. We shall, hereafter, see how 
amply he merited the confidence which he inspired. 

With his usual activity, adtiering to his constant 
practice of seeing every thing himself, as far as prac- 
ticable, general Jackson, the second day after his ar- 
rival, set out to visit fort St. Philip, at Plaquemines, 
and to examine what parts of the river below New 
Orleans, it might be expedient to fortify. Previous- 
ly to his departure, he had sent orders to governor 
Claiborne to cause all the bayous leading from the 
ocean into the interior of the country, to be obstruct- 
ed. This measure had been ordered to be executed 
along the whole coast, from Attakapas to Chef-Menv 
teur and Manchac. 

On visiting fort St. Philip, the general ordered 
the demolition of the wooden barracks within the fort, 
several additional pieces of artillery to be mounted on 
the rampart, and a thirty-two pounder and a mortar 
in the covered way. He also ordered two batteries 



to be constructed, the one opposite the fort on the 
right bank, on the site of tlie former fort Bourbon, 
and the other half a mile above the fort, and on the 
same bank. These batteries were to be mounted 
with twenty-four pounders. The latter, in particu- 
lar, was in a situation extremely advantageous for 
commanding the river, and could join its fire with 
that of fort St. Philip. 

On his i;etum to New Orleans, the general ordered 
me to draw out the necessary plans for those two 
batteries, which plans being drawn out and approved 
of by him, the necessary measures were taken for 
putting them into immediate execution. General 
Jackson proceeded to visit Chef-Menteur, and having 
gone as far as the confluence of the bayou Sauvage 
and the river of Chef-Menteur, he ordered the erec- 
tion of a battery at that point. 

In the evening of the 13th of December, commo- 
dore Patterson received information that the naval 
forces of the enemy at anchor at Ship island, were 
increased to thirty sail, of which six were ships of 
the line; that others were every moment arriving, es- 
pecially a number of light vessels, calculated for 
navigating on our coast where there is but little water, 
and that the enemy appeared to be sounding the 

The general wrote on the 10th to the governor of 
the state, and informed him of his return from visiting 
the posts down the river as far as fort St. Philip. In that 
letter he observes that the river is capable of being 
well defended, provided suitable batteries be raised 
on its banks; ^nd that he has fixed on the points on 


which they ought to be erected. The general pro- 
poses to the governor to call on the patriotism of the 
members of the legislature, to assist him in the pre- 
sent conjuncture, with all the means in their power. 
As the works to be raised chiefly consist of earth 
thrown up, he is of opinion that it would be expe- 
dient to suggest to the planters the propriety of fur- 
nishing their gangs of negroes, to be employed for a 
certain time in those works. He thinks the impor- 
tance of the subject worthy the immediate attention 
of the legislature, who, he hopes, will not delay a mo- 
ment to furnish means for putting the country in a 
state of defence, by the erection of the fortifications 
contemplated. These, when completed, the general 
thinks, will secure the river against the attacks of the 
enemy; but not a moment, says he, is to be lost in 
perfecting the defence of the Mississippi. With 
vigour, energy, and expedition, all is safe; delay may 
lose all. 

The general concludes by requesting the governor 
to let him know, as soon as possible, what the legisla- 
ture is disposed to do, to assist him in erecting the for- 
tifications; he instances to him as a bright example, 
what had been done in New York. In case the legisla- 
ture should not be able to realize the expectations he 
had conceived from their patriotism, the general wishes 
to know it, that he may make arrangements according 
to the means he possesses, for the defence of the 
country. . 

On the of December, governor Claiborne 
addressed a circular letter to the inhabitants of the 
parishes of Plaquemines, St. Bernard, St. Charles, and 
St. John the Baptist, informing tJiem of a resolution 


passed by the legislature, requiring the governor to 
call upon the inhabitants of such parishes as he might 
think proper, to send all such male negroes as they 
could dispose of to fort St. Charles or to the En- 
glish Turn, to be thence sent to the different points 
that might be judged proper to be fortified, there to 
work on the fortifications. The governor in his cir- 
cular letter, makes known to the inhabitants, that the 
state is in danger, that the enemy is in considerable 
force on our coast, and that his movements indi- 
cate a disposition to land. He concludes by ex- 
pressing his reliance on the patriotism of the in- 
habitants, and his hopes that in the hour of peril, the 
voice of government will be listened to and respect- 
ed by every good citizen. 


The arrival of a great number of the enemy's 
ships of various force on our eastern coast, sufficiently 
announced the intention of the British, soon to mak^: 
an attack in this quarter. Commodore Daniel T. 
Patterson, commanding the New Orleans station, 
had received from Pensacola, a letter, dated the 5th 
of December, informing him of the arrival of sixty 
sail of British vessels, and of a stiil greater num- 
ber being expected; that those vessels had on board 
a considerable number of troops destined to act 
against New Orleans. (See Appendix, No. 18.) 
On this information, the commodore had sent five 
gun-boats, one tender, and a despatch boat, towards 
the passes Mariana and Christiana, to watch the ene- 


my's movements in that quarter. The command of 
this flotilla was given to Thomas Asp. Catesby Jones, 
who hoisted his flag on board gun-boat No. 156. 
Commodore Patterson's instructions directed that, 
if possible, it would be well to wait for the enemy's 
barges, lanches, and pinnaces on the outside of the 
Rigolets; that perhaps the enemy would endeavour 
to cut off" the gun-boats with his small craft, and that 
if his forces were too considerable, it was not advisa- 
ble to remain too long at the same anchoring ground,i 
at that time between Ship and Cat islands, and 
that it was important to secure a retreat at the Rigo- 
lets, where they must wait for the enemy, and sink 
him or be sunk. The commodore particularly re- 
commended the most vigilant attention in watching 
the enemy's movements, directing information there- 
of to be sent to him as frequently as possible. 

Pursuant to his instructions, lieutenant Jones had 
detached gun-boats No. 23, lieutenant M'Keever, 
and No. 163, sailing-master Ulrick, to Dauphine 
island. On the 9th of December, these two vessels 
being at anchor within the island, espied two ships 
of war out at sea, steering westward. The two gun- 
boats immediately set sail, and accompanied them, 
keeping within the island till night; when the ships 
appeared to come to an anchor, the gun-boats continu- 
ed on their course, and joined company, opposite Bi- 
loxi, with the three other gun-boats Nos. 5, 156 and 
162, which composed the whole flotilla. They made 
sail the whole night, apprehending that if they remain- 
ed at anchor, the enemy might send barges in the 
night to take them. 


t>n the 10th, by break of day, they discovered an 
entire fleet of the enemy's vessels at anchor in the 
channel between Cat-island and Ship-island; on which 
the gun-boats made for pass Mariana, within which 
they anchored, and received provisions from the bay 
St. Louis. 

On the 11th they remained at anchor the whole 
day, and put the gun- boats in the best condition to 
sustain an attack; and on the 12th they made sail 
towards the eastern point of Cat-island, whence they 
discovered the enemy's fleet so considerably increas- 
ed, that it would have been imprudent to continue any 
longer where they then were. 

On the 13th the gun-boats sailed for the bay St. 
Louis. At 4 o'clock in the afternoon were disco- 
vered a considerable number of the enemy's barges 
making for pass Christiana; upon which, agreeably to 
instructions, the gun-boats endeavoured to make for 
the Rigolets; but the wind having died away, and the 
current making strong towards the east, they could 
get no farther than the channel between the main 
land and Isle aux Malheureux, where they were 
obliged to come to an anchor about 2 after midnight. 
Sailing-master Johnson, commanding the Sea- 
horse tender, was then in the bay St. Louis for the 
purpose of protecting the public stores established on 
its western shore, when he was attacked that same day 
by several of the enemy's barges. He was supported 
in his defence by a battery of two six-pounders, and 
some of the enemy's barges were destroyed; but 
at last captain Johnson was forced to yield to num- 
bers, and set fire to his vessel, as likewise to the public 


stores, to prevent theil* falling into the hands of the 

On the 14th, by break of day, were discovered, 
five miles to the eastward, a great number of barges 
formed in a line, which came to and laid on their 
graplings for about fifteen minutes, after which they 
sdvanced in a line of about forty-five barges and other 
craft in front, to attack the gun-boats. Lieutenant 
M'Keever's, No. 23, carrying a thirty-two pounder, 
tried immediately to fire on the barges, but the ball 
could not reach them. A small division of them 
made for the tender Alligator, which had been pre- 
vented by the calm from joining the gun-boats, and 
was at anchor two miles from them, to the southeast of 
Malheureux island. Having taken the Alligator, the 
division rejoined the flotilla, which continued to ad- 
vance in line of battle, until they got so near that the 
fire from the gun-boats began to produce some confu- 
sion; on which they separated into three divisions. One 
of these consisting of fifteen barges, attacked commo- 
dore Jones's gun-boat, No. 156, at anchor half a ca- 
ble's length from the others, in the centre towards 
the enemy. The others divided so as to attack all 
the gun- boats at once. By half after eleven in the 
forenoon, the attack became general, and after three 
quarters of an hour of a most vigorous resistance, 
made by one hundred and eighty-two men, including 
officers distributed in the different gun-boats, against 
about twelve hundred of the enemy in very large 
barges and other craft, carrying nine and twelve- 
pounders and twenty-four pound carronades, the gun- 
boats were forced to strike, after having lost six men, 


and thirty-five being wounded, many of them se- 
verely. (See Atlas, plate No. 4.) 

Lieutenant Jones who commanded the flotilla, 
was wounded in the left shoulder. Lieutenant R. 
Spidden was wounded in both his arms, one of which 
it was necessary to amputate; and lieutenant M'Kee- 
ver was also wounded, but slightly. The ene- 
my having got possession of one of the gun-boats, 
fired several shot from her upon the others, without 
striking the American flag. The enemy's loss was 
very considerable, amounting, it is supposed, to up- 
wards of three hundred men. Nor will this estimate 
appear exaggerated when it is considered that a great 
Humber of barges and lanches were sunk. One of 
the latter, with a crew of one hundred and eighty men, 
went down astern of No. 156. 

In the report made by lieutenant Jones to commo- 
dore Patterson, (see Appendix No. 9) and transmit- 
ted by the latter to the secretary of war, may be seen 
all the particulars of the obstinate resistance made by 
the oflicersand crews of the gun-boats, notwithstand- 
ing the disadvantageous circumstances under which 
they were attacked. Amongst these was a very strong 
current running against them, while several of them 
were sunk eighteen inches in the mud, so that it was 
impossible to manoeuvre against barges almost as large 
as the gun-boats themselves. It is presumable that 
had not the wind died away, the gun-boats under sail, 
would have destroyed the flotilla, though numerous 
and well armed. The British during the fight ma- 
noeuvred very skilfully, and as soon as they became 


masters of any gun-boat, they directed her fire against 
such of the others as had not struck. 

The observation, which a due regard to truth com- 
pelled me to make at the beginning of this work, re- 
specting the defenceless state in which Louisiana was 
found at the time of its invasion, here forces itself 
again upon me. But it is far from my intention to im- 
pute any fault to those whose conduct exempted them 
from censure. Probably a concurrence of untoward 
circumstances, unknown to me, may have occasioned 
the apparent neglect of Louisiana. No one is more 
disposed than I am to render justice to the patriotism, 
activity and zeal displayed by the heads of the differ- 
ent departments of our administration during the 
whole course of the war, which is now so happily ter- 
minated: nor is any one more ready to acknowledge 
the firmness and wisdom that so strongly marked the 
line of conduct pursued by our worthy president. 
Twenty-five gun-boats, however, might at that time 
have saved Louisiana, by rendering it impossible for 
the British to land, and obliging them to abandon the 
project of attacking New Orleans by the lakes. In 
that case, the enemy would have been forced to take 
post at Mobile, in order to carry on the war by 
land in the Floridas. And fortunate it would have 
been for us, had he pursued this course, and much it 
is to be wished he may attempt it, should our country 
ever hereafter be at war with Great Britain. I pre- 
dict that all the British troops that may attempt to 
march through the pine-barrens of Florida, will find 
their graves there; and for the accomplishment of my 


prediction, I would rely entirely on Tennessee rifle- 

Commodore Patterson, who had served several 
years on the New Orleans station, whi^h he had com- 
manded from nearly the commencement of the war, 
was perfectly acquainted with our coast, and conse- 
quently knew what means were necessary to defend 
it. On this subject he had written, at an early peri- 
od, and several times since, to the secretary of the 
navy. At Tchifonte, on the eastern shore of lake 
Pontchartrain, a flat-bottomed frigate had been begun 
to be built, two years before, calculated for the navi- 
gation of the lakes and of our coasts. She was to car- 
ry forty-two pieces of cannon, twenty-six of which 
were to be thirty-two pounders. The building of 
this frigate was suspended in consequence, I believe, 
of the representations of brigadier-general Flournoy, 
then commanding this district. From his first tak- 
ing the command of the station, commodore Patter- 
son had not ceased to solicit government to author- 
ize him to have that frigate finished. Governor 
Claiborne's correspondence with the heads of the dif- 
ferent departments was also to the same effect; but 
though much was promised, nothing was performed. 
It might have been thought, from the little regard that 
was paid to the representations of the superior offi- 
cers of the district, and of our representatives in con- 
gress, that Louisiana was considered as a bastard child 
of the American family; or that to attack her was 
looked upon as an impossibility. Yet the attack 
made on us was within a hair's breadth of succeeding; 
for had the enemy appeared a few weeks sooner, be 


fore general Jackson arrived in New Orleans, he 
might have entered the city with little or no opposi- 
tion, there being no means of resisting him; and how- 
ever well inclined the citizens were to defend them- 
selves, it would have been impossible to prevent the 
taking of the city. The capture of our gun- boats 
having left our coast defenceless, and permitted the 
enemy to choose whatever point he thought most 
convenient to land on, it became necessary to redoy- 
ble our efforts in making preparations for defence. 

General Jackson was returning from a tour of 
observation to the river of Chef-Menteur, when the 
intelligence of the loss of the gun-boats reached him. 
He immediately ordered the militia-battalion of men 
of colour, commanded by major Lacoste, and the 
dragoons of Feliciana, to proceed with two pieces of 
cannon and take post at the confluence of bayou Sau- 
vage and the river of Chef-Menteur, in order to co- 
ver the road to the city on that side, and watch the 
enemy's movements. Major Lacoste was also or- 
dered to erect a close redoubt surrounded with a 
fosse, according to a plan which I drew agreeably to 
general Jackson's orders. 

On his arrival in town, the general bent his at- 
tention to the fortifying of all assailable points, it 
being impossible to ascertain which the enemy would 
make choice of, the want of vessels on the lake depriv- 
ing us of all means of obtaining any certain intelli- 
gence of his movements, before he could effect his 

Captain Newman of the artillery, who commanded 
ihe fort of Petites Coquilles, which stands at the 


inner entry of the pass of the Rigolets, towards lake 
Pontchartrain, was positively ordered to defend his 
post to the last extremity, and in case of his not be- 
ing able to hold out, to spike the guns, blow tip the 
fort, and evacuate on the post of Chef-Menteur. 

Captain P. Jugeant was authorized to lew and 
form into companies all the Chactaw Indians he could 

On the 15th the commander-in-chief informed 
generals Coifee, Carrol and Thomas of the taking of 
the gun-boats, by letters sent by express, urging 
them to use all possible speed in marching to New 
Orleans with the troops under their command. 

General Winchester commanding at Mobile, was 
also informed of the loss of our naval force, and it 
was earnestly recommended to him to use the great- 
est vigilance in protecting the vicinity of that town, 
as the enemy might endeavour to make an attack in 
that quarter. 

On the 16th general Jackson wrote to the secre- 
tary of war, apprizing him of the capture of the gun- 
boats; he expressed to him his concern for the conse- 
quences that might attend that event, which he appre- 
hended might happen, when he wrote to government 
suggesting the propriety of giving the necessary or- 
ders forfinishing the block-ship building at Tchifonte, 
and when he ga\ e orders for supplying forts Strother, 
Williams, and Jackson, with six months provisions. 
The general apprehended lest the interruption of our 
communications by water with Mobile, might be at- 
tended with consequences fiUal to the safety of the 



country. He however assured the secretary of war 
that, should the enemy effect a landing, he would, 
with the help of God, do all he could to repel him. 
He also informed the secretary that neither the Ten- 
nessee troops nor those of Kentucky had yet arriv- 
ed, but that they were daily expected, and that in 
the meanwhile he was putting the river below the 
city in the best possible state of defence. He ac- 
quainted him with the taking of the post of the Balise, 
with all the pilots, and a detachment of troops that was 
there stationed, but he informed him at the same time 
of the establishment of martial law, and of the rising of 
the militia in mass. " The country," said thegeneral, 
"shall be defended, if in the power of the physical force 
it contains, with the auxiliary force ordered. We have 
no arms here — will the government order a supply? 
If it will, let it be speedily. Without arms, a de- 
fence cannot be made." 

During the summer, while yet among the Creeks, 
general Jackson had made a requisition of a quantity of 
arms, ammunition, heavy cannon, balls, bombs, &c. 
to be sent to New Orleans; but such was the fatality 
that appeared to be attached to all the measures adopt- 
ed for our defence, that it was not till the middle of 
January, 1815, that a very small proportion of what 
had been ordered, arrived at New Orleans. 

A special law of the state had, some time before, 
authorized the formation of a battalion of free men 
of colour; and we have seen that it had already ta- 
ken the field under the command of major Lacoste, 
and had been stationed at Chef-Menteur. Colonel Mi- 
chael Fortier, senior, a respectable and worthy citizen 
of New Orleans, having the superior command of all 


the corps of men of colour, presided over the levying of 
a new battalion of the same description, formed by the 
exertions and under the direction of the gallant captain 
Savary, who had acquired an honourable and distin- 
guished reputation in the wars of St. Domingo. It was 
chiefly with refugees from that island, that colonel Sa- 
vary formed that battalion, whose officers were im- 
mediately commissioned by the governor of the state; 
and its command was confided to major Daquin 
of the 2d regiment of militia. We shall hereafter 
see in the relation of the different engagements, 
that that brave corps realized, by a brilliant dis- 
play of valour, the hopes that had been conceived 
of it. 

The capture of the gun-boats was announced to 
the senate and house of representatives of the state, 
by a message from the governor; " I lay before you," 
said he, " a letter addressed to me by commodore 
Patterson, announcing the capture of five of the Unit- 
ed States gun-boats of the New Orleans station, by 
a vastly superior force of the enemy. The length of 
the combat is a proof of the valour and firmness with 
which our gallant tars maintained the unequal con- 
test, and leaves no doubt that, although compelled 
ultimately to strike, their conduct has been such as to 
reflect honour upon the American name and navy. 
The ascendancy which the enemy has now acquired 
on the coast of the lake, increases the necessity of 
enlarging our measures of defence." 

Commodore Patterson addressed a second letter 
to the governor, in which he complained of thp want 


of seamen to man the armed vessels then at New Or- 
leans, and requested the support and assistance of the 
state authorities. 'I'his letter was laid by the gover- 
nor before the legislature, who, on the day of 

December, passed a resolution giving a boimty of 
twenty-lour dollars to each seaman who would enter 
the service of the United States for three months, 
and to this end placed at the disposition of the go- 
vernor six thousand dollars. The governor forth- 
with issued his proclamation (see Appendix No. 19.) 
Between seventy and eighty sailors received the 
bounty of the state, and were of the number of those 
brave tars who, by their incessant fire from the ship 
Louisiana and the schooner Carolina, so annoyed the 
enemy in all his movements, and so particularly ha- 
rassed him on the night of the 23d of December, as 
will be seen hereafter.* 

On the 18th of December, general Jackson re- 
viewed the New Orleans militia, the first and second 
regiments, the battalion of uniform companies under 
the command of major Plauche, and part of the free 
men of colour. Addresses were read to them, and an- 
swered with acclamations of applause. My voice is 
too weak to speak of these addresses in adequate 
terms; I leave the reader to form an idea of the effect 
they must have produced on the minds of the militia, 
from the impression that the mere perusal of them 
will make on himself. (See Appendix, No. 20.) 

* On a representation made by the governor on the 16th of 
Dcceraber, the state legislature passed a law laying an embargo 
for three days, to facilitate tp commodore Patterson the means 
of enliating sailors. 


These corps had two days before entered upoh ac- 
tual service, and did regular duty like troops of the 
line. On the 18th, Plauche's battalion was sent to 
bayou St. John, and the major took the command 
of that post. 

A general order of this day enjoined all officers 
commanding detachments, out-posts, and pickets, on 
the approach of the enemy, to remove out of his reach 
every kind of stock, horses, Sec. and provisions; and 
directed them upon their responsibility to oppose the 
invaders at every point, and harass them by all pos- 
sible means. It concluded with this animating sen- 

" The major-general anticipating that the enemy 
will penetrate into this district in a few days, requests 
of tne people of Louisiana to do their duty cheerfully, 
and bear the fatigues incident to a state of war, as be- 
comes a great people, anticipating from the ardour per- 
vading, and the present help at hand, to make an easy 
conquest of them, and teach them in future to respect 
the rights of liberty and the property of freemen." 

The garrison of fort St. John, on lake Pontchar- 
train, had been reinforced by the volunteer company 
of light artillery, under the command of lieutenant 

By an order of the day of the 19th, the command- 
er-in-chief ordered several persons confined in the 
different military prisons, for having violated the laws 
of the country, to be set at liberty, on their offering 
to take up arms in defence of the country. 

But that favour was restricted to such persons as 
were within two months of completing the term of 


imprisonment to which they had been condemned. 
These and all others not under sentence were, in pur- 
suance of that order, set at liberty by the command- 
ing officers at fort St. Charles, the barracks, and the 
powder magazine. 

The country being now in imminent danger, it 
became necessary to adopt the most vigorous mea- 
sures to prevent all communication with the enemy; 
and in order that such persons as might be apprehend- 
ed for having given the British information as to the 
situation of the country, its means of defence in 
troops, artillery, fortifications, ^2. might not es- 
cape punishment, general Jackson, wrote to the 
governor, suggesting to him the propriety of his 
recommending to the legislature to suspend the 
writ of habeas > corpus. As the danger was daily 
increasing, the general could not, without expo- 
sing the safety of the country, whose defence was 
committed to him, wait till the dilatory forms of de- 
liberation should empower him to take the steps ne- 
cessary for saving it. Nor did it escape his penetra- 
tion that the legislature was not disposed to second 
his views, by that energetic measure. The hour of 
combat grew near, that of discussing, deliberating, 
and referring to committees, had gone by. The time 
called for action and promptitude; and accordingly 
general Jackson proclaimed martial law, (see Appen- 
dix, No. 21.) and from that moment his means be- 
came more commensurate with the weight of responsi- 
bility he had to sustain. The object of his commis- 
sion was to save the country; and this, he was sensi- 
ble, could never be effected by half- measures. It was 


aecessar)'' that all the forces, all orders, all means of 
opposition to be directed against the enemy, should 
receive their impulse from the centre of the circum- 
ference they occupied. They ought to be radii, di- 
verging from one and the same point, and not entang- 
ling chords intersecting that circumference and each 
other. From the moment martial law was proclaimed, 
every thing proceeded with order and regularity, nor 
did any of our means prove abortive. Every individu- 
al was stationed at his proper post. The guard of the 
city was committed to the corps of veterans and fire- 
engine men, who were to occupy the barracks, hospi- 
tals, and other posts, as soon as the troops of the line 
and the militia should be commanded on service out 
of town. 

The privateers of Barataria, and all persons arrest- 
ed for, or accused of, any infraction of the revenue 
laws, sent to tender their services to general Jackson. 
Mr. J. Lafitte, adhering to the line of conduct he haql 
marked out for himself, and from which he had never 
deviated from the beginning of September, when the 
British officers made him proposals, waited on the 
€ommander-in- chief, who, in consideration of the 
eventful crisis, had obtained for him a safe conduct 
from judge Hall, and from the marshal of the dis- 

Mr. Lafitte solicited for himself and for all the Ba- 
ratarians, the honour of serving under our banners, 
that they might have an opportunity of proving that 
if they had infringed the revenue laws, yet none were 
more ready than they to defend the country and 
combat its enemies. 


Persuaded that the assistance of these men could 
not fail of being very useful, the general accepted their 
offers. Some days after, a certain number of them 
formed a corps under the command of captains Do- 
minique and Beluche, and were employed during the 
whole campaign at the lines, where, with distinguish- 
ed skill, they served two twenty-four pounders, bat- 
teries Nos. 3 and 4. Others enlisted in one or other 
of the three companies of mariners, raised by captains 
Songis, Lagaud, and Colson. The first of these com- 
panies was sent to the fort of Petites Coquilles, the 
second to that of St. Philip, and the third to bayou 
St. John. 

All classes of society were now animated with 
the most ardent zeal. The young, the old, women, 
children, all breathed defiance to the enemy, firmly 
resolved to oppose to the utmost the threatened in- 
vasion. General Jackson had electrified all hearts; all 
were sensible of the approaching danger; but they 
waited its presence undismayed. Tiiey knew that, in 
a few days, they must come to action with the enemy; 
yet, calm and unalarmed, they pursued their usual 
occupations, interrupted only when they tranquilly 
left their homes to perform military duty at the posts 
assigned them. It was known that the enemy was 
on our coast, within a few hours sail of the city, with 
a presumed force of between nine and ten thousand 
men; whilst all the forces we had yet to oppose him 
amounted to no more than one thousand regulars, and 
from four to five thousand militia. 

These circumstances were publicly known, nor 
could any one disguise to himself, or to others, the 


dangers with which we were threatened. Yet, such 
was the universal confidence, inspired by the activity 
and decision of the commander-in-chief, added to 
the detestation in which the enemy was held, and the 
desire to punish his audacity, should he presume tO' 
land, that not a single warehouse or shop was shut, 
nor were any goods or valuable effects removed from 
^e city. At that period, New Orleans presented a 
very affecting picture to the eyes of the patriot^ and 
of all those whose bosoms glow with the feelings of 
national honour, which raise the mind far above the 
vulgar apprehension of personal danger. The citizens 
were preparing for battle as cheerfully as if it had been 
a party of pleasure, each in his vernacular tongue 
singing songs of victory. The streets resounded 
with Yankee Doodle^ the Marseilles Hymn^ the Chant 
du Depart^ and other martial airs, while those who 
had been long unaccustomed to military duty, were 
furbishing their arms and accoutrements. Beauty 
applauded valour, and promised with her smiles to 
reward the toils of the brave. Though inhabiting ah 
open town, not above ten leagues from the enemy, 
and never till now exposed to war's alarms, the fair 
sex of New Orleans were animated with the ardour of 
their defenders, and with cheerful serenity at the sound 
of the drum, presented themselves at the windows 
and balconies, to applaud the troops going through 
their evolutions, and to encourage their husbaTids>, 
sons, fathers, and brothers, to protect them from th* 
insults of our ferocious enemies, and prevent a repe- 
tition of the horrors of Hampton. 



The several corps of militia were constantly ex- 
ercising from morning till evening, and at all hours 
was heard the sound of drums, and of military bands 
of music. New Orleans wore the appearance of a 
camp; and the greatest cheerfulness and concord pre- 
vailed amongst all ranks and conditions of people. 
All countenances expressed a wish to come to an en- 
gagement with the enemy, and announced a foretaste 
of victory. 

Commodore Patterson sent gun-boat No. 65 to 
fort St. Philip. Lieutenant Cunningham who com- 
manded it, had orders to send an armed boat to the 
Balise, for the purpose of bringing up the custom- 
house c-fficer, and of ascertaining, if possible, the ene- 
my's force. He was further directed to give to the 
commanding officer at Plaquemine all the assistance in 
his power. The commodore ordered captain W. B. 
Carrol, the officer who had the command of the navy- 
yard at Tchifonte, to cause the brig iEtna to ascend 
the bayou, and take a station opposite the unfinished 
block-ship, for the defence of the latter, in case of the 
approach of the enemy. Captain Carrol was further 
ordered not to suffer any boat to leave Tchifonte 
for the bayou St. John, without a passport, and in the 
event of the enemy's entering lake Pontchartrain, not 
to let the mail-boat pass. 

Mr. J. Shields, purser, and doctor R. Morrell, 
surgeon of the navy, were sent, on the 15th Decem- 
ber, at night, by commodore Patterson, with a flag of 
truce, to the British fleet, for the purpose of obtaining 
correct information as to the situation of the officers 
and crews made prisoners on board the gun-boats, 
and of endeavouring to obtain their being suffered to 



return to town on parole. Doctor Morrell was like- 
wise sent to administer his professional assistance to 
the wounded. On the following day, near the eastern 
branch of Pearl river, they fell in with gun-boat No. 5, 
one of those taken. Shortly after they went on board 
the frigate Seahorse, captain Gordon, to whom they 
stated the object of their mission, and by whom they 
were sent in a tender to admiral Cochrane, who com- 
manded the squadron. They met the admiral in his 
barge, who having read commodore Patterson's let- 
ter and the credentials he had given to those gentle- 
men, returned the letter without any observation, and 
ordered the tender to anchor at the mouth of Pearl 

On the 18th, in the morning, the admiral sent for 
the gentlemen, who accordingly waited on him on 
shore on Isle-aux-Pois. He first inquired what rank 
they held in the American navy: and next observed 
that their visit was unseasonable under the existing 
circumstances; that he could not permit them to re- 
turn, until the intended attack was made, and the fate 
of New Orleans decided. In support of his opinion, 
he instanced a similar case that had occurred at Bal- 
timore, and concluded by observing, that prudence 
and policy obliged him to send them on board some 
vessel belonging to the fleet. On the gentlemen's 
exjires^ing a wish to know in what light he thought 
proper to consider them, the admiral replied that it 
was his intention to respect the flag of truce, though 
he thought he should not be reprehensible, were he 
to treat them as prisoners of war. 


The motive which iiifluced these gentlemen to in- 
quire of the British admiral in what light they wer^to 
be considered, was the just suspicion which they en- 
tertained from the previous conduct of the enemy 
towards them. Their boat had been moored astern 
of the tender, and plundered of all its rigging, 
and a guard had been stationed in her. It was 
with the greatest difficulty that a sail was ob- 
tained to shelter the men from the rain and intense 
cold during the night. Next morning, the tender 
was ordered to convey them on board the Gorgon, 
hospital ship, where were most of the wounded men 
pf the crews of the gun-boats. Through the negli- 
gence of the officer commanding the tender, the boat 
which he had in tow, was sunk, and every thing on 
board of her was lost. But what particularly evinced 
the outrageous spirit of the British, was that the officer 
commanding the tender, forced the crew of the boat 
under a flag of truce, to work like his own sailors. 
To put a stop to this violation of the law of nations, 
it was necessary to come to an explanation with that 
officer, lieutenant Johnston; who, being irritated at the 
circumstance, refused to give the least assistance to 
some of our wounded men, who had been already 
twenty-eight hours on board the tender, whither they 
had been removed from on board the brig Anaconda, 
without having yet received any nourishment, what- 
ever. On board the Gorgon, the gentlemen found 
our wounded perfectly well treated by the British. 
As it is with reluctance that I have been under the 
necessity of reproaching them with their cruelty 
in a variety of instances, it is here particularly 
grateful to me, to have occasion to do justice to their 


humanity; for in describing the horrors of war, the 
feeling heart finds a most pleasing relief from his 
painful task, in dwelling vipon instances of humane 

Admiral Cochrane had promised Messrs. Shield 
and Morrell that they should be permitted to visit 
their countrymen, and yet, with duplicity unworthy 
his high rank, he gave a written order, " that on no 
pretence whatever were they to be permitted to leave 
the Gorgon, until further orders." 

The loss of their boat having left these officers en- 
tirely without linen or any other clothes than those on 
their persons, and there appearing no rational ground 
to detain them as prisoners who had come under the 
sanction of a flag of truce, they several times, through 
the channel of different officers, applied to the admi- 
ral, claiming to be set at liberty, with their boat's 
crew. But all their applications were to no purpose, 
until the 12th of January, on which day they were re- 
leased, and on the 18th they arrived in town. 

The defence of the country requiring the absence 
of a number of citizens from their homes, an inter- 
ruption of bushiess became unavoidable; and the 
obligation of performing military duty, precluded 
the possibility of fulfilling commercial engagements. 
This state of things induced the legislature to pass a. 
law prolonging the term of payment on all contracts, 
till the 1st of May next ensuing, and providing va- 
rious regulations on that subject. (See Appendix, 
No. 22.) 

On the 21st of December, when the orders that 
had been given for obstructing the different canals of 
the bayous below Manchac were presumed to have 


been executed, a detachment of the 3d regiment of 
militia, consisting of eight white men and a serjeant,^ 
two mulattoes and one negro, with a single boat, 
was sent by major Villere (the son) to the village of 
the Spanish fishermen, on the left bank of the bayou 
Bienvenu, a mile and a half from its entrance into 
lake Borgne, for the purpose of discovering whether 
the enemy might try to penetrate that way, and to 
give notice of such attempt. 

The bayou Bienvenu is unfortunately become 
so remarkable from the British forces having pene- 
trated through it, into Louisiana, that it deserves a 
particular description. 

This bavou, formerlv called the river St. Francis, 
under \vhich designation it is laid down in some old 
maps, is the creek through which run all the waters of 
a large basin, of a triangular form, about eighty square 
miles in surface, bounded on the south by the Mis- 
sissippi, on the west by New Orleans, by bayou 
Sauvage or Chef-Menteur on the northwest, and 
on the east by lake Borgne, into which it empties. 
It receives the waters of several other bayous, form- 
ed by those of the surrounding cypress swamps 
and prairies, and of innumerable little streams frona 
the low grounds along the river. It commences be- 
hind the suburb Marigny, at New Orleans, divides 
the triangle nearly into two equal parts from the sum- 
mit to the lake which forms its basis, and runs in a 
south-easterly direction. It is navigable for vessels of 
one hundred tons as far as the forks of the canal of 
Piernas' plantation, twelve miles from its mouth. Its 
breadth is from one hundred and ten to one hundred 
and fifty yards, and it has six feet water on the bar, at 


common tides, and nine feet at spring tides. With- 
in the bar, there is for a considerable extent, suffi- 
cient water for vessels of from two to three hundred 
tons. Its principal branch is that which is called 
bayou Mazant, which runs towards the southwest, 
and receives the waters of the canals of the planta- 
tions of Villere, Lacoste, and Laronde, on which the 
enemy established his principal encampment. It 
was at the forks of the canal Villere and bayou Ma- 
zant that the British ascended in their pinnaces, and 
effected a landing. 

Of the other branches of the bayou Bienvenu 
we shall take no particular notice; that called bayou 
Mazant being the only one connected with the Bri- 
tish military movements. (See Atlas, plate No. 5.) 

The level of the great basin, or the bank of the 
principal bayou, is usually twelve feet below the level 
of the banks of the Mississippi. The slope is usually 
one half of that height, or six feet, for the descent of 
the lands under culture, of from about one half to 
two-thirds of a mile in depth from the river, and the 
remaining six feet is the slope of cypress swamps and 
prairies, which are usually three or four times the 
depth, or extent of the high- lands susceptible of cul- 
tivation; so that one thousand yards, the usual depth 
of the lands under culture, have a slope of six feet, 
which gives less than 0,005 of a foot to each yard, 
whilst the prairies and cypress swamps together, com- 
monly six thousand yards in depth, have but 0,001 
of a foot to the yard in slope. The overflowing of 
the waters of all those bayous and canals, occasioned 
by the tide of the sea, or by the winds riiising the 


waters in the lake, forms on all their banks deposits 
of slime, which are continually raising them above 
the rest of the soil, so that the interval between two 
bayous is, of course, below the level of their banks, 
and the soil is generally covered with water and mud, 
aquatic plants, or large reeds, growing there in abun- 
dance to the height of from six to eight feet: it some- 
times happens that the rains, or the filtrated waters, 
collected in these intervals or basins, not finding any 
issue to flow off, form what are called trembling prai- 
ries, which are at all seasons impassable for men ancf 
domestic animals. 

In times of great drought, and in low tides, the 
ordinary prairies are passable, and some of them are! 
frequented by the cattle of the neighbouring planta- 
tions, which prefer the grass they find there to that 
which grows on the banks of the river, on account 
of the saline particles deposited among the former by 
the waters of the lakes overflowing into the bayous. 
Such is nearly the structure of those basins or prairies, 
which are very extensive in Louisiana, and what we 
have observed of those which are immediately con- 
nected with our subject, is applicable, more or less, 
to all the others in the country. From the high-lands 
of the Fioridas, where the first hills begin, all the rest, 
as far as the sea, is alluvion land, gained from the 
water by the deposits from streams, particularly the 
Mississippi. This space is crossed in diflferent direc- 
tions by strips of high-land, between which there is 
invariably a river or bayou, more or less subject to 
periodical swells or tides; the surface of these waters 
is usually but little below the soil contiguous to their 


banks, and always higher than that which is at a cer- 
tain distance. In a word, the land in Lower^^Louisiana 
slopes in the inverse direction of the soil of other coun- 
tries, being most elevated on the sides of the rivers, 
and sinking as it recedes from them. The Missis- 
sippi swells annually and periodically at New Orleans 
fourteen or fifteen feet, and is then from three to 
four feet above the level of its banks. To contain 
its waters within its bed, dikes or ramparts^ called in 
Louisiana levees^ have been raised on its banks, from 
the high-lands towards its mouth, a little above the 
level of the highest swells; without which precaution 
the lands would be entirely overflowed from four to 
five months in the year. When, from accident, or 
negligence in keeping up these dikes, the river breaks 
througli them, the rupture, called in this country a 
crevasse, occasions an extensive inundation, which 
lays the adjacent cypress swamps under ten and the 
prairies under tuelve feet water. Such accidents, 
unfortunately too common, usually destroy at once 
the crops of ten and sonietimes of twenty plantations. 
It is hoped that the frequent recurrence of the evil, 
owing to a defective system of police for the le- 
vees, will determine the legislature to take effectual 
measures to prevent such disasters, by ceasing to 
confide to the respective landholders a care so im- 
portant to the whole country as that of the levees, 
and imposing a tax on the lands where they run, for 
the purpose of keeping them always in repair. 

This digression appeared to me necessary, to 
give a precise itka of the ground w^hich was the the- 


atre of the military operations I am about to relate, 
and which could not be perfectly understood without 
these preliminary observations. 

The detachment, composed as I have observed, 
repaired in the night of the 21st December to the 
post assigned, the fishermen's village, consisting of 
twelve very large cabins, capable of containing from 
two hundred to three hundred men, and constructed 
with stakes, thatched and inclosed with palmetto 
leaves, on a tongue of land on the left bank of bayou 
Bienvenu. In these cabins lived about thirty or forty 
fishermen, almost all Spaniards or Portuguese. From 
lake Borgne, which being shallow and in their vicinity, 
afforded them an advantageous fishing ground, they 
used to convey their fish in pirogues (periaguas) 
to the extremity of the canal of La Ronde's and Vil- 
lere's plantations, from which place it was transport- 
ed in wagons to town. The owners of those plan- 
tations Messrs. Villere, Lacoste and La Roiide, per- 
mitted those fishermen to enjoy the gratuitous use of 
their canals, and constantly afforded relief to such of 
those wretches as happened to fall sick; and it will 
soon appear that in return for the beneficence of those 
gentlemen, the wretches sold the lives and fortunes 
of their benefactors. 

I have not been able to discover the names of all 
those fishermen, to consign them to execration and 
infamy, as I here do the following few who have 
come to my knowledge. 

Master Fishermen. 

Maringuier Francisco 

Old Luiz Graviella 


Hireling Fishermen, 

Antonio el Italian© Maniielillo 

El Campechano Antonio El Mayorquin 

Antonio El Portuguez Garcia. 

These are well known to have aided the British 
m disembarking their troops, serving as pilots on 
board their vessels and boats, and acting as spies for 
them from the period of their arrival on our coast. 
It was their practice, when they came to town to sell 
their fish, to get all the information they could, for 
the purpose of carrying it to the English, when they 
went out to fish in lake Borgne. On the 20th of 
December, the day preceding the arrival of the de- 
tachment at the village, the British captain Peddie 
had come disguised, accompanied by the three first 
named of these fishermen, as far as the bank of the 
Mississippi, and had even tasted its water. It was 
from his report, after having thus examined the coun- 
try, that the enemy determined to penetrate by Vil- 
lere's canal, whose banks at the time aiforded firm 
footing from the landing place in the prairie to the 

When the detachment arrived at the village, they 
found only one fisherman, and him sick, all the others 
having gone the day before, under the pretence of 
fishing, to serve as pilots to the British barges. A 
few men were immediately sent into the lake to dis- 
cover whether the enemy were already arrived, and 
on their return, a sentinel was posted at some dis- 
tance in advance of the last cabin, for the rest of the 


On the 22d by break of clay a reconnoitring party 
of three men was again sent two miles into the lake, 
and during that whole day, fresh parties were sent out 
every two hours, to discover whether the enemy were 
approaching. Towards evening, three men in a pi- 
rogue arrived from Chef-Menteur, who had travers- 
ed part of the lake without seeing any enemy. That 
night a sentinel was again posted in advance of the 


Some time after midnight, the sentinel having 
heard a noise, called his comrades, who all instantly 
seized their arms. By the last gleams of the setting 
moon, they perceived five barges full of men, with 
?ome pieces of artillery, ascending the bayou; on 
which, thinking it would be imprudent to fire, con- 
sidering the great disproportion of numbers, they re- 
tired for concealment behind a cabin. As soon as 
the five barges had passed this cabin, a party deter- 
mined to attempt to escape by the lake, and give in- 
formation of the arrival of the enemy. With this 
view, seven men of the detachment had already got 
into the boat, when one of the barges having perceiv- 
ed them, gave the alarm to the four others, who all 
in.ade for the boat and became masters of it, before' it 
could be got ready to push off. Only four of those in 
the boat had time to land, and the remaining three 
were taken, as were two others on sliore; so that of the 
whole detachment, only four escaped, who ran in differ 
ent directions into the prairies; and of these four, tliree 


iiidivldualsj after having wandered a whole day in the 
prairies, where the height of the grass hindered them 
from seeing any way to get out of them, happened to 
fall into the hands of the enemy, at the very village from 
which they had fled. One alone, Mr. A. Rey, more 
persevering, or perhaps more fortunate, after three 
days of uncommon fatigue, hardships and perils, 
over trembling prairies, bayous, lagoons, and through 
cane brakes, arrived at the post of Bertoniere on the 
road leading from Gentilly to Chef-Menteur. 

The enemy having made prisoners of all these 
men, shut them up in the cabin which they used as 
their quarters, and placed a guard at the door. What 
further corroborates the evidence of the communication 
of the fishermen with the British, is the precaution 
that had been taken by the only one of them that was 
at the village with the detachment on the arrival of 
the enemy, to shut up in a cabin, that same evening, 
all the dogs in the village, who had kept up an in- 
cessant barking, during all the preceding night. But 
this is not all: the British, through a mistake, shut 
up one of the fishermen with the detachment, on the 
morning of the 23d. This man seeing a British offi- 
cer passing by the cabin, called to him, and on dis- 
covering himself to him as one of those whom he 
had frequently seen aboard British vessels, he was 
immediately set at liberty. 

About an hour afterwards, Mr. Ducros, a native 
of Louisiana, was taken from among the prisoners 
in the cabin, and put on board a boat in which was 
captain Spencer of the navy, with a colonel of infau- 


try. The boat proceeded to the lake, in which, when 
they had advanced about a mile, they met the rest of 
the first division, consisting of about three thousand 
men in eighty boats. That division was composed of 
the light brigade formed of the 85th and 95th regi- 
ments, captain Lane's rocketeers, one hundred men 
of the engineer corps, and the 4th regiment, all un- 
der the command of colonel Thornton. 

Captain Spencer announced his prisoner to gene- 
ral Keane and admiral Cochrane, as one of those ta- 
ken at the village. The admiral then inquired of Mr. 
Ducros, what might be the number of the American 
forces in the city and environs. The answer he re- 
ceived was, thatthere were from twelve to fifteen thou- 
sand men in the city, and from three to four at the En- 
glish Turn. The admiral then ordered captain Spen- 
cer to proceed with all speed with the advanced guard, 
and to effect a landing at the point agreed on. The di- 
vision proceeded accordingly, and when it arrived at 
the village, admiral Cochrane with several other offi- 
cers, went on shore, and the division, under the com- 
mand of general Keane, proceeded up the bayou. 
The admiral and the other officers put again to all the 
prisoners, the questions they had asked Mr. Ducros, 
and received from all nearly the same answer in con- 
sequence of a conversation the evening before, in 
which they had made the number of troops already 
arrived, or hourly expected at New Orleans, to 
amount to eighteen thousand men. 

The division arrived at the extremity of Villere's 
canal by four in the morning, and soon effected a 
landing, being almost wholly composed of light 


troops. After the troops had rested some hours, the 
British colours were displayed at the top of a tree, 
while tlie band played God save the King; and at 
about ten o'clock they commenced their march to- 
wards the banks of the Mississippi, cutting cane, as 
they went along, to facilitate their passage over the 
prairie and small bayous or coulees. From the 
mouth of the canal to the skirts of the wood, the dis- 
tance is about a mile, and from thence to the bank of 
the river nearly two miles. At about half after ele- 
ven, the advance arrived at the side of the wood nejct 
the river, and immediately extended along Villere's 
canal. They now surrounded the house of general 
Villere, in which was stationed a company of the 
third regiment of militia, whom they made prisoners, 
and where they surprised major Villere, his son, who, 
notwithstanding several pistols fired at him, made 
his escape through a window, and got to the river, 
where finding a pirogue, he crossed over to the right 
bank. Colonel Denis de la Ronde, who on that very 
night, the 23d, as indeed throughout the whole cam- 
paign, rendered essential services to his country, 
had also escaped from the enemy, and arrived in town 
by the opposite bank. 

The rest of the troops of the division continued 
to arrive at general Villere's house, and were on their 
march towards the higher boundary of the plantation, 
with intent to encamp there, when they were first 
discovered. Colonel Denis de 1^ Ronde, who had 
stationed detachments of his regiment, the third of 
Louisiana miHtia, on general Villere's and Jumon 
ville's plantations, had. in the evening of the 22d, sent 


to inform general Jackson that several sails of vessels 
had been seen off the point of the three bpyous, be- 
hind Terre aux Boeufs. The general ordered me to 
go, in company with major Tatum, topographical 
engineer, to ascertain whether this report were true; 
directing us to examine very particularly all the com- 
munications from Terre aux Boeufs to lake Borgne. 
We left town at eleven o'clock in the forenoon of the 
23d, and when we arrived at the boundary of Bicn- 
venu's and la Ronde's plantations, we met several 
persons flying towards town, who told us that the Bri- 
tish had got to general Villere's house by the canal, 
and had taken prisoner major Villere, the general's 
soil. It being of the utmost importance to inform 
general Jackson of an event no longer doubtful, ma- 
jor Tatum immediately returned to town, and I pro- 
ceeded forward as far as over the boundary of La- 
coste's and Villere's plantations, whence I discover- 
ed British troops occupying the ground from the 
commencement of the angle made by the road in that 
place to the head of the canal. (See the plan of the 
affair of the 23d, Plate 6, in which that position is laid 
down.) I approached within rifle-shot of those troops, 
and judged that their number must amount to six- 
teen or eiglitecn hundred men. It was then half past 
one P. M., and within twenty-flve minutes after, ge- 
neral Jackson was informed of the enemy's position. 
On this the general, with tliat heroism and prompt 
decision which is characteristic of him, and of which 
he had exhibited such signal instances during the 
campaign, instantly said he \vould go to meet the Bri- 
tish; and immediatclv issued orders to that effect. 


The alarm-gun was fired; the battalion of uniform 
volunteer companies, commanded by major Plauche, 
then stationed at the bayou St. John, was ordered to 
return and join the other corps with all possible 
speed, which order the battalion executed, running 
all the way. 

By half after two in the afternoon, a detach* 
ment of artillery, two field pieces, commanded by 
lieutenant Spotts, and lieutenant-colonel M-Rae, ihe 
seventh of the line, the command of which regi- 
ment was given, for the present, to major Peire, on 
account of an accidental wound disabling major 
Nicks from active service, and a detachment of ma- 
rines, commanded by lieutenant Bellevue, were all 
formed on the road, near Montreuil's plantation. Or- 
ders had likewise been sent to generals Coft'ee and 
Carroll, who were encamped four miles above the 
city, to march down with their commands, and these 
orders were executed in one hour's time. 

General Coffee's command of mounted rifiemen, 
and the volunteer dragoons of the Mississippi terri- 
tory, formed the advance; the Orleans rifie company, 
commanded by captain Beale, followed on closely, 
and by four o'clock had taken a position on Rodri- 
guez's canal; the battalion of men of colour, under 
major Daquin, the forty-fourth regiment, under cap- 
tain Baker, and Plauche's battalion, which arrived 
about five o'clock from the bayou, marched with all 
expedition against the enemy. Commodore Patter- 
son was requested to order such armed vessels as 
were ready, to drop down and take a station opposite 
the enemy. The schooner Carolina, captain Henley, 



was the only one in a condition to perform this ser- 
vice, as, there being no wind, the sloop of war Lou- 
isiana could not steer in the stream. Commodore 
Patterson went on board the Carolina, and there con- 
tinued during the engagement. (See the commo- 
dore's letters to the secretary of the navy, Appendix, 
No. 23 ) 

Governor Claiborne was ordered, with the first, 
second, and fourth regiments of the Louisiana militia, 
and the volunteer company of horse, under captain 
Chauveau, to take a position between the Colson and 
Darcantel plantations, in the plain of Gentilly, in or- 
der to cover the city on the side of Chef-Menteur. 
About four o'clock, a piquet of five mounted rifle- 
men, who had been sent to reconnoitre the road, was 
assailed by a discharge of musketry from a British 
out-post concealed behind the fence on the boundary 
of Laronde's and Lacoste's plantations, by which the 
reconnoitring party, too weak and too rash, lost a 
horse killed, and had two men wounded. Colonel 
Haines, inspector-general of the division, went for- 
ward, shortly after, with one hundred men, to recon- 
noitre the enemy; but he had no opportunity to form 
a correct estimate of their number, which he made 
to amount to no more than two hundred men; an er- 
ror probably proceeding from his having taken the 
advance on the road for the troops drawn up in co- 
lumn some hours before, as reported by the officer 
who had first seen them. 

A negro was apprehended, who had been sent by 
the British with printed copies of a proclamation, in. 
French and Spanish, nearly in the following terms: 


^' Louisianians! remain quiet in your houses; your 
slaves shall be preserved to you^ and your property 
respected. We make war only against Americans," 
Signed by admiral Cochrane and inaj or- general 

We have seen, in the account of the offers made 
to Mr. Lafitte, what reliance was to be had on their 
promise to preserve slaves to their masters. 

An hour before these papers were seized, the 
British had stuck up the same proclamation on the 
fences, all along the road below Laronde's plantation. 

The troops now moved forward; general Cofiee 
took the command of the left, composed of a part of 
his brigade, the Tennessee mounted riflemen, the 
Orleans company of riflemen, under captain Beale, 
forming the extremity of the left, a part of the Mis- 
sissippi dragoons and mounted riflemen, amounting 
in all to seven hundred and thirty-two fighting men. 

Colonel de la Ronde, the owner of the plantation 
on which the troops were formed, after having, about 
noon, escaped from the British at Villere's, and 
crossed the river, had come to town and joined 
captain Beale's company as a volunteer; from his 
knowledge of the ground, he was now ordered by 
general Jackson to accompany general Coffee as a 

About nightfall, the left entered on La Ronde's 
plantation, and took a position in the back of it, on 
its boundary with Lacoste's. 

The right formed on a line almost" perpendicular 
to the river, stretching from the levee to the garden 
of La Ronde's plantation, and on its principal ave- 


nue. The artillery occupied the high road, support- 
ed by the detachment of marines. On the left of the 
artillery were stationed the seventh and forty-fourth 
of the line, Plauche's and Daquin's battalions, and 
eighteen Chactaw Indians, commanded by captains 
Jugeant and AUard, forming the extremity of the 
right wing towards the woods. The superior com- 
mand of the battalions of militia was given to colonel 

The boats that had landed the first division of 
the British troops returned down the bayou, and at 
eight o'clock passed the village on their way to take 
in the second division, which had been embarked in 
small vessels, and was already in the lake. By four 
in the afternoon, that division, consisting of the twen- 
ty-first, forty-fourth, and ninety-third regiments, with 
a division of artillery, in all two thousand five hun- 
dred men, arrived at the village. At half after seven 
in the evening, they were disembarking, when the 
firing was first heard from the schooner Carolina, 
which now opened on the division encamped on the 
river bank. 

Admirals Cochrane and Malcolm, with several 
officers of the army and navy, had remained at the 
village to hasten the landing of the troops, and had 
there passed the whole day, during which time they 
frequently conversed with the prisoners, endeavour- 
ing to persuade them that the British army came with 
no hostile intent against the inhabitants of the country, 
who being mostly Frenchmen or Spaniards by birth 
or descent, must naturally (as these English gentle- 
men naturaUy supposed) prefer the British govern- 
ment to that of the United States. They told them 


that their intentions were to obtain and keep posses- 
sion of the country, and to penetrate far up the Mis- 
sissippi, to make the upper country the theatre of 
war; that to convince the inhabitants of their friendly 
intentions, they had brought with them three natives 
of Louisiana, serving in the troops of his catholic ma- 
jesty in Pensacola; and accordingly those three per- 
sons alluded to, Messrs. Guillemard, Regio, and 
Grand Pre, were seen shortly after in company with 
the British officers; but fortunately were not able to 
give them any great assistance. 

On the arrival of the second division at the vil- 
lage, the prisoners were embarked on board one of 
the boats, to be conveyed to their own homes. They 
landed at half past seven, with the second division, 
who, on hearing the report of the cannon, made all 
haste to repair to the scene of action, where they ar- 
rived in less than an hour, long before the action was 
over, so that several corps of that division were en- 
gaged in it. 

The first division of British troops, having en- 
camped, or rather bivouacked, as I have already ob- 
served, at the angle formed by the road, on the high- 
est part of Villere's plantation, in irregular order, 
some on the side of the levee, and others in the plain, 
out-posts had been stationed at different places, in 
ian oblique line, extending from the boundary be- 
tween La Ronde's and Lacoste's plantations, running 
along the negro huts of the latter, on the back of 
the dwelling house, as far as a cluster of live oaks, 
on Viller6's canal, near the wood. There was sta- 
tioned a strong detachment to cover the communica- 


tion with the rest of the army, by the road on the 
right bank of the canal. Through the plain ran a 
chain of out-sentries, very closely posted. A de- 
tachment of fifty men was stationed at Jumonville's 
bridge, on the border of the canal, on the road. 
One company had advanced as far as the bank of the 
river, behind the levee, and to the angle forming Mr. 
Villere's inclosed batture, probably in order to pre- 
vent all surprise by the river. The detachment of 
the rocket brigade was stationed behind the levee, to 
use that diabolical invention against such vessels as 
might endeavour to annoy the camp. A few pieces 
of cannon had already arrived, and were mounted in 
the court near Villere's sugar-works. A strong de- 
tachment of about five hundred men was stationed 
on the left bank of Villere's canal, near the negro 
huts. General Keane and his officers, among whom 
was colonel Thornton, had established their head- 
quarters in Mr. Villere's house. 

The British general having thus, with little diffi- 
culty, succeeded in bringing his troops to the banks 
of the Mississippi, and there establishing his camp, 
in the belief that his arrival and position could not 
be known at New Orleans till late in the night, ex- 
pected to meet with little or no resistance. Such was 
the security and confidence of the British army, that 
part of the troops had lain down in their bivouacs, 
and some picqucts of the out-posts had lighted up 
large fires, at which the men were cooking their 
suppers, when they were surprised. It appears, indeed, 
not unlikely that the opinion they had of their supe- 
rior military skill, the expectation with which they 


had been deluded, that the old population of the coun- 
try would hail their arrival with joy, the cheering 
thoughts of their having arrived on the banks of the 
Mississippi, within nine miles of New Orleans, with- 
out having had occasion to fire a musket, contributed 
to make the British believe themselves in perfect secu- 
rity from any attack. (See the plan, Plate No. 6.) 

About seven o'clock the Carolina came to anchor 
on the brink of Villere's batture, opposite the centre 
of the British encampment, within musket-shot. Such 
was the security of the British, that taking that ves- 
sel for a common boat plying on the Mississippi, 
numbers of them vi^ent on the levee to examine her 
more closely. At half after seven the Carolina open- 
ed on them a dreadful fire, which continued for ten 
minutes before they could recover from the conster- 
nation with which they were struck by that sudden 
attack; so that they had not yet run to their arms, 
when the guns of the schooner had already killed or 
wounded upwards of a hundred of their men. The 
British at last extinguished the fires in their camp, 
and attempted to answer the schooner with a fire of 
musketry, from which the crew sustained no injury. 
Some Congreve rockets were tried with as little ef- 
fect, and those who discharged them were forced to 
conceal themselves behind the levee. In less than 
half an hour the schooner drove the enemy from his 
camp. (See commodore Patterson's letter to the se- 
cretary of the navy, Appendix No. 24.) 

At this moment a company of the seventh, com- 
manded by lieutenant M'Klelland, under colonel 
Piatt, quarter-master-general, advanced from the gate 


of La Ronde's plantation, on the road, to the boun- 
dary of LacosteN, at the distance of fifteew paces, 
where the detach.iPent was received with a discharge 
of musketry, from one of the enemy's out-posts sta- 
tioned on the road. Though this out-post consisted 
of a considerable number of men, that gallant compa- 
ny attacked them vigorously, and forced them to re- 
tire; and colonel Piatt, with a few men of the detach- 
ment, advanced to the ground from which they had 
just driven the enemy. The latter, having received 
a reinforcement of two hundred men, and being now 
about three hundred strong, returned to resume their 
former position, and kept up a brisk fire of muske- 
try against the detachment, who as briskly returned 
it. In this affair colonel Piatt received a wound in 
the leg, lieutenant M'Klelland and a serjeant were 
killed, and a few men wounded. 

Meantime the 7th regiment advanced by heads 
of companies parallel to the right, appuye on the 
high road, to the distance of 150 yards, where it 
formed in battalion before the enemy, with whom it 
instantly engaged with a very brisk and close fire. 
The 44th came up at the same time, formed on the 
left of the 7th, and commenced firing. The artillery 
having now arrived, the two pieces were put in bat- 
tery on the road, the marines being drawn up on the 
right of the artillery on the river bank. The engage- 
ment now became general on both sides; the front of 
the British line greatly outflanked our line on the left, 
and the enemy seeing that he could not make our 
troops give way, caused some of his to file off on the 
old levee by a gate, three hundred yards from the river. 


With intent to turn our flank. The 44th had already 
been obliged to oblique on the left, to avoid being 
turned, when major Plauche's battalion, with that of 
major Daquin, with a very small number of Indians^ 
advanced at the moment when their left was appuye 
on the angle of Laronde's garden, and the right a little 
in the rear of the 44th. The enemy's column advan- 
cing silently in the dark, to endeavour to turn the 
troops of the line, fell suddenly almost within pistol- 
shot of the extremity of Daquin's battalion, and in- 
stantly commenced a brisk firing. Plauche's batta- 
lion, now forming the centre, advanced in close co- 
lumn, and displayed under the enemy's fire, which 
was then kept up by his whole front, from the bank 
of the river to Laronde's garden, forming an angle, 
or curve, in the centre. Already had our troops, ani- 
mated with martial ardour, forced the enemy to give 
way; and they continued to advance, keeping up an 
incessant fire; the cry of charge! charge! push on 
with the bayonet! ran from rank to rank on the left, 
when the enemy thought proper to retire, favoured 
by the darkness which was increased by the fog, and 
by the smoke which a light breeze from the south, 
blew full in the faces of our men. The artillery had 
all this time been playing upon the enemy, who made 
an attempt to seize it; but the fire from the right of 
the 7th regiment, and from the marines, frustrated 
his intent. At last when the smoke dispersed, the 
enemy had already retij-ed within the limits of La- 
Goste's plantation. 

In the meantime, general Coffee's division had 
advanceji towards the back of JLaronde's plantation. 


in order to fall on the enemy's rear, according to the 
advice of colonel Laronde, the owner of the pre- 
mises. General Coffee ordered his riflemen to dis- 
mount on the edge of the ditch separating the two 
plantations, where he left about one hundred men to 
take care of the horses, and have them ready when 
wanted. The division crossed the boundary line, 
and pushed forward in a direction perpendicular to 
that line. Captain Beale's company, which had advan- 
ced near the wood, within a short distance of one of 
the enemy's advanced guards, followed the movements 
of general Coflfee, who drew up his division almost 
on the limits between the grounds of Lacoste and 
Villere. The detachment of cavalry under the com- 
mand of major Hinds, not being able to manoeuvre 
in fields cut up with ditches at very close intervals, 
remained drawn up on the edge of a ditch in the mid- 
dle of the plantation. Colonel Coffee's division ex- 
tended its front as much as possible, and the general 
ordered it to advance in silence, and fire without or- 
der, taking aim with their utmost skill. Long prac- 
tice had enabled these riflemen to keep up a very 
brisk fire, the more destructive, as not a man dis- 
charged his piece without doing execution. The di- 
vision continued to advance, driving the enemy be- 
fore it, and took its second position in front of La- 
coste's plantation, where was posted the 85th, which, 
on receiving the first discharge, fell back behind the 
old levee, towards the camp. Captain Beale's com- 
pany advanced on the left within Villere's plantation, 
almost in the midst of detachments of the enemy, in- 


cessantly coming up on that side. It was principally 
engaged with a corps of the enemy near the old 
levee, which it forced to fall back. About the same 
time Coffee's division discovered that several parties 
of the enemy were posted among Lacoste's negro 
huts. On this the general ordered his men to move 
forward to the right, to drive the enemy from that 
position, which was soon effected. 

The negro huts of Mr. Lacoste's plantation still 
exhibit evident proofs of the unerring aim of the gal- 
lant Tennesseans of Coffee's division: in one spot par- 
ticularly are seen half a dozen marks of their balls in 
a diameter of four inches, which were probably all 
fired at the same object. 

Some British soldiers were killed or taken prison- 
ers in endeavouring to escape towards the woods 
near the huts, in a direction opposite to that of their 
camp; so true it is that the British troops were struck 
with consternation on being attacked that night in so 
vigorous, judicious and unexpected a manner. 

Captain Beale's company, after having penetrated 
into the very camp of the enemy, and made several 
prisoners, pushed forward to the right, following the 
movement of general Coffee; but unfortunately a par- 
ty of those brave and most estimable men, through 
a mistake owing to the darkness, fell among a corps 
of one hundred and fifty of the British, who were 
moving on rapidly towards the camp, taking them for 
part of Coffee's division, and were made prisoners. 
The others followed the r9ad to the right, and took 
several prisoners. 


Coffee's division at last took a position in front of 
the old levee, near Laronde's boundary, where it 
continued to keep up a destructive fire on the troops 
that had been repulsed tr'\ards the right, as they 
were endeavouring to escape. 

It was now about half after nine, when the enemy 
havijig learned by experience that he could not hope 
to obtain any advantage over our troops, and per- 
suaded that he would greatly endanger his own safe- 
ty by continuing the combat in which he had already 
suffered so much, fell back to his camp, where all 
the troops passed the night under arms and without 

During the engagement the second division ar- 
rived, and a considerable part of it was in the thickest 
of the fire. The fear of being cut off from the sole 
communication he had with the fleet, rpade the ene- 
my take every precaution to prevent such a disaster. 
His posts were in continual alarm the whole night, 
and such were his apprehensions that he posted dou- 
ble lines of sentinels, so that as the one turned it was 
crossed by the other walking in a contrary direction. 

General Jackson seeing that the darkness render- 
ed it impossible for him to follow up victory any 
farther, was forced to content himself for the present 
with having convinced the British that Americans 
were not to be intimidated by the martial renown of 
the heroes of Wellington. He therefore led back 
his troops to their former position, from the principal 
entrance to the buildings of Laronde's plantation, 
where they remained until four in the morning. Ge- 
neral Coffee took his position for the night in fronf 


of Laronde's garden, on the left of the other troops. 
About half after eleven a firing of musketry was heard 
in the • rection of Jumonville's plantation. 

The detachment of the Louisiana drafted militia, in 
cantonmentsat the f-.nglish Turn, under the command 
of brigadier-general David Morgan, three hundred and 
fifty men strong, having learned, at about one o'clock 
in the afternoon, that the enemy was on Viller6's 
plantation, ran to their arms, and all the officers and 
privates desired to be led against him. General 
Morgan, not having received orders to that effect, 
did not think proper to yield to the earnest solicita- 
tions of the troops, whose impatience of inactivity 
increased every moment. At half after seven, when 
the report of the Carolina's guns struck their ears, it 
became almost impossible to hinder the men from 
marching against the enemy; and at last general Mor- 
gan, at the pressing request of the officers, gave or- 
ders to march, which diffused joy through the whole 

Having instantly set out, it arrived at the entrance 
of the road to Terre-aux-BcEufs, during the hottest 
of the action, and continued to advance, preceded by 
two piquets, the one on the high road, the other in 
the fields near the woods. The picquet that follow- 
ed the high road, being arrived within a short distance 
of the bridge over Jumonville's plantation, perceiving 
some of the enemy's troops, but not being able to as- 
certain their number, hailed them; but receiving no 
answer, the picquet fired on the enemy, who return- 
ed their fire, and instantly fell back behind the canal. 


Some men were sent on reconnoitring, to en- 
deavour to discover their strength, but without ef- 
fect. Suspecting an ambush, the battalion took a 
position in a neighbouring field, where it remained 
until about three next morning, when it was thought 
advisable to return to the camp. 

General Morgan, not thinking it expedient to quit 
his position before day-break, held a council of all his 
officers, in which it was resolved that, as they were 
ignorant of the position of the American army, it was 
advisable to march back to their station at the Turn, 
as soon as day appeared, which was executed accord- 

The battalion arrived in its cantonments early in 
the morning, after much fatigue, having, from eight 
in the evening, marched fifteen miles in very muddy 
roads. Several soldiers belonging to the battalion, who 
had just left the hospital to march against the enemy, 
were obliged to remain behind, being exhausted 
with fatigue. These on their return, reported that in 
the same field in which the battalion had formed in 
the night, there was within a short distance a British 
corps of six hundred men, who, probably thinking 
the battalion stronger than it was, had not dared to 
attack it. 

From the most accurate information that could 
be obtained, the enemy lost in this affair four hun- 
dred men. Tiieir official report acknowledges three 
hundred and five killed, wounded or prisoners: the 
number of the latter was eighty-five, including officers. 

The loss on our side was twenty-four killed, one 
hundred and fifteen wounded, officers included, and 


" seventy-four prisoners, in all two hundred and thir- 
teen men. 

The loss of colonel Lauderdale, of general Cof- 
fee's brigade of mounted riflemen, was particularly 
regretted; he was a brave and accomplished officer; 
his death is lamented by all who knew him; and their 
only consolation is that he died at the post of honour, 
fighting in defence oi his country. 

Though the precise amount of the enemy's forces 
in this action cannot be exactly ascertained, it is well 
known that half of general Keane's division was en- 
camped on the banks of the Mississippi, at the begin- 
ning of the attack; and that the remaining half of the 
division, which had embarked at the encampment on 
Isle-aux-Pois, in light vessels, several of which had 
run aground in the lake, had got on board of the barges 
that returned, after having landed the first half, and 
were disembarking when the cannon began to fire; that 
the greater part of these troops set out immediately 
from the landing place, two miles and a half from the 
Mississippi, and ran towards the field of battle, where 
their first platoons had already arrived, before Coffee's 
division began to fire, and where they all successively 
arrived long before the action was over, as it lasted till 
ten o'clock at night. 

That division, composed of the regiments we 
have already mentioned, could not amount to less 
than four thousand five hundred men, as we know 
the strength of each regiment. 

The first disembarkation consisted of the light 
brigade commanded by colonel Thornton, composed 



of part of the 85th regiment, of 650 men 

95th do. (rifle corps) 500 

A detachment of sappers and miners 100 
A detachment of the rocket brigade, 

commanded by captain Lane 80 

4th regiment 750 

Total 2080 men. 
The 2d disembarkation consisted of 
the 21st regiment (royal North 
Britain) Fusileers 900 

44th do 750 

93rd do 1100 

A number of artillerists amounting, 

according to the best information, to 150 

V — — — . 

In all 4980 men. 

On the; supposition that each regiment left a party 
on board the vessels, to take care of the baggage, as 
is sometimes the case, there would still remain four 
thousand five hundred effective men landed on the 
23d before nine o'clock in the evening; and indeed 
several accounts from Jamaica, Providence and Ber- 
muda, make the number amount to five thousand. 

Let us now see with what number, and what kind 
of troops, the commander-in-chief, general Jackson, 
attacked this enemy, so powerful, so enured to war- 
fare, preceded by a great reputation, and enjoying 
every possible advantage. 

The right, commanded by general Jackson in 
person, was composed of a detachment 6f marines^ 


under the command of lieut. Belle vue 6'6 men strong 

A detachment of artillery with two 
six pounders, under the immedi- 
ate command of colonel M'Kca 
and lieutenant Spot 22 

7th regiment, major Peire 465 

44th, commanded by captain Baker, 331 


JMajor Plaiiche's battalion. 

Carabiniers, captain Roche 86 
Dismounted dragoons, major 

St. Geme 78 

Louisiana blues, captain White 31 

Francs, captain Hudry 33 

Chasseurs, captain Guibert 59 

The battalion of St. Domingo men 

of colour, major Daquin 210 

Chactaws, capt. Pierre Jugeant 18 



The left, commanded by general Cof- 
fee, was composed as follows: 

Tennessee volunteer mounted rifle- 
men, forming general Coffee's 
brigade 563 

Orleans rifle company, capt. Beale 62 

Mississippi dragoons, major Hinds 107 


In all 2131. 

Of this number it is to be observed that the Mis- 
sissippi dragoons were not in the action, but were, all 
thq time it lasted, in the back ground of Lacoste's plan^ 


tation. Two companies of Coffee's brigade had been 
left on the border of Laronde's plantation, to hold 
the horses whose riders had all dismounted; which 
reduces the number of fighting men to about one 
thousand eight hundred effective men. Plauche's 
battalion being composed of compc-nies wearing each 
a distinct uniform, the enemy took those several com- 
panies for so many battalions, and represented them as 
such. I have thought proper to rectify this misrepre- 
sentation, by stating the number of each particular 

This inconsiderable number of men, — strangers 
to the art of war, and of whom few had ever seen an 
engagement; but animated with that martial ardour 
which is soon excited in the breasts of men enjoying 
freedom, and indignant at seeing the soil of their 
country, the land of liberty, invaded by a mercenary 
soldiery, who came to renew in Louisiana the scenes 
of devastation and pillage recently exhibited on the 
banks of the Potomac and the shores of the Chesa- 
peake, — advanced against the enemy with eager ala- 
crity. Several of the corps, particularly Plauche's 
battalion, continued running as they advanced, till 
they arrived on the field of battle. All impatiently 
longed to be engaged and all were inspired with an 
auspicious presentiment of victory. In the heat of 
the action, the enemy was making towards the cen- 
tre a movement which seemed to indicate that he 
designed to charge with bayonets. Instantly, the 
desire of anticipating him electrified our ranks, and 
they all Expressed ~ a wish to be ordered to charge. 
This impetuosity, however, the officers thought pro 
per to restrain. 


On the left of general Coffee's division, captain 
Beale's whole company of riflemen penetrated into 
the midst of the enemy, without bayonets or any 
other weapon of defence, except their rifles; support- 
ed by their courage, excited by their love for their 
country, and breathing rage and vengeance against 
its invaders, these brave men, almost all fathers of fa- 
milies, holding offices of honour and trust, or at the 
head of considerable commercial houses, regardless 
of all selfish or private considerations, advanced rash- 
ly into the centre of the hostile battalions, where they 
made a number of prisoners, and carried them almost 
all off; but, unfortunately, not without leaving seve- 
ral of their own companions prisoners to the foe. 

General Coffee's Tennesseans, those modest and 
simple sons of nature, displayed that firm composure 
which accompanies and indicates true courage. In 
their expedition against Pensacola, and on their march 
to New Orleans, they had given abundant proofs of 
their bravery, good conduct and patience, in endur- 
ing hardships and privations. Instinctively valiant, 
disciplined without having passed through the formal 
training of reviews and garrison manoeuvres, they 
evinced on this memorable night, that enthusiasm, 
patriotism, and a sense of a just cause, which were 
of far more avail than scientific tactics. The heroes 
of Wellington, who boasted of their military talents 
and disciplined valour, were often doomed, by woful 
experience, to appreciate the prowess of those warlike 
sons of the western country. 

The gallant oflicer who commanded them, ever 
calm, ever active, without precipitation, tranquilly 


giving orders, which he well knew how to cause to 
be promptly obeyed; vigilant and provident to avoid 
unnecessarily exposing his men, for whose safety he 
was as anxious as a father for his son's, acquired by 
his conduct that night the strongest claim to the es- 
t<^em and gratitude of his country. Sensible that in 
an incessant fire most of the discharges are ineffec- 
tual, general Coffee led on his men within a sure dis- 
tance, and continually passing along the line, recom- 
mended to them to take deliberate aim, and never to 
fire at random. 

Notwithstanding the darkness of the night, and 
the difficulty of manoeuvring with two pieces of can- 
non in a road forty feet wide, bordered with ditches, 
the artillery took a position, and w^as served with the 
utmost promptitude. It several times forced the ene- 
my to abandon the road, and to retire to the levee, 
and behind gates and the ridges beside the ditches; 
in short, it contributed not a little to convince the 
enemy of our superiority. 

The 7th regiment, commanded by major Peire, 
withstood and kept up a very brisk fire; having first 
come into action, and having been the longest en- 
fj-aged of all the corps that took part in it, that gallant 
regiment evinced that steadiness, precision in move- 
ments, regularity and promptitude in firing, implicit 
obedience to the orders of its commander, and, in 
short, proved that the discipline that constitutes troops 
of the line, do not exclusively belong to Europeans. 
The brave officers of that regiment, sacrificing to the 
exigency of the moment, and to the safety of the 
country, all particular attachment to their own corps. 


which is indeed natural and highly conducive to the 
united strength of an army, obeyed, without a mur- 
mur, the orders of major Peire, an officer drawn from 
another corps, whom general Jackson, in his discre- 
tion, had thought worthy to supply the place of their 
chief, major Nicks, who was prevented, by an acci- 
dental wound, from leading his men to victory. 

The 44th regiment, which came into action soon 
after the seventh, though younger, and formed of 
more heterogeneous elements, ibught with the stea- 
diness and valour of veteran troops. Forced conti- 
nually to oblique to the left, to avoid being turned by 
the enemy, this regiment showed that it was not in- 
timidated by the enemy's manoeuvre, and vigorously 
returned his fire. Captain Baker, who commanded 
it, and all the officers under him, though young in 
the art of war, and little acquainted with military 
evolutions, displayed great bravery, and were not de- 
ficient in the skill and judgment that the occasion 
called for. 

Major Plauche's battalion of volunteers, coming 
into the line at the moment when the enemy was 
pressing hard upon the left of the 44th, and endea- 
vourhig to turn it, proved, by two or three brisk 
and well-directed fires, that it w^as worthy to be sta- 
tioned by the side of veteran troops. This corps, 
though composed of several independent companies, 
has ever been exemplary for perfect union, harmony 
and subordination. Several of its officers, who had 
formerly followed the military profession, enjoyed 
the unlimited and well-deserved confidence of their 
men. These were readv to follow, ^vherever those 

110 Historical memoir. 

might lead the way; and to speak to the former (all 
of whom were citizens of New Orleans) of marching 
against the c> emy, was sufficient to exhilarate their 
spirits, and fill their hearts with exultation. Almost 
the whole of them were Frenchmen by birth or de- 
scent, and bore an inveterate hatred to Great Britain, 
from whose government most of them had suffered 
wrongs, which they wished to avenge. On this try- 
ing occasion they flew to the defence of the country 
which had kindly received them, and of which they 
were become citizens, with the ardour and enthu- 
siasm so characteristic of the French nation. Per- 
suaded that musketry is often destructive, without 
producing any decided effect, the men of this batta- 
lion longed to chai'ge with bayonets, and they ex- 
- pressed their wishes by loud acclamations. Already 
had the drums of the battalion began to beat in com- 
pliance with their desire, and the men waited only 
for the word of command to fall on the enemy with 
their national weapon, when colonel Ross, who had the 
superior command of the two battalions of volunteers, 
came up to restrain their ardour. Yet, had that ma- 
noeuvre been made, had Plauche's battalion advanced 
to the charge, the enemy's retreat would have been 
cut off on his right, and he would have been com- 
pletely surrounded by general Coffee's brigade, which 
was advancing in his rear, Plauche's battalion on his 
left, Daquhi's in front, and Laronde's great hedge 
of orange trees on the right; so that most of that co- 
lumn would have been forced to lay down their arms. 
The above observations, as to Plauche's battalion, 
are almost wholly applicable to that commanded by 


mujor Daquin. The men composing it had thfe 
same motives of hatred towards the enemy, and of 
gratitude to this country; for they were almost all 
men who had long and bravely defended their native 
country, St. Domingo, against the British, and against 
the rebels, who at length subdued it, and who, choos- 
ing rather to go into exile than to become accom- 
plices of the monsters who are desolating their na- 
tive shores, came to this hospitable land to find re- 
pose in the peaceful exercise of their industry. At 
the call of general Jackson — at the cry of honour and 
o[ war against Britain, those brave men instantly 
united and joined our forces. In that memorable 
night they showed that they had not forgotten the 
exercise of arms; and almost in contact with the ene- 
my on the left, they convinced him that in Louisiana, as 
formerly in St. Domingo, they should always expe- 
rience from them a vigorous opposition. 

It would not be proper for one whose name has 
appeared in general orders, to make particular men- 
tion of the several individuals who distinguished 
themselves on this occasion: he might expose him- 
self to be taxed with partiality, or even to be re- 
proached with injustice. I therefore refer the rea- 
der, for such details, to the general orders, and to 
the major-general's letters to the secretary of war. 
(See Appendix, No. ^5.) 

But I cannot decline paying the tribute of jus- 
tice to general Jackson, to say that no man could 
possibly have shown more personal valour, more 
firmness and composure, than was exhibited by him 
through the whole of this engagement, on which de- 


pended, perhaps, the fate of Louisiana. I may say, 
without fearing to be taxed with adulation, that on 
the night of the 23d, general Jackson exposed him- 
self rather too much. I saw him in advance of all 
who were near him, at a time when the enemy was 
making a charge on the artillery, within pistol shot, 
.in the midst of a shower of bullets, and in that situa- 
tion I observed him spiriting and urging on the ma- 
rines, and the right of the seventh regiment, who, 
animated by the presence and voice of their gallant 
commander-in-chief, attacked the enemy s:o briskly, 
that they soon forced him to retire. 

The result of ihe affair of the 23d was the saving 
©f Louisiana; for it cannot be doubted but that the 
enemy, had he not been attacked with such impe- 
tuosity, when he had hardly effected his disembarka- 
tion, would, that very night, or early next morning, 
have marched against the city, which was not then 
covered by any fortification, and was definded by 
hardly five thousand men, mostly militia, v/ho could 
not, in the open field, have withstood disciplined 
troops, accustomed to the use of the bayonet, a wea- 
pon with which most of the militia were unprovided. 

xVware of this, the commander-in-chief was sensi- 
ble of the necessity of immediately taking a position 
where he might throw up intrenchments; and accord- 
ingly, at four in the morning of the 24th, he order- 
ed his little army to go and encamp on the left bank 
of Rodriguez's canal, about two miles behind the 
field of battle. The Mississippi mounted riflemen, 


and the Feliciana dragoons, with the 7th regiment, 
were left at Laronde's, in order to observe the ene- 
my's movements. 

Early next morning the enemy was seen drawn 
up at the distance of about three hundred yards from 
Laronde's boundary, occupying the space between 
the two levees. (See the plan of the affair of the 
23d.) On the front boundary line was stationed a 
strong detachment. Towards eight o'clock, the Bri- 
tish line broke, and the troops returned to their en- 
campment. They occupied the whole of the front, 
and the greater part of the back of Lacoste's planta- 
tion. The whole extent of its principal ditch was 
lined with British troops, and there ran an oblique 
line of sentries from their advanced- posts on the 
road to the wood. 

All this day our troops were employed in work- 
ing on the intrenchments on Rodriguez's canal; the 
two six-pounders that had served on the preceding 
night were now mounted behind the line, on the 
bank of the river, to command the road. I received 
orders from the commander-in-chief, to cause the 
levee to be cut, on the fore-ground of Chalmette's 
plantation, for the purpose of overflowing the ground 
in front of our line; which was effected by several 
trenches, which let in a sufficient quantity of water 
to render the road impracticable for troops. But the 
temporary swell of the river havinsj subsided, that 
measure proved at last ineffectual, for on the 28th 
the river was nearly on a level with the road. 

Nothing of importance took place in the course 
of the three following days. Parties of our troops 


frequently went out to reconnoitie. Major Hinds, 
with his cavalry, several time sdisplayed in sight ot 
the enemy, who never ventured out of his position. 
In this interval he landed the rest of his troops, with 
his artillery, stores, and provisiorft. 

The enemy, on this and the following day, cut up 
the road by an epaulment with a ditch, on the boun- 
dary line between Lacoste's and Laronde's, at the 
distance of one hundred yards towards his encamp- 
ment, and at the back of the levee, opposite the sloop 
of war, the Louisiana, which was at anchor near the 
right bank. On the 26th, the enemy was employed 
day and night in preparing a battery on the most ad- 
vanced angle of the levee, towards the west side of 
Villere's plantation, for the purpose of firing on 
the schooner Carolina, which was at anchor near 
the right bank, opposite to it- 
Major Nicks, who, by reason of an accidental 
wound, being incapable of active service, had been 
placed at the head of the arsenal and ordnance de- 
partment, the duties of which station he performed 
with a zeal worthy of the highest praise, had been 
ordered the preceding day to remove the powder 
which was stored in great quantities in the magazine 
opposite the city, on board a vessel prepared to re- 
ceive and convey it to Baton Rouge, reserving only 
such quantity as captain Humphreys should judge 
necessary for the daily service. 

On the same day it was reported verbally to ge- 
neral Jackson, that the enemy had landed at Chef- 
Meuteur, and that, in consequence of that event, ma- 


jor Lacoste, who commanded the post at the conflu- 
ence of bayou Sauvage and Chef-Menteur river, had 
found himself under the necessity of abandoning it, 
and of removing his camp three miles back, on th^ 
principal plantation of Lafon. This report had 
alarmed all the troops stationed in the plain of Gen- 
tilly, insomuch that every officer and private appre- 
hended an attack, though in that quarter the enemy 
could make no movement, from which danger could 
be apprehended, without undergoing the greatest fa- 
tigues and surmounting unheard-of difficulties. Ma- 
jor Lacoste informed the general-in-chief, by letter, 
of the movement he had concluded to make, to avoid 
being intercepted in his rear. The prairies of Chef- 
Menteur were at that time very dry, and several ba- 
yous admitted of the enemy's approaching within a 
very short distance of Lafon's principal plantation. 
Some soldiers had even seen and pursued in a prairie 
some British sailors, who had landed to set fire to the 
dry grass. Such circumstances indicated an intention 
in the enemy to penetrate on that side; and hence the 
retrograde movement, made by major Lacoste, was 
proper and judicious. When he determined on re- 
treating, he had the precaution to leave a piquet at the 
encampment he quitted, to give information of any 
movement the enemy might make by the river of 

General Jackson ordered me to repair with all 
speed to Chef-Menteur, with a re-enforcement of two 
Jlundred men from general Coffee's brigade, com- 
manded by colonel N * * * *, who was to take 


command of the post of Chef-Menteur, reoccupy the 
point of the confluence, finish the closed battery that 
had been begun by major Lacoste's battalion, and to 
leave on the main plantation a detachment sufliicient 
to cover the retreat, in the event of its becoming ne- 
cessary, and keep open the communication with the 
city. As to the manner of executing these orders, 
that was left to the discretion of colonel N * * * *, 
major Lacoste, and myself. 

I must be allowed here to express the pleasure I 
felt on being ordered on such service. The perfect 
knowledge I had of the situation, which left on my 
mind no doubt of our being able, with three hundred 
riflemen, to rout ten times that number of the enemy, 
animated me with joyful assurance of success; and 
had the enemy dared to penetrate into the wood of 
Chef-Menteur, the opinion I had of the Louisianians 
composing major Lacoste's battalion, and of the gal- 
lant Tennesseans, whom I was ordered to accompany, 
made me fully confident of his complete discomfiture. 

On arriving at the advanced post on Bertoniere's 
estate, we discovered that the report of the land- 
ing of the enemy was false. It was decided that the 
detachment should encamp on Dreux's plantation 
until further orders. The same day I repaired to 
major Lacoste's camp, which he had judiciously 
established, with the bivouacs close to the skirt of the 
wood, so that, in case of surprise, the men could in- 
stantly get among the trees, from behind which they 
might fire with the more advantage, as they were co 
vered by very thick underwood. 


On the same day general Morgan received orders 
w evacuate the post at the Turn, transporting the ar- 
tillery to fort St. Leon, and leaving there a garrison 
of one hundred men, and to take a position on the right 
bank, opposite Camp Jackson; which was according- 
ly executed, and the troops encamped on Flood's 
plantation. The two six-pounders placed opposite 
the road, under the command of lieutenant Spotts, 
were replaced by the twelves commanded by captain 
Humphreys, and were established in the centre of the 

Next day, the 26th, major Lacoste returned with 
me to head -quarters, where he requested and obtain- 
ed permission for his battalion to take a station on the 
lines at Camp Jackson. Orders were given for his 
being relieved by the 4th regiment of Louisiana mi- 
litia, colonel G. W. Morgan, one hundred and thirty 
strong, with two mounted companies of Tennesseans, 
a detachment of artillery of the line, commanded by 
lieutenant Bosque, with two field pieces, and about 
thirty Chactaw Indians. This force, commanded by 
colonel G. W. Morgan, occupied the former position 
on the river of Chef-Menteur until the 6th of Janua- 
ry, when it returned to the camp of the main planta- 

The general-in-chief sent orders to general Mor- 
gan to cause the levee to be cut below the ene- 
my, at Jumonville's, as near his posts as possible, 
in order to prevent his extending them. This ope- 
ration was promptly and successfully executed, un- 
der the direction of major Lafon, the engineer attached 
to the division of the right bank, within musket- sljpt 


of the enemy's advanced sentries; but here, as before 
Jackson's Imes, the river frustrated our views; and a 
measure which, had the river continued to rise, 
would have made an island of the enemy's en- 
campment, and secured us from any attack, by 
forcing him to evacuate, produced a very different 
effect, as it introduced sufficient water into the canals 
and bayous, which till then were nearly dry, to ena- 
ble the British to bring up their heavy artillery. 

On the 27th, at 7 o'clock in the morning, the 
enemy opened on the Carolina the fire of a battery of 
several twelve and eighteen-pounders, and a howitzer, 
which he had been forty-eight hours erecting. In 
about fifteen mhuites, the schooner was set on fire by 
the red-hot shot thrown into her, and in that condi- 
tion the crew abandoned her. About an hour after, 
she blew up; and now the fire of the battery was di- 
rected against the Louisiana, whose preservation was 
the more important, as she was the only remaining 
armed vessel in the river, and as her powder maga- 
zine was above water. Lieutenant Thompson, who 
commanded her, endeavoured to take advantage of a 
light breeze from the east, to sail up the river; but 
the wind having died away whilst the sails were un- 
furling, there remained no other expedient than that 
of towing her up. Accordingly, one hundred men 
of his crew soon towed her without the range of the 
enemy's guns, and she was moored opposite to Flood's 
canal. In the evening, the 1st regiment of Louisiana 
militia, under colonel Dejan, was ordered from its 
position at Gentilly, and went to re- enforce the lines 
on the left. 



In the evening of the 27th the enemy moved for- 
ward, and by the superiority of his force, obliged our 
advanced-guards to fall back. He occupied Bienve- 
nu's and Chalmette's plantations; and during the night 
began to establish several batteries on the river. By 
break of day, he displayed in several columns, and 
drove in all our advanced-guards. Our posts had till 
this day occupied Laronde's plantation, and our re- 
connoitring parties were extended daily as far as his 
lines. Major Hinds, with the cavalry and the 7th re- 
giment, had neglected no opportunity of harassing the 
enemy; and the advanced sentries and piquets had of- 
ten exchanged with him a few shots. The 2d regi- 
ment of Louisiana militia now took a position on the 
left of the line. 

At length the British, having begun to push for- 
wards against our lines, all our out-posts fell back. 
The general-in- chief had ordered colonel Mackrea, 
the commander of the artillery, to fire and blow up 
all the buildings on Chalmette's plantation, which lay 
within five or six hundred yards of our lines, as they 
protected the enemy from our artillery. This order 
was accordingly executed, but its execution could 
not be extended to Bienvenu's plantation, as expedi- 
ence required, and as the positive orders of the gene- 
ral-in-chief had directed. 

The enemy advanced in columns on the road, 
preceded by several pieces of artillery, some of which 
played on the ship Louisiana, and the otliers, on our 


lines. The British, in this instance, ga\ e a signal 
proof of their presumption; and while we do justice 
to the bravery of their troops, we cannot but pity the 
infatuation of their commanders, who thus brought 
up their army to lines which, though not completed, 
were yet proof against musket-shot, and had already 
five pieces of cannon in battery. They thought, no 
doubt, to intimidate us by their boldness, hoping that 
the sight of a deep column marching against our 
lines, would strike such terror as to make us abandon 
them, and retreat to the city; but they were greatly 
deceived. They did not yet know with what adversa- 
ries they had to contend, nor that they were destined 
to atone for their arrogance with streams of their blood. 
The Louisiana suffered the enemy's columns to ad- 
vance a considerable space; and as soon as they had 
got as near to her as her commander wished, she 
opened on them a tremendous and well-directed fire. 
This was at first briskly answered by the enemy's ar- 
tillery, which was soon silenced by the guns of the 
ship, and those of our lines. That very morning the 
engineer, H. S. Bonne val Latrobe, had established, 
under the fire of the enemy's artillery and a cloud of 
rockets, a twenty-four pounder on the left of the bat- 
tery No. 1, on the line. This gun dismounted one 
of the field pieces which the enemy liad placed in 
battery on the road. Captain Humphreys's battery 
had incessantly played upon and severely galled him 
from an early hour in the morning; but the guns 
of the Louisiana^ from her position, were better 
calculated than any other to annoy him, as her broad- 
side was in an oblique direction to his line of march* 


One single ball from her killed fifteen of his men. 
Her fire at last broke his columns, and forced them 
to disperse and fall back into the fields, where they 
took a position on Bienvenu's plantation, under cover 
of some buildings. 

It is but justice to say, that the services rendered 
on this day by the Louisiana, were of the greatest 
importance. The cannonading lasted seven hours, 
during which she fired upwards of eight hundred shot. 
The spirited exertions of her commander, lieutenant 
Thompson, on that occasion, cannot be too highly 
commended. (See Appendix, No. 26.) 

During this engagement the enemy abandoned 
several batteries he had established on the river the 
preceding night; and his loss, in other respects, was 

Two days previous to this engagement, general 
Carroll's troops had taken post on the prolongation of 
Rodriguez's canal, and had worked without intermis- 
sion at the breastwork of the lines, which, until the 
1st of January, had towards the left hardly more than 
sufficient thickness to protect the men from musket- 
ry. During the whole day, the enemy incessantly 
threw Congreve rockets, which wounded some of our 
men. By one of these, major Carmick, of the ma- 
rines, had his horse killed, and was himself wounded 
in the hand. The British had great expectation from 
the effect of this weapon, against an enemy who had 
never seen it before. They hoped that its very noise 
would strike terror into us; but we soon grew accus- 
tomed to it, and thought it little formidable; for in 
the whole course of the campaign, the rockets only 


wounded ten men, and blew up two caissons. That 
weapon must doubtless be effectual to throw amongst 
squadrons of cavalry, and frighten the horses, or to 
set fire to houses; but from the impossibility of di- 
recting it with any certainty, it will ever be a very 
precarious weapon to use against troops drawn up in 
line of battle, or behind ramparts. 

The tvventy-four-pounder just mentioned, was 
served in the beginning of the action by a detachment 
of captain St. Gemes's dismounted dragoons, and af- 
terwards by a part of the crew of the late Carolina, 
commanded by lieutenant Norris. About eight in 
the morning captain Dominique's artillery company, 
then about twenty men strong, returned from fort St, 
John, whither it hod been sent on the 23d, and was 
stationed on the lines; to it was committed the 
service of a twenty-four-pounder, battery No. 3, 
which had been mounted the preceding evening. 
These mariners, all veteran gunners, served their 
piece with the steadiness and precision of men prac- 
tised in the management of cannon, and inured to 
warfare; and the battery No. 3 was not the least de- 
structive to the enemy during the campaign. 

Lieutenant Crawlc}'-, with another part of the crew 
of the Carolina, repaired to the lines on the morning 
of the 28th, and during the whole of the action serv- 
ed a howitzer at the battery No. 1. In the evening, 
general Jackson having ordered a thirty-two-pounder 
to be mounted in the centre of the line, lieutenant 
Crawiey caused the platform to be established, and 
had the piece mounted in the night. 

The first regiment of Louisiana militia had taken 
a position on the right, the preceding evening, and 


remained on the line during the whole of the action 
of the 28th. On the morning of the same day, the 
2d regiment received orders to re-enforce the ex- 
tremity of the left, which was under the command of 
general Coffee. 

We lost on that day seven men, and had ten 
wounded: amongst the former was colonel Hender- 
son, of the Tennessee division, under general Carroll. 
The enemy's light troops having advanced along 
a ditch to a fence which ran in an oblique direction to 
our lines, its extremity being only at the distance of 
one hundred yards, opened an irregular fire on our out- 
posts: — general Carroll ordered colonel Henderson to 
advance with a detachment of two hundred men along 
the wood, and then to make an oblique movement on 
the right, towards the river, and endeavour to turn the 
enemy, who, by this manoeuvre, would have been cut 
off. Instead of executing this order, colonel Hen- 
derson advanced towards the right, leaving the fence 
between him and the wood: the enemy being thus 
covered by the fence, opened on our detachment a 
galling fire, which killed the colonel and five men, 
and forced the others to fall back. The enemy re- oc- 
cupied the fence, where he maintained his position 
until our artillery once more dislodged him. 

From the destruction that our artillery dealt in 
the enemy's ranks, and from the report of a prisoner 
and some deserters, the British must have lost from 
two to three hundred men on that day. 

The Louisiana had but one man slightly wounded 
by the bursting of a shell, and the vessel was struck 
under her bowsprit by a red-hot shot, but without 
receiving any damage. (See Appendix, No. 27.) 



It appears that this attack was but a feint, to try 
what effect would be produced on raw troops by the 
sight of columns marching, displaying, and forming 
in order of battle. But if after the night of the 23d 
the enemy could still haA^e any doubt of our being 
firmly disposed to withstand him, the affair of tlie 
28lh must have convinced him that his manoeuvres 
could no more intimidate us than his rockets, and that 
in whatever manner he might attack us, he would 
find men defending themselves with valour and intre- 
pidity, and determined to sell their lives dearly. That 
attack served at least to convince the enemy that he 
must expect a most obstinate resistance, if he at- 
tempted to force our lines; and that perhaps, after ha- 
ving sacrificed numbers of his men, he might be once 
more obliged to retire within his camp, with the 
shame of having made a useless and disgraceful at- 
tempt. He had now witnessed the effect of our ar- 
tillery, which was soon to prove to him, beyond all 
doubt, our superiority in skill, promptitude, and pre- 
cision in firing. 

It was ordered by general Jackson that fortified 
lines should be established on the right bank from the 
river to the Cypress swamp, behind general Morgan's 
encampment. For that purpose 1 made choice of Bois- 
gervais' canal, three miles from the city. One hundred 
and fifty negroes, under the direction of Mr. Lefevre, 
in six days completed the parapet, the whole length 
of the canal, and levelled the earth to form a glacis 
on the opposite side. It will be seen in the sequel, 


that it was behind those lines, which we had not time 
to complete and secure with bastions and redoubts, 
that general Morgar. s troops rallied after their flight, 
on the memorable 8th of January. 

Captain Henley, of the late Carolina, came also 
next day to take command of a square redoubt, form- 
ed by a brick-kiln, opposite rhe city, on the very bank 
of the river. A fosse twenty-five feet wide was 
dug all round it, and the earth from it served to 
form a very steep glacis from the summit of the 
wall, serving as a parapet, to the brink of the fosse. 
A palisade extended along its whole length on the 
inside. The redoubt was furnished with a small pow- 
der magazine, and was mounted with two tvventy-four- 
pounders. Its battery commanded at once the road 
and the river. 

From all accounts it appears that at that time the 
British troops of the line amounted to between nine 
and ten thousand men. General Gibbs' division 
had landed, and sir Edward Packenham had taken the 
command of the army. The British head-quarters 
were at the house of general Villere; their hospitals 
were established in the buildings of Jumonville's plan- 
tation, where their black troops were stationed. The 
British had taken all the horses belonging to the plan- 
tations, from Bienvenu's to Jumonville's inclusively; 
the finest were picked out for the officers of the staff, 
the others served to mount a squadron of dragoons, 
or to draw the artillery. Their reconnoitring par- 
ties advanced as far as Philipon's lantation, where 
they established a post of black troops, which conti- 
nued there until their final evacuation. The meat 


served out to the troops was at first supplied by the 
cattle of the several plantations they occupied; and 
when this supply was exhausted, they had recourse 
to the cattle of the nearest plantations successively, 
as far as the end of Terre-aux-Boeufs, and even to 
Morgan's plantation at the Turn; the cattle of which 
they had almost entirely consumed at the period of 
their evacuation. 

On the 29th lieutenant Spotts transported his two 
six-pounders totheextremity of the line, not far from 
the wood, and the detachment of the company of 
Francs, under the immediate command of lieutenant 
Bertel, established a platform for a twelve-pounder 
towards the left, between that of colonel Perry and 
that of lieutenant Spotts. 

Commodore Patterson, on that day, caused to be 
landed from the Louisiana two twelve-pounders, 
which he placed in battery behind the levee, in front 
of Jourdan's plantation, on the right bank; and the 
following night he established a twenty-four-pounder 
beside the former. These pieces, with several others 
afterwards mounted, formed the marine battery, which 
rendered such important services during the remain- 
der of the campaign. They were served entire- 
ly by sailors, mostly landed from the Louisiana, 
who had been enlisted or pressed in the streets of 
New Orleans, after the capture of the gun-boats. 
Those sailors Avere almost all of different nations, 
hardly one-third of them speaking English: but the 
care of lieutenant Thompson, in establishing excel- 
lent discipline among them, rendered eminent service; 
for it may justly be said that never were guns better 


served. The position commanded the left flank of 
the enemy, who was compelled to remove his camp 
to the back grounds of Laronde's and Bienvenu's 
plantations, and to abandon Chalmette's and Bienve- 
nu's houses, where several corps and officers had al- 
ready taken up their cantonments, in which the ma- 
rine battery never suffered them to enjoy one mo- 
ment's repose. All the buildings and fences of those 
plantations bear marks which attest how well the fire 
of that battery was directed. The enemy was even 
obliged to make several small epaulments, advanced 
one before the other, to cover the left of his camp, on 
the lower boundary of Bienvenu's plantation. The 
smallest group of British soldiers that was any where 
perceived, was instantly saluted with a discharge of 
eannon; so that this battery rendered it impossible for 
the enemy to attempt any reconnoissance on the 

From the 28th of December to the 1st of Janua- 
ry, the sloop of war every morning dropped down to 
the station which she occupied on the 28th, and re- 
turned every night opposite Cazelar's plantation. 

In the evening, colonel Haines, inspector-general, 
accompanied by colonel Reuben Kemper, a volunteer 
in the Feliciana troop, went, by order of general Jack- 
son, to reconnoitre in the Cypress swamp on the 
left, and ascertained that it was impossible for the 
enemy to penetrate by that way. It even appears 
that he was himself under great apprehension from 
that quarter; for, during the whole campaign, there 
was no instance of the enemy's having posted a sin- 
gle picket immediately on the skirt of the wood, so 


much did he fear lest our riflemen should come oii 
him unawares, and shoot down the men; to avoid 
which he kept his out- posts beyond musket- shot 
of the wood. The Tennesscans, on account of 
their well-known skill at the rifle, were the terror of 
the British sentinels and advanced -posts. Their uni- 
form, consisting of a brown hunting dress, rendered 
it difficult to perceive them among the underwood 
and dry grass through which they approached, to 
shoot down the British sentinels, whom they never 
missed. One single incident, which occurred about 
that time, will suffice to give an idea of the dread in 
which the British were of the Tennesseans, whom 
they denominated dirty shirts. An old inhabitant of 
Tennessee obtained from his oflUcers leave to go on 
what they called a hunting party. He stole along 
through ditches and underwood, till he got near a 
British sentinel, whom he immediately killed; and 
having seized his arms and accoutrements, he laid 
them at some distance from that place, and went to 
post himself in a different direction. When it was 
time to relieve the sentinel, the corporal of the guard 
finding him dead, posted another in the same place, 
where the guard had hardly left him, when the Ten- 
nesscan shot him down; and having conveyed his arms 
and accoutrements to the spot where he had left those 
of the man he had killed before, he again went to lie in 
wait in another place. The corporal, in his next 
round, had again to relieve a dead sentinel, and the 
man who took his place soon shared the fate of the 
two others; the Tennessean taking the same care to 


secure his anns and accoutrements, and then posting 
himself in aiwther place. At last the corporal, ama- 
zed to see that in one night three sentinels had been 
killed at one post, determined to expose no more 
men in so dangerous a spot. Our Tennessean seeing 
this, returned to camp with the spoils of the slain, 
and received the felicitations of his comrades. 

The company of marines, commanded by lieute- 
nant Bellevue, which, from the lines being first occu- 
pied, had been stationed in the centre, was removed 
to the left, near lieutenant Spott's battery, where it 
continued until the evacuation. 

The 1st regiment of Louisiana militia, under 
colonel Dejan, was ordered to take a position in the 
wood on the bank of the canal of Piernas's planta- 
tion. An advanced-post had been stationed at the 
mouth of the canal, in the bayou Bienvenu, for the 
purpose of watching the manoeuvres which the ene- 
my might attempt by that canal, at the mouth of 
which it was possible he might ascend with schoon- 
ers. The first regiment was ordered to furnish in- 
termediate posts^ and to support them all in case of 
an attack. 

It was the more important to guard the Piernas 
canal, as it was the only point by which the enemy 
could have penetrated, on ascending the bayou Bien- 

General Jackson sent orders to the mayor of New 
Orleans, directing him to make domiciliary visits in 
town, for the purpose of ascertaining what arms were 
ih the possession of private person^. 


On the morning of the 30th, major-general Vil- 
lere, commanding the first division of Louisiana mili- 
tia, arrived from the Acadian coast, whither he had 
gone to forward the arrival of the militia, of whom 
three hundred next day encamped behind the line 

General Villere took also the command of the 
troops stationed on the Piernas canal. Major Hinds, 
at the head of the cavalry, went out on reconnoi- 
tring towards the enemy's advanced-posts on the 
right. His troop sustained the fire of all the out- 
posts, and three dragoons were wounded. Our ar- 
tillery, especially that of the centre batteries which 
was of heavy metal, galled the enemy without discon- 
tinuance. The thirty. two-pounder, commanded by 
lieutenant Crawley, and captain Dominique's twenty- 
four-pounder, were principally directed against the 
redoubt which the enemy was throwing up towards 
the wood. Notwithstanding its great distance, most 
of the balls struck the parapet, demolishing the work, 
and killing many men. Neither did the marine bat- 
tery on the right bank neglect any opportunity of 
annoying the enemy in his camp, or in his posts. On 
that day the enemy began to establish, in front of 
Bienvenu's house, a battery of hogsheads of sugar, 
ranged on the levee. In our camp, great efforts were 
making to complete the platforms of the batteries, 
strengthen the parapet, arrange the tents in proper 
order, and prolong the lines into the wood. The re- 
ports of deserters stated, that the enemy expected 
shortly to receive considerable re -enforcements, and 
was bringing up heavy artillery to batter our breast- 


On the 31st, the enemy, who had already mount- 
ed a few guns on the redoubt erecting in front of 
our left, fired on our advanced-posts, which had some 
skirmishes with those of the enemy. The cannona- 
ding continued on both sides until two in the after- 
noon. The Louisiana supported our batteries with 
her fire, and contributed not a little to make the ene- 
my take refuge behind some buildings. One of his 
officers of engineers, having advanced to reconnoitre 
our forces and our lines, was killed by the advanced- 

All these movements and reconnoitrings on the 
part of the enemy indicated an approaching attack. 
Meanwhile we learned the capture of a schooner with 
an officer and five men, made by our troops in the 
lake, near Chef-Menteur. That schooner served to 
transport provisions from the enemy's encampment 
on Pearl river, to his troops encamped on the bank 
of the Mississippi. In the night from th^ 3 1st De- 
cember to the 1st of January, the enemy erected two 
batteries at the distance of about six hundred yards 
from our lines, on a ditch running along the side of 
Chalmette's plantation, the first being placed inadvance 
of the buildings of the plantation, and at the distance 
of three hundred and fifty yards from the bank of the 
river; and the second about three hundred yards far- 
ther. During the whole night was heard the noise 
of the men working at the platforms and mounting 
the pieces of cannon. 



The 1st of January was ushered in with a very- 
thick fog, which did not begin to disperse until to- 
wards 8 o'clock. As soon as the horizon began to 
clear up, the enemy opened a very brisk fire from his 
three batteries, of which the left, established on the 
road, mounted two twelve-pounders; the centre, eight 
eighteen-pounders, and twenty-four-pound carron- 
ades, and that on the right towards the wood opposite 
our lines, mounted eight pieces of cannon and carron- 
ades. A cloud of Congreve rockets accompanied 
the balls, and for fifteen minutes the fire was kept up 
with unexampled celerity. The first discharges of 
the two batteries nearest the river, were principally 
directed against Macarty's house, where the head- 
quarters were established. In less than ten minutes, 
up\vards of one hundred balls, rockets and shells 
struck the house, and rendered it impossible to re- 
main there. The general -in -chief and all his staff 
were in the apartments when the firing began; but 
though bricks, splinters of wood and furniture, rockets 
and balls^ were flying in all directions, not a single 
person was wounded. This fierce attack of the ene- 
my's artillery, was answered by ours with a brisk, 
steady and well-directed fire, which in less than an 
hour made his slacken in a very perceptible degree. 
The cannonading however still continued to be kept 
vip, vigorously on the part of the enemy, but with 
more precision and more effect on ours. 

The enemy's object was to silence our artillery 
and make a breach in the breastwork of our lines, 


with a view to push on to the assault. For this pur- 
pose the troops were in readiness, drawn up in seve- 
ral parallel lines; but prudently waiting in the back 
ditches, and in the intervals between the batteries, 
for the favourable moment to advance to the attack of 
our lines. But on this occasion, as on the 28th of 
December, his expectations were frustrated; and in- 
stead of intimidating us by his artillery, he soon 
perceived the superiority of ours. 

Yet every advantage was on the side of the ene- 
my; his batteries presented but a narrow front, and 
very little elevation, on a spacious plain, the soil of 
which was from four to six feet below the level of our 
platforms; his gunners had for a target a line about 
one thousand yards long, the top of whose parapet 
was eight or nine feet higher than his platforms — 
whilst our batteries might be said to have only points 
to aim at, and our balls could not rebound on so soft 
a soil. Our batteries were the principal object 
against which the enemy's fire was directed; but we 
were not less intent on demolishing his; for in about 
an hour's time, our balls dismounted several of his 
guns; and when the firing ceased the greater part of 
his artillery v/as unfit for service. Justice obliges us 
to acknowledge that the fire of the British was for a 
long time vigorously kept up and well directed. We 
had tlie carriage of a twenty-four-pounder broken by 
one of their balls, at captain Dominique's battery, 
and that of the thirty-two-pounder, commanded by 
lieutenant Crawley of the navy, was also damaged by 
a ball; the fore-train of the twelve-pounder of general 
Garrigues was likewise broken by the balls of the 


enemy. The cheeks of the embrasures of our battc*- 
rics were formed of bales of cotton, which the ene- 
my's balls struck and made fly in all directions; the 
rockets blew up two artillery caissons, in one of 
which were a hundred rounds. When the enemy 
perceived this accident, he suspended his fire for 
some seconds, and the troops ranged in the ditches, 
with those at the batteries, gave three cheers, which 
were instantly answered by a general discharge of all 
the artillery of our lines. From that moment the 
enemy's fire began to slacken in a very perceptible 
degree, owing probably to his being convinced of the 
inutility of his attempt, and to the great number of 
his guns which our artillery had dismounted. 
About ten o'clock the enemy ordered some platoons 
of sharp-shooters to penetrate into the woods on the 
left of our line, with a view to ascertain whether it 
could be turned; but he soon perceived, from the 
brisk fire of our musketry, that on the left we were 
as well prepared to receive him as on the right. Part 
of general Coffee's brigade stationed in the fosse, two 
hundred yards behind the line, received orders to 
move forward towards the wood, in order to support, 
if necessary, the troops stationed immediately on the 
line; but Wellington's heroes discovered that they 
were ill qualified to contend with us in woods, where 
they must fight knee deep in water and mud, and 
that the various kinds of laurel which abound in 
Louisiana, in the cypress swamps and prairies, were 
not intended to grace their brows. Yet of these lau- 
rels there never was a fairer opportunity of making 
an ample provision; and the species called by beta- 


nists the laurel of conquerors, is found at every step 
in the woods and prairies of Louisiana. But on the 
other hand, cypress trees are still more common; the 
country presenting one continued forest of them on 
each bank of the river, for upwards of one hundred 
leagues in length; and such of the British troops as 
lived to return hom.e, must have made known in En- 
gland how provident nature has been in accumula- 
ting, as it were, on the banks of the Mississippi, the 
emblem of the disasters which will ever attend the 
invaders of that country. 

The fire continued to slacken until noon, and at 
one o'clock the enemy's two batteries towards the 
right were abandoned. That on the road still conti- 
nued to throw a few balls and rockets until three in 
the afternoon, by which time they were all silenced. 
His troops at last retired to their camp, persuaded 
that it was not practicable to make the assault, after 
having continued in the ditches from early in the 
morning. Our loss of men that day was very incon- 
siderable, in comparison with that of the enemy, and 
considering the long continuance of an intense fir^ 
for it amounted to no more than thirty-four wounded 
or killed, eleven of the latter being persons going to 
or returning from camp, who were killed on the road 
behind the lines, by the enemy's shells or balls which 
were shot over the breastwork. About two hun- 
dred yards behind the line, on the river, near the 
bank, lay a boat laden with military stores, which was 
struck by several of the enemy's balls, and was on 
the point of sinking, when we succeeded in saving 
the greater part of the stores. 


The batteries that the enemy had on the river in 
front of Chahnette's and Bienvenu's houses, continu- 
ed likewise the Avhole day to exchange shots with 
those of commodore Patterson; and although the balls 
went through the breastwork, and the shells fell in 
great numbers in the batteries and on the road, the 
commodore lost not a single man, nor was his fire for 
a moment less intense than that of the enemy. It is 
presumable that in establishing batteries on the river, 
the enemy's object was not to command the passage 
of it, or to do any mischief on the other bank; but 
merely to destroy the Louisiana: and indeed several 
deserters reported that for that purpose he constantly 
kept red-hot balls ready to fire on her the moment 
she came within the range of his guns. — (See com- 
modore Patterson's letter to the Secretary of the Na- 
vy, Appendix No. 28.) 

Major-general Thomas, commanding the second 
division of Louisiana militia, arrived the same day 
. with five hundred men from Baton Rouge, and en- 
camped on Ikipre's plantation. During the remain- 
der of the day, the enemy was busily employed in 
working on the square redoubt he had begun, facing 
our left, nor did our heavy pieces of artillery one mo- 
ment cease firing on his working parties, and they al- 
ways fired with success. The officer commanding 
those parties stood upon the parapet, and as soon as 
he perceived the fire of our guns, he gave a signal to 
his men, who instantly stooped down behind the pa- 

The redoubt which stood on Bienvenu's planta- 
tion towards the wood, was of a quadrilateral form, 


its interior dimensions being eighty, sixty-two, one 
hjundred and eight, and seventy feet. Two embra- 
sures were made on the small front opposite our lines, 
but forming an angle with them. Each of the late- 
ral fronts had likewise an embrasure in the middle, 
amj that on the back had an opening twelve feet wide, 
serving as an entrance, and covered by a traverse 
within the fort. Along the intervals between the em- 
brasures above the ground, ran banquettes raised 
three feet, for the musketry. 

The parapet, which was fourteen feet thick at the 
base, and nine at the summit, had battlements for the 
musketry on three aspects; a fosse from twelve to 
fifteen feet wide and three deep surrounded the re- 
doubt. That work had probably been made by the 
enemy in apprehension of an attack by the wood, 
with a view to protect the pickets posted on that side. 
Some days after, the enemy established another re- 
doubt in advance of this, towards our lines, on the 
ditch separating the plantations of Bienvenu and 
Chalmette. This latter redoubt was smaller in its di- 
mensions, and had an embrasure in each of the angl&s 
towards our lines. In erecting this redoubt, the ene- 
my experienced the greatest difficulty,' being con- 
stantly galled by our artilLery, which mowed down 
the working parties. He again called in his out- 
posts on the 1st of January, as he had done after 
the affair of the 28th of December. On aJl that space 
from Chalmette's old plantation in the direction of the 
furthest redoubt, there were no troops to be seen ex- 
cept near the river. The batteries had been dis- 
mantled during the night, and with much difficulty 


their guns were removed, by being dragged through 
the mud. 

On the 2d, early in the morning, several parties 
went out to view the enemy's batteries, where they 
found some barrels of powder, a large quantity of 
cannon balls and implements of artillery, with broken 
gun-carriages belonging to the navy, and carronades 
which our balls had shattered. 

General John Adair arrived at head- quarters, and 
announced the speedy arrival of the Kentucky militia, 
■whom he had left the day before at Lafourche. 

General Jackson, being desirous of ascertaining 
whether the enemy, by ascending the bayou Bien- 
venu, above the Piernas canal, could possibly pene- 
trate either towards Chef-Menteur or towards the 
bank of the river, ordered colonel Reuben Kemper, 
a volunteer in the Feliciana troops, to go down with 
a detachment along Dupre's canal, cross the cypress 
swamps and prairies of the basin of Gentilly, and 
penetrate to the post of Bertonniere, on the Chef- 
Menteur road; which orders colonel Kemper exe- 
cuted, not without encountering numerous difficul- 
ties. The impossibility of the enemy's penetrating 
by that way, was thus fully ascertained, and all unea- 
siness on that score removed. 

During the night of the 3d of January, word was 
brought to general Jackson that the enemy had as- 
cended bayou Bienvenu as far as the forks of the 
Piernas canal, where he had landed in considerable 
force. This movement indicated a design to inter- 
cept us in the rear. The general instantly ordered 
major Davis, assistant inspcctor-general, to take with 


him two hundred men of general Coftee's brigade, 
and proceed to ascertain whether the report were true; 
and in case of the enemy's having really landed, to 
push on, and drive him into the bayou. Major Davis 
lost no time in executing these order's, and notwith- 
standing a heavy rain, and the badness of the road, in 
which the men sunk up to the knee in mud, the de- 
tachment reached the point indicated, where they 
did not find a single British soldier. 

General Jackson, anxious to know whether there 
existed any possibility of the enemy's penetrating on 
that side, ordered colonel Kemper to choose out 
twenty volunteers from the different corps on the lines, 
and with them to descend the Piernas canal, as far as 
its junction with bayou Bienvenu, and this latter as 
far as its junction with bayou Mazant, if possible, 
and there reconnoitre the enemy's position. Owing 
to the difficulty of procuring boats, colonel Kemper 
was forced to undertake this service with only eleven 
men, whom he led that evening to the prairie, where 
they passed the night. Early next morning they 
proceeded on their way down the bayou, occasionally 
climbing up the trees on the bank, to see whether 
they could thence discover the enemy. At last they 
arrived sufficiently near the junction of the two ba- 
yous to perceive the fortified enclosure the enemy had 
there formed. Colonel Kemper, leaving the boats 
with some men to guard them, endjeavoured to ap- 
proach and reconnoitre the enemy from the prairie; 
but soon met with the obstruction of a bayou, 
which obliged him to return; when he was about half 
a mile from the point where h« had left his boats, he 


perceived the enemy ascending the bayou in five 
small vessels, and distinctly saw sailors looking out 
from the mast head. When those vessels got near 
our boats, they fired two musket- shots on those who 
were left to guard them; on which four of them ran 
and escaped, and one was taken prisoner. The ene- 
my proceeded up the bayou, setting fire to the prairie 
as he advanced, so that whoever happened to be in it, 
had to run from the flames rapidly gaining on the grass, 
which, as we have already seen, is of considerable 
height, and as thick as wheat in a field. At length, af- 
ter great fatigues, the colonel, and part of his detach- 
ment, arrived in camp next day by nine o'clock; the 
others, who, having escaped from the boats, took an- 
other road, had reached camp the preceding day to- 
wards evening. 

This reconnoitring discovered to us the enemy's 
position in the bayous, and on their banks. It was 
ascertained that at the forks of Villere's canal, and 
bayou Mazant, where he effected his landing, he had 
thrown up a breastwork, within which he had built 
magazines for stores, which were guarded by a strong 
detachment; he had also an advanced sentinel con- 
stantly posted in a tree, which commanded a view of 
the whole prairie and of the bayous. 

The precaution the enemy had tajcen to set fire 
to the prairie on the banks of bayou Bienvenu, leaves 
no room to doubt of his having apprehended an at- 
tack on that side. Had we indeed been stronger in 
troops, aind better supplied with boats, we might, du- 
ring the night, have descended bayou Bienvenu, as 
far as its junction with bayou Mazant, and thence 


reascending the latter, have siipprised, or at least at- 
tacked their post at the mouth of Villere's canal. 

On the 4th of January the drafted militia from 
Kentucky, to the number of two thousand two hun- 
dred and fifty, arrived in town, and went to encamp 
on Prevost's plantation. On the following day seven 
hundred and fifty of them, but only five hundred and 
fifty being armed, repaired to the lines, and encamp- 
ed at some distance in the rear. All these troops were 
under the command of major-general John Thomas, 
and brigadier- general John Adair, acting adjutant- 
general, took the command of the troops detached to 
the lines.* 

* The deplorable condition of a great number of militia- 
men of this and the adjacent states, who were in want of cloth- 
ing, in an inclement season, and obliged by the nature of the 
service to be constantly exposed in the open air, excited the sen- 
sibility of the citizens, Mr. Louaillier, the elder, a member of 
the house of representatives, obtained from the legislature the 
sum of six thousand dollars, which was put at the disposition of 
a committee formed for their relief. Subscriptions were also 
opened at New Orleans, for the same purpose, and ano- 
ther sum of;six thousand dollars was soon subscribed; and 
it is to be observed that the Orleans volunteers and militia, 
not satisfied with discharging their duty to their country, by 
their presence in the camp, sent for a subscription list, and 
filled it with their signatures. The county of the German 
coast subscribed about three thousand six hundred and that 
of Attakapas remitted to the committee five hundred dol- 
lars. The whole smu thus obtained, including what was voted 
by tlie legislature, amounted to sixteen thousand one hundred 
dollars, and was laid out in purchasing blankets and woollens, 
which were distributed among the ladies of New Orleans, to be 
made into clothes. Within one week twelve hundred blanket 
eloaksj two hundred and seventy-five waistcoats, eleven hundred 


In a letter of the 3d of January to the secretary 
of war, the general complains that the arms sent from 
Pittsburgh are not yet arrived, expressing his appre- 
hensions as to the consequences with which this de- 
lay may be attended, and the effect these may have 
with regard to the issue of the war in this country. 
" Hardly," says he, " one third of the Kentucky 
troops, so long expected, are armed, and the arms 
they have are not fit for use." Justly -does the general 

and twenty-seven pairs of pantaloons, eight hundred shirts, four 
hundred and ten pairs of shoes, and a great number of mattresses, 
were made up, or purchased ready made, and distributed among 
our brethren in arms, who stood in the greatest need of them. 
Though the gratitude of their fellow citizens, and the conscious- 
ness of their patriotic service> be, to Mr. Louaillier, and to 
Messrs. Dubuys and Soulie, who co-operated with him in his 
honourable exertions, a sufficient reward, yet I must be allowed 
to pay those gentlemen the tribute of applause so justly due to 

In the course of the campaign several fathers, or men who 
were the support of families, among the volunteers and militia 
of the state, having been killed or wounded, those who depend- 
ed on them for support were left in the greatest distress; where- 
fore the legislature, on the 6th of February, enacted that the 
pay of wounded men should be continued till the end of next ses- 
sion, and that the families of those slain in the service of the 
country, should receive pay for the deceased, until the same pe- 
riod. With pleasure I take this opportunity to do justice to 
the patriotic and highly praiseworthy conduct of the legislature, 
not only on this occasion, but during the whole session. The 
sole reproach that attaches to them, is their having, early in the 
session, spent, in unimportant discussions relative to elections, 
much more time than was consistent with a due regard to the 
exigencies of the critical cireumstances in which we then were. 


complain of the conduct of thfc agents of government, 
and presages that the defeat of our armies, and the 
dishonour not only of the officers commanding them, 
but of the nation, must inevitably be the consequence 
of so defective an administration. The general con- 
cludes by informing the secretary of war, that the 
enemy appears intent on fortifying his position; that 
it is doubtful whether he will renew his attacks, or 
change the seat of war; that in either case he has 
made the best disposition of the troops he commands 
(much inferior in number to those of the enemy) to 
act as circumstances may require. 

Our artillery continued, in the meantime, to fire 
on the enemy, and whenever a group of four or five 
men showed themselves, they were instantly dispers- 
ed by our balls or shells. The advantage we derived 
from that almost incessant cannonading on both banks 
of the Mississippi, was that we exercised our gun- 
ners, annoyed the enemy to such a degree that he 
could not work at any fortification, nor, indeed, come 
within the reach of our cannon by day, and was de- 
prived of all repose during the night. 

From the report of some deserters, we learned 
that a re-enforcement of troops, under the command 
of major-general Lambert, had lately arrived in the 
British camp, and that the enemy intended shortly to 
make a general attack. For some days past, the com- 
munication between the fleet and bayou Bienvenu 
had been unusually active. 

The 2d regiment of Louisiana militia was order- 
ed to cross the river, to re-enforce general Morgan's 


camp. At the confluence of the Piernas canal and 
bayou Bienvenu, was established a post of cavalry, 
consisting of a detachment of captain Ogden's com- 
pany of dragoons. 

On the 6th of January, sailing-master Johnson 
left Chef-Menteur with three boats under his com- 
mand, and succeeded in burning a British brig load- 
ed with rum and biscuit, on her way to the fleet at 
bayou Bienvenu. On this occasion we took ten 
prisoners, and from them we learned that the enemy 
was digging out Villere's canal, and extending it, in 
order to get his boats into the river. 

On the 6th and 7th an unusual stir and bus- 
tle appeared to prevail amongst the enemy. Both 
banks of Villere's canal were covered with soldiers 
and sailors, who seemed to be employed in dragging 
feoats; troops were frequently observed exercising or 
reviewing, and every thing announced an approach- 
ing attack. Commodore Patterson had gone down 
on the right bank, to the point opposite the mouth of 
the canal, where he ascertained the movements of the 

In the morning of the 6th we began to establish a 
small redoubt for two six -pounders, on that part of 
the bank of the river which joined the extremity of 
the right of our line, from which it was separated by 
the ditch, which in that part was \ery shallow, and 
without any water. This redoubt had two embra- 
sures, whiclr commanded the road and the river bank, 
and another which flanked the front of the line. A 
shallow fosse, which was also without water, in con- 
sequence of the river's having fallen, su^rrounded th^: 


redoubt, which was not yet completed on the mom^ 
ing of the 8th. 

Before I proceed to relate the events of the 8th of 
January, a day of ever-glorious memory in the annals 
of America, and especially in those of Louisiana, I 
think it not unseasonable here to describe those lines, 
before which was performed the most important mi- 
litary exploit of the whole war, and, considering^ local 
circumstances and the respective forces contending, 
that which reflects on America the highest glory. 

Jackson's lines, within five miles of the city of 
-New Orleans, and running along the limits of Rod 
riguez's andChalmette's plantations, formerly the pro- 
perty of the United States, were but one of those an- 
cient mill-races, so common in Louisiana, extending 
from the bank of the river to the Cypress swamp. It 
has been already seen, from my description of the 
form of the soil in Lower Louisiana, and from its 
shelving from the river towards the swamps, that 
when the Mississippi is swelled to its greatest height, 
the level of the surface of its waters is«ome feet above 
that of the contiguous soil, and from twelve to fifteen 
above that of the prairies and bayous, which at those 
periods receive the waters flowing from the Missis- 
sippi. To add to the mass and the force of the wa- 
ter, the planters dig canals a few feet deep, throwing 
the earth on both sides, so as to afford a mass of wa- 
ter from eight to eleven feet deep; and at the head of 
these canals, which are commonly twenty-five feet 
wide, are constructed saw-mills. The canal on which 
Jackson's lines were formed, had long been aban- 
doned, having no longer any mill to turn, so that it? 


banks had fallen in and raised its bottom, which was 
covered with grass, presenting rather the appearance 
of an old draining ditch than of a canal. On the 24th 
of December, general Jackson had taken this posi- 
tion; and that it was well chosen, will sufficiently ap- 
pear on an inspection of the map — (Plate No. 5.) I 
will only observe, that those lines leave the least pos- 
sible space between the river and the wood, and that 
from the lines to Villere's canal, the depth of the 
high-land continually increases, and is at Laronde's 
plantation nearly three times as great as at the lines. 
As soon as this position was chosen, the troops be- 
gan to raise a parapet, leaving the ditch as it was, 
except that by cutting the road it was laid under 
water, as there was then a temporary rise of the river. 
Earth was fetched from the rear of the line and 
thrown carelessly on the left bank, where the earth 
had been thrown when the canal was originally dug. 
The bank on the right side being but little elevated 
above the soil, formed a kind of glacis. All the pales 
of the fences in the vicinity were taken to line the 
parapet, and prevent the earth from falling into the ca- 
nal. All this was done at various intervals, and by 
different corps, owing to the frequent mutations in 
the disposition of the troops. This circumstance, 
added to the cold and to incessant rain, rendered it 
impossible to observe any regularity as to the thick- 
ness and height of the parapet, which in some places 
was as much as twenty feet thick at the top, though 
hardly five feet high; whilst in other places the ene- 
my's balls went through it at the base. On the 1st 
of January there was but a very small proportion of 


the line able to withstand the balls; but on the 8th of 
January the whole extent, as far as the wood, was 
proof against the enemy's cannon. The length of the 
lines was eight hundred and fifteen toises, or about a 
mile, somewhat more than half of which ran from the 
river to the wood, the remainder extending into the 
depth, where the line took, a direction towards the 
left, which rested on a cypress svv^amp almost impass- 
able. On that part of the line which was in the 
wood, the breastwork was not thicker than was ne- 
cessary to resist musketry; it was formed of a double 
row of logs, laid one over the other, leaving a space 
of two feet, which was filled up with earth. Along 
one part of the line ran a banquette; in some parts, 
the height of the breastwork above the soil was 
hardly sufficient to cover the men. The earth thrown 
up to form the breastwork, had been dug out at va- 
rious intervals, and without any order, the rainy 
weather not admitting of the work's being carried on 
with regularity, as observed before. 

The artillery was distributed on the lines in the 
following manner. On the soil of the road within 
the levee was battery No. 1, commanded by captain 
Humphreys, of the U. S. artillpry. It consisted of 
two brass twelve-pounders, and a six-inch howitzer, 
on field carriages; these pieces enfiladed the road to- 
wards that side where the enemy was posted, and their 
fire grazed the parapet of the flank of the redoubt, 
towards the right. Battery No. 1, was seventy feet 
from the bank of the river. The two twelve-pound- 
ers were served by soldiers belonging to the regular 
artillery, and the howitzer by dragoons of major St, 
Geme's company. 


Battery No. 2, which had a twenty-four-pounder, 
was commanded by lieutenant Norris, of the navy, 
and served by part of the crew of the late schooner 
Carolina; its distance from No. 1 was ninety yards. 
This battery was the most elevated above the soil. 

Battery No. 3, commanded by captains Domi- 
nique and Bluche, commanders of privateers, had two 
twenty-four-pounders, which were served by French 
mariners; its distance from No. 2 was fifty yards. 

Battery No. 4, commanded by lieutenant Craw- 
ley, of the navy, and served by part of the crew of the 
Carolina, had a thirty-two-pounder; its distance from 
No. 3 was twenty yards. 

Battery No. 5, commanded by colonel Perry and 
lieutenant Kerr, of the artillery, had two six -pound- 
ers; its distance from No. 4 was one hundred and 
ninety yards. 

Battery No. 6, commanded by general Garrigues 
Flaujeac, and served by a detachment of the compjt- 
ny of Francs, under the immediate command of lieu- 
tenant Bertel, had a brass twelve-pounder; its distance 
from No. 5 was thirty-six yards. 

Battery No. 7 had a long brass eighteen-pound 
culverine, and a six -pounder, commanded by lieu- 
tenants Spotts and Chauveau, and served by gunners 
of the U. S. artillery; its distance from No, 6 was 
one hundred and ninety yards. 

The 8th battery had a small brass carronade, 
which rendered very little service, on account of the 
ill condition of its carriage; it was commanded by a 
corporal of artillery, and served by militia men of ge- 
neral Carroll's command; its distance from No. 7 was 
gixty yards 


Next to this piece the line formed a receding 
elbow, as laid down in the draught of the affair of the 
8th — (See Atlas, Plate No. 7.) — enormous holes in 
the soil made impassable by their being full of wa- 
ter from the canal, rendered this bend in the line 

From this bend, where the wood began, to the 
extremity of the line, the ground was so low, and so 
difficult to be drained, that the troops were literally 
encamped in the water, walking knee deep in mud; 
and the several tents were pitched on small isles or 
hillocks, surrounded with water or mud. 

It was here that the brave troops of generals Car- 
roll and Coffee, from the 24th of December, 1814, 
and part of those of Kentucky, from the 6th, until the 
20th of January, 1815, gave an example of all the 
military virtues. Though constantly living, and even 
sleeping, in the mud, those worthy sons of Columbia 
never uttered a complaint, nor showed the lest symp- 
tom of discontent or impatience. Those who have 
not seen the ground, cannot form an idea of the de- 
plorable condition of the troops encamped on the left 
of the line. But it was necessary to guard that quar- 
ter against the attacks of the enemy; it was neces- 
sary that troops should be stationed there, to re- 
pulse him on the edge of die breastwork, if, under 
cover of the bushes, he advanced to our intrench- 
ments. Those brave men supported all their hardships 
with resignation, and even \v'ith alacrity. The safe- 
ty of the country was at stake, and their desire to 
chastise insolent invaders, operated too strongly on 
hearts inflamed with patriotic ardour, to suffer them 
to perceive the uncomfortableness of their situation. 


Such conduct is so much superidr to any eulogy I 
could bestow on it, that I must be content to admire 
it in silence. 

In order to give a correct narrative of the affair of 
the 8th, I must previously make the reader acquaint- 
ed with the respective position of the different corps 
stationed at the lines; that he may perceive, that if a 
considerable part of the troops exhibited no active va- 
lour, it was owing to the attack's not being made on 
their position; for had it been general, there can be 
no doubt but all would have equally vied in ardour 
and bravery. 

The redoubt on the river, in front of the extre- 
mity of the line on the right, was guarded by a com- 
pany of the 7th regiment, commanded by lieutenant 
Ross. The artillery was served by a detachment of 
the 44th, under the command of lieutenant Marant. 
Within the line, at the extremity of the right, be- 
tween battery No. 1 and the river, was stationed the 
New Orleans volunteer company of riflemen, about 
thirty men strong. 

The 7th regiment covered from that battery to 
battery No. 3, taking in tlie powder-magazine, built 
since the 1st of January, as also battery No. 2, com- 
manded by lieutenant Norris. This regiment, four 
hundred aiid thirty men strong, was commanded by 
major Peire. 

The interval between that battery and No. 4, com- 
manded by lieutenant Crav^^ley, was occupied by ma- 
jor Plauche's battalion of volunteer uniform compa- 
nies, and by major Lacoste's battalion of Louisiana 
men of colour. The former was two hundred and 


eighty-nine men strong, and the latter two hundred 

and eighty. 

From battery No. 4, to colonel Perry's, No. 5, 
the line was defended by major Daquin's battalion of 
St. Domingo men of colour, one hundred and fifty 
men strong, and from that out by the 44th, two hun- 
dred and forty men strong, commanded by captain 
Baker. All the corps, from the 7th regiment to 
the 44ih inclusively, were under the command of 
colonel Ross. 

T^vo-thirds of the remaining length of the line, 
were guarded by the troops commanded by major- 
general Carroll. On the right of battery No. 7, com- 
manded by lieutenants Spotts and Chauveau,were sta- 
tioned fifty marines, under the command of lieutenant 

On the preceding day, part of the Kentucky 
troops, under the command of general Adair, had 
gone to re-enforce that part of the line. The order 
in which they were ranged may be seen on the plan. 
All those troops formed a force of about sixteen 
hundred men. 

The troops under the command of general Coffee 
occupied the rest of the length of the line, as also that 
part which turned off towards the left into the wood; 
their number was about five hundred men. 

Captain Ogden's company of cavalry was station- 
ed behind head-quarters, and a detachment of the 
Attakapas dragoons was posted within the court-yard, 
together about fifty men strong. 

During the attack, captain Chauveau's company 
of horse volunteers, about thirty men strong, hasted 


from town and drew up in the same court-yard, to be 
ready for a sortie, should it be thought expedient. 

The Mississippi cavalry, commanded by major 
Hinds, one hundred and fifty men strong, was en- 
camped in the rear, on Delcry's plantation. Our out- 
posts extended about five hundred yards in front of 
the line. 

Different detachments, making an aggregate of 
two hundred and fifty men of colonel Young's regi- 
ment of Louisiana militia, were stationed at conve- 
nient intervals, on the skirts of the wood, behind the 
line, as far as the Piernas canal. 

Four himdred yards behind the line, a guard was 
posted on the road, to prevent any one's going out of 
camp; and a line of sentinels extended from that post 
to the wood for the same purpose. 

Although the above details show the number of 
aur troops to have amounted to about four thousand 
men, including one hundred artillerists who did not 
belong to any corps, it is nevertheless true, that ge- 
neral Jackson's line was defended by only three thou- 
sand two hundred men, the remaining eight hundred 
having been distributed into various detachments, 
and posted behind to guard the camp, for the defence 
of the Piernas canal, and on the outskirts of the 
wood. — (See Atlas, plates Nos. 5 and 7.) 



I HAVE mentioned above, that on the 6th we were 
informed that the enemy intended shortly to attack 
our lines; every thing, indeed, announced such a de- 
termination; but we were in doubt whether the attack 
on the left bank would be feigned or real, or whether 
the enemy would not direct his principal force against 
general Morgan on the right bank. But in the after- 
noon of the 7th it became evident that the enemy's 
design was to attack Jackson's lines and attempt to 
storm them. 

Though at so great a distance we could not dis- 
tinctly see what was passing in the enemy's camp, 
we perceived that a great number of soldiers and 
sailors were at work, endeavouring to move some- 
thing very unwieldy, which we concluded to be artil- 
lery. With the assistance of a telescope in the up- 
per apartment of head- quarters, we perceived soldiers 
on Laronde's plantation, busy in making fascines, 
while others were working on pieces of wood, which 
we concluded must be scaling ladders. The picket- 
guards near the wood had moreover been increased 
and stationed nearer each other. Officers of the staff 
were seen riding about the fields of Laronde's, Bien- 
venu's and Chalmette's plantations, and stopping at 
the different posts to give orders. Finally, on the 
•7di, shortly after night-fall, we distinctly heard men 
ut work in the enemy's different batteries; the strokes 
of hammers gave " note of preparation," and re- 
b-ounded even v/ithin our lines; and our out-posts in- 



formed us that the enemy was re-establishing his 
batteries: his guards were re-enforced about sunset, 
probably with a view to cover the movements of the 
troops. In our camp all was composure; the officers 
were ordered to direct their subalterns to be ready 
on the first signal. Half the troops passed the night 
behind the breastwork, relieving each other occasion- 
ally. Every one waited for day with anxiety and 
impatience, but with calm intrepidity, expecting to 
be vigorously attacked, and knowing that the enemy 
had then from twelve to fifteen thousand bayonets to 
bring into action, besides two thousand sailors and 
some marines. 

A little before daybreak, our out-post came in 
without noise, having perceived the enemy moving 
forward in great force. 

At last the dawn of day discovered to us the ene- 
my occupying two-thirds of the space between the 
wood and the Mississippi. Immediately a Congreve 
rocket ^vent oft" from the skirt of the wood, in the di- 
rection of the river. This was the signal for the at- 
tack. At the same instant, the twelve-pounder of bat- 
tery No. 6, whose gunners had perceived the enemy's 
movement, discharged a shot. On this all his troops 
gave three cheers, formed in close column of about 
sixty men in front, in very good order, and advanced 
nearly in the direction of battery No. 7, the men 
shouldering their muskets, and all carrying fascines, 
and some with ladders. A cloud of rockets preceded 
them, and continued to fall in showers during the 
whole attack. Batteries Nos. 6, 7 and 8, now open- 
ed an incessant fire on the column, which continued. 


to advance in pretty good order, until, in a few mi- 
mutes, the musketry of the troops of Tennessee and 
Kentucky, joining their fire with that of the artillery, 
began to make an impression on it, which soon threw 
it into confusion. It was at that moment that was 
heard that constant rolling fire, whose tremendous 
noise resembled rattling peals of thunder. For some 
time the British officers succeeded in animating the 
courage of their troops, and making them advance, 
obliqueing to the left, to avoid the fire of battery No. 
7, from which every discharge opened the column, 
and mowed down whole files, which were almost in- 
stantaneously replaced by new troops coming up 
close after the first: but these also shared the same 
fate, until at last, after twenty-five minutes continual 
firing, through which a few platoons advanced to the 
edge of the ditch, the column entirely broke, and 
part of the troops dispersed, and ran to take shelter 
among the bushes on the right. The rest retired to 
the ditch where they had been when first perceived, 
four hundred yards from our lines. 

There the officers with some difficulty rallied 
their troops, and again drew them up for a second at- 
tack, the soldiers having laid down their knapsacks at 
the edge of the ditch, that they might be less incum- 

And now, for the second time, the column, re- 
cruited with the troops that formed the rear, advan- 
ced. Again it was received with the same rolling- 
fire of musketry and artillery, till, having advanced 
without much order very near our lines, it at last 
broke again, and retired in the utmost confusion. In 


vain did the officers now endeavour, as before, to re- 
vive the courage of their itjen; to no purpose did they 
strike them with the flat of their swords, to force 
them to advance: they were insensible to every thing 
but danger, and saw nothing but death which had 
struck so many of their comrades. v 

The attack on our Hues had hardly began, when 
the British commander-in-chief, the honourable sir 
Edward Packenham, fell a victim to his own intrepi- 
dity, while endeavouring to animate his troops with 
ardour for the assault. Soon after his fall, two other 
generals, Keane and Gibbs, were carried off the field 
Qf battle, dangerously wounded. A great number of 
officers of rank had fallen: the ground over which the 
column had marched, was strewed with the dead and 
the wounded. Such slaughter on their side, with no 
i^ss on ours, spread consternation through their ranks, 
as they were now convinced of the impossibility of car- 
rying our lines, and saw that even to advance was cer- 
tain death. In a word, notwithstanding the repeated 
efforts of some officers to make the troops form a 
third time, they would not advance, and all that could 
be obtained from them, was to draw them up in the 
ditch, where they passed the rest of the day. 

Some of the enemy's troops had advanced into 
the wood towards the extremity of our line, to make 
a false attack, or to ascertain whether a real one were 
practicable. These the troops under general Coffee 
no sooner perceived, than they opened on them a 
brisk fire with their rifles, which quickly made them 
retire. The greater part of those who, on the co- 
himn's being repulsed, had taken shelter in the thick- 


ets, only escaped our batteries to be killed by our 
musketry. During the whole hour that the attack 
lasted, our fire did not slacken for a single moment; 
and it seemed as though the artillery and musketry 
vied with each other in vivacity. 

When the column first advanced to the attack, 
the troops partly moved forward along the skirt of 
the wood, which in that part forms a curve, and were 
by that means covered till they came within two hun- 
dred yards of our lines. After the attack on our left 
had commenced, the enemy made a column advance 
on the right by the road, and between the river and 
the levee. This column precipitately pushing for- 
ward, drove in our out-posts, following them so close- 
ly that it came up to the unfinished redoubt before 
we could fire on it more than two discharges of our 
cannon. A part of the column leaped into the ditch, 
and got into the redoubt through the embrasures, and 
over the parapet, overpowering with their numbers 
the few men they found there: others advancing along 
the brink of the river, killed the soldiers of the 7th, 
who bravely defended their post at the point of the 
bayonet, against a number much superior, and conti- 
nually increasing. 

To get into the redoubt was not a very arduous 
achievement: the difficulty was to maintain possession 
of it, and clear the breastwork of the entrenchment in 
the rear of the redoubt, which still remained to be 
attacked. Already several British officers, though 
wounded, were bravely advancing to encourage their 
men by their example. 

158 Historical memoir. 

Colonel Renee, followed by two other officers of 
high rank, had begun to mount the breastwork, when 
the gallant volunteer riflemen under captain Beale, 
who defended the head of the line, made them all find 
their graves in that redoubt which they had mastered 
with so much gallantry. Meanwhile, captain Hum- 
phreys' battery No. 1, lieutenaut Norris's No. 2, 
and the 7th regiment, which was the only one within 
musket-shot, kept up a tremendous fire on that co- 
lumn, which, like that on the left, was obliged to fall 
back in disorder, leaving the road, the levee, and the 
brink of the river, strewed with its dead and wounded. 

The enemy had opened the fire of the battery 
which he erected on the road on the 28th of Decem- 
ber, as also of that erected on the 1st of January, be- 
hind the demolished buildings of Chalmette's planta- 
tion. The fire was at first very brisk, and was prin- 
cipally directed against Macarty's house, in hopes 
that the general and his staff might still be there: but 
to the enemy's disappointment, the general and all the 
officers had repaired to their post on the lines, long 
before daybreak. The only mischief done by that 
prodigious expense of balls and shells, was that ma- 
jor Chotard, assistant adjutant- general, received a 
contusion in his shoulder, and four or five pillars of 
the house were knocked down. Our batteries, Nos. 
2i, 3, and 4, principally directed their fire against 
those of the enemy, and dismounted several of the 
guns erected near Chalmetie's buildings. Battery 
No. 1, after having poured a shower of grape-shot 
on the enemy's troops as they retreated, turned its 
fire against his battery which was opposite to it, and 


in less than two hours, forced the men to evacuate 
it. The marine battery on the right bank also fired 
on the enemy's column as it advanced along the brink 
of the river, until the troops which landed on the right 
bank, pushed forward, and obliged the seamen who 
served it to attend to their own defence. 

By half after eight in the morning, the fire of the 
musketry had ceased. The whole plain on the left, 
as also the side of the river, from the road to the edge 
of the water, was covered with the British soldiers who 
had fallen. About four hundred wounded prisoners 
were taken, and at least double that number of wound- 
ed men escaped into the British camp; and, what 
might perhaps appear incredible, were there not ma- 
ny thousands ready to attest the fact, is that a space of 
ground, extending from the ditch of our lines to that 
on which the enemy drew up his troops, two hundred 
and fifty yards in length, by about two hundred in 
breadth, was literally covered with men, either dead 
or severely wounded. About forty men were killed 
in the ditch, up to which they had advanced, and about 
the same number were there made prisoners. The 
artillery of our lines kept up a fire against the ene- 
my's batteries and troops until two o'clock in the 
afternoon. By the disposition of his troops, the ene- 
my appeared to apprehend lest we should make a sor- 
tie, and attack him in his camp. The soldiers were 
drawn up in the ditches, in several parallel lines, and 
all those who had been slightly wounded, as soon as 
their wounds were dressed, were sent to join their 
corps, to make their number of effective men appear 
the greater, and show a firm countenance. The ene- 


my's loss on the left bank, in the affair of the 8th of 
Januarj', was immense, considering the short duration 
of the contest, the ground, and the respective num- 
ber of the contending forces. According to the most 
probable accounts, it cannot have amounted to less 
than three thousand men in killed, wounded, and pri- 
soners. The number of officers who fell that day is 
a much greater loss in proportion, owing to the ne- 
cessity they were under of exposing themselves in 
the brunt of the battle, to encourage the men, and 
lead them on to the desperate assault. Our loss was 
comparatively inconsiderable, amounting to no more 
than thirteen in killed and wounded, on the left bank 
of the Mississippi. 

I deem it my indispensable duty to do justice to 
the intrepid bravery displayed in that attack by the 
British troops, especially by the officers. If any thing 
was wanting towards the attack's being conducted 
with judgment (speaking in a general and military 
point of view) it was, in my opinion, that they did 
not in the onset sacrifice the regularity of their move- 
ments to promptitude and celerity. The column 
marched on with the ordinary step, animating their 
courage with huzzas, instead of pushing on with fix- 
ed bayonets, au pas cle charge. But it is well known 
that agility is not the distinctive quality of British 
troops. Their movement is in general sluggish and 
difficult, steady, but too precise, or at least more 
suitable for a pitched battle, or behind intrenchments, 
than for an assault. The British soldiers showed, on 
this occasion, that it is not without reason they are 
said to be deficient in agility. The enormous load 


'they had to carry contributed indeed not a little to 
the difficulty of their movement. Besides their knap- 
sacks, usually weighing nearly thirty pounds, and 
their musket, too heavy by at least one third, almost 
all of them had to carry a fascine from nine to ten 
inches in diameter, and four feet long, made of sugar- 
canes perfectly ripe, and consequently very heavy, or 
a ladder from ten to twelve feet long. 

The duty of impartiality, incumbent on him vi^ho 
relates military events, obliges me to observe that the 
attack made on Jackson's lines, by the British, on the 
8th of January, must have been determined on b}- 
their generals, without any consideration of the 
ground, the weather, or the difficulties to be sur- 
motmted, before they could storm lines, defended by 
militia indeed, but by militia whose valour they had 
already witnessed, with soldiers bending under the 
weight of their load, when a man, imincumbered and 
unopposed, would that day have found it difficult to 
mount our breastwork at leisure and with circumspec- 
tion, so extremely slippery was the soil. Yet those 
officers had had time and abundant opportunity to 
observe the ground on which the troops were to act. 
Since their arrival on the banks of the Mississippi, 
they had sufficiently seen the effects of rainy weather 
to form a just idea of the difficulty their troops must 
have experienced, in climbing up our intrcnchments, 
even had the column been suffered to advance, with- 
out opposition, as far as the ditch. But they were 
blinded by their pride. The vain presumption of 
their superiority, and their belief that the raw militia 
of Kentucky and Tennessee, who now for tl»e firm 


time had issued from their fields, could not stand be- 
fore the very sight of so numerous a body of regular 
troops advancing to attack them, made them disre- 
gard the admonition of sober reason. Had they at all 
calculated on the possibility of resistance, they would 
have adopted a different plan of attack, which, how- 
ever, I am far from tliinking would have been ulti- 
mately successful. 

It has been repeated that division prevailed in a 
council of war, and that admiral Cochrane, combat- 
ing the opinion of general Packenham, who, with 
more judgment, was for making the main attack on 
the right bank, boasted that he would undertake to 
storm our lines with two thousand sailors, armed on- 
ly with swords and pistols. I know not how far fhis 
report may deserve credit, but if the British com- 
mander-in-chief was so unmindful of what he owed 
his country, who had committed to his prudence the 
lives and honours of several thousands of her soldiers, 
as to yield to the ill-judged and rash advice of the 
admiral, his memory will be loaded with the heavy 
charge of having sacrificed reason in a moment of ir- 
ritation, though he atoned with his life for having 
acted contrary to his own judgment. 

But to return to the attack on our lines. I can- 
not forbear to mention a fact which fully proves the 
truth of my assertion in the beginning of this narra- 
tive, that the British had come to America to carry 
on war in the spirit of atrocity, determined to employ 
all means whatever to shed American blood, and ghil: 
their rage against us. 


^s soon as the wrecks of the British column had 
disappeared, the fire of our musketry ceased, and our 
artillery only fired at intervals at the enemy's batte- 
ries, or at scattered platoons that were perceived in 
the wood. At this time, men from all our different 
corps, prompted merely by sentiments of humanity, 
went, of their own accord, to assist the wounded 
British, to give them drink, and carry them (as they 
did several on their backs) within our lines. All 
our troops unanimously applauded the humane senti- 
ments of those brave men, whose dauntless hearts 
were grieved to behold the slaughter of the day, and 
in their wounded enemy saw but their suffering fel- 
low creature. 

But, with horror I record the atrocity! while they 
were in the very act of administering consolation — 
while they were carrying the wounded British — the 
troops that were in the ditch (in front of our lines) 
fired on them, and killed and wounded some men. 
Yet the others, regardless of the danger to which they 
exposed themselves, persevered in their laudable 
purpose. This instance of baseness may have pro- 
ceeded from individuals; nor can it be presumed that 
the men were ordered to fire by any officer of rank. 
The known tenor of general Lambert's honourable 
and soldierly conduct, sets the commander-in chief 
far above the suspicion of his being capable of such 
atrocit)\ But the officers who commanded the troops 
in the ditch, within musket-shot of the men fired on, 
cannot allege that they misconceived the intention of 
our men, most of them being unarmed, and assisting 
the wounded. They were near enough to see their 


actions, and seeing these, they could not possibly mib- 
conceive their motives. Upon a full view of this 
fact then, whatever reluctance we may feel, in brand- 
ing with infamy military men whose actions should 
ever be directed by honour — men, amongst whom 
there were perhaps several w ho wore the honourable 
decorations of valour and good conduct, we cannot 
forbear to give them the appellation of barbarians. 
The private soldiers cannot be reproached with this 
atrocious act; the guilt of it rests solely with those 
vvho commanded them. — (See note No. 2, at the end 
of the volume.) 

After haying perused, with pleasing sensations, the 
recital of the brilliant defence made by our troops on 
the left bank, every American, whose bosom glows 
with the love of his country, must learn with pain the 
contrast exhibited in what took place on the right, the 
consequences of which were likely to have been so 
disastrous, that even now my mind shudders at the 
recollection of that moment, when, seeing our troops 
on the right bank fall back in disorder, while the ene- 
my was rapidly advancing towards the city, all of us 
who were at Jackson's lines, were suddenly hurried 
from the transporting joy of victory to the fear of 
shortly seeing all its advantages wrested from our 

As the affair to which the course of my narrative 
has now brought me, is the only disaster we expe- 
rienced during the campaign, the only fault commit- 
ted on our defensive operations, I n^ust request the 
indulgent attention of the reader, while I lay before 
him a minute, and perhaps irksome, detail of circum- 


Stances necessary to be known, in order that he may 
become perfectly acquainted with the causes of that 
unfortunate event. 

At the period when the quota of Louisiana was 
levied, brigadier-general David Morgan, of the mi- 
litia, was appointed to command it. We have seen 
that after the affair of the 23d of December, he was 
ordered to leave the cantonment at the English Turn, 
on the left bank, and cross the river to encamp on 
the right bank opposite Jackson's lines. (See plate 
No. 5.) Agreeably to those orders, he made his 
troops take post near the saw-mill, on Flood's plan- 
tation. A few days after, those troops moved for- 
ward to Jourdan's plantation, next to that of Flood's, 
where they remained till the 7th of January, on which 
day they took a position along Raguet's old canal, 
near the lower boundary of the plantation. At this 
time the contingent amounted to no more than two 
hundred and sixty effective men* 

We have already seen that in the morning of the 
4th the second regiment of Louisiana militia, colonel 
Zenon Cavelier had crossed over to the right bank, 
and encamped on Cazelard's plantation. On the 7th, 
that regiment also took a position on Raguet's canal, 
on the left of the quota; its effective force being then 
only one hundred and seventy-six men armed. 

The first regiment of militia, under colonel De- 
jean, quitted, in the evening of the 6th, the position 
it occupied on the Piernas canal, and that same day 
took a station on the left of the 2d regiment, and 
formed the extremity of the line on the bank of the 
river. To this regiment was annexed a detachment 


of the 6th Louisiana militia, forming together a force 
of one hundred and ten men, some ill armed, the rest 
without any arms. 

General Morgan took the command of those 
troops, which, as I have already observed, he station- 
ed along Raguet's old canal, where he had com- 
menced lines of defence two hundred yards in length, 
which was but a very small portion of the whole 
length of the canal, this extending about two thou- 
sand yards to the wood. Thus all that part on the 
right of the space of two hundred yards, where a 
breastwork had been begun, was without any other 
defence than a ditch, and exposed to be turned; this, 
we shall see, is what actually happened. 

Towards the beginning of January, while I was 
carrying on works at the line on Boisgervais' canal, 
general Jackson ordered me to assist general Mor- 
gan in choosing an advanced position, opposite Jack- 
son's lines, for the .purpose of establishing lines of 
defence, suitable to the number of troops on the right 
bank, and to the nature of the situation; and, on the 
choice being made, to draw a plan of the works, and 
immediately employ in their execution all the negroes 
that had till then been working at the battery, near 
the powder-magazine, and at Boisgervais' line, which 
then became a second line. 

Agreeably to these orders I waited on general 
Morgan, whom I met accompanied by his staff, and by 
commodore Patterson, inspecting all the canals in the 
vicinity. I communicated to him my orders, observ- 
ing that I was at his disposal. The general continued 
his inspection, and returned to his quarters, without 


having come to any determination, only that he appear- 
ed inclined to make choice of the position of the canal 
of Raguet; he then desired I would inspect the differ- 
ent situations myself, and make my report to him. My 
orders directed me to assist general Morgan, and my 
opinion was of course entirely subordinate to his de- 
cision. I beg the reader to excuse my appearing 
here in a conspicuous light, and to believe that it is 
with much reluctance I am forced to speak of myself, 
in investigating the cause of a disastrous event; my 
purpose being to show, by the simple recital of facts, 
that the disaster might perhaps have been avoided, 
had another point for defence been adopted. 

I chose for the intended lines of defence, an inter- 
mediate position, nearly at equal distance from Ra- 
guet's and Jourdan's canals, in a place whefe the 
wood inclines towards the river, leaving only a space 
of about nine hundred yards of open ground. The 
adjoining wood being impassable, works occupying 
this whole space could not be turned. A rough 
draught, conformable to the plan in plate No. 5, un- 
der the title of intended I'lne^ was made, and immedi 
ately the overseer of the works set his men to execute 
this line. Having gone over to the left bank, I made 
my report to the commander-in-chief, who approved 
of the dispositions made, and was sensible of the ad- 
vantage of the position that had been chosen. That it 
was a good position, may be seen on a view of the 
map. The small distance between the wood and the 
river, required but from a thousand to twelve hun- 
dred men to guard it, and half that number would 
have been sufficient, had pieces of cannon been 


mounted in the intended outworks. To attack that 
line, the enemy must have advanced in the open 
plain, which was commanded in every direction by 
the salient parts of the intrenchments. The wood, as 
I have before observed, was impassable towards the 
extremity of that line; the enemy's batteries on the 
left bank could not have infiladed its rear, as was the 
case with that established on Raguet's canal. The 
former, in short, united all advantages, and I dare 
aifirm that, had the works been completed, the Bri- 
tish would not have ventured to advance within can- 
non-shot. That line, defended only by the troops 
that were on the right bank, on the 8th amounting to 
about eight hundred men, might have defied the at- 
tempts of the British, had they come with three or 
four times the number that crossed the river, and 
might have given them a reception similar to that 
which they experienced on the left bank. But these 
dispositions had been changed, and the negroes or- 
dered to be set to work on Raguet's canal. 

This line, also marked in the Map, plate No. 5, 
had a kind of bastifxi on the bank of the river, and a 
small redaji at some distance on the right. In the 
afternoon of the 7th, general Morgan caused one 
twelve-pounder and two six-pounders to be mounted 
on the line. 

I have already observed, that on the 6th it was 
suspected that the enemy intended to cross over to 
the right bank; in the afternoon of the 7th, there no 
longer remained any doubt of this intention. A lit- 
tle after sunset general Morgan was informed that 
the enemy was ready to cross the river, and that he 


might hourly expect to be attacked. On the Sth^ 
before break of day, he received information of the 
landing of the enemy on the strand of Andry's plan- 
tation. Three miles in advance of the line, on Mo- 
rin's estate, half a mile above the spot where the 
enemy landed, a detachment of one hundred men of 
the 6th of militia, under the command of major Ar- 
ijaud, had been stationed, to oppose his landing. These 
men were very ill armed, most of them having only 
fowling-pieces, and musket- cartridges too large for 
them; several of them were even without any arms, 
and not one of them, I believe, excepting their com- 
mander, had ever been opposed to an enemy before^ 
It is little strange, then, that they retreated. The 
enemy landed much lower than was his intention, ha- 
ving been carried down by the strength of the currenti 
It was owing to this circumstance, that the attack on 
the right bank, which wa« to have been simultaneous 
with that on the left, did not commence until the lat- 
ter had completelv failed, and our musketry, having 
routed the enemy, had ceased firing. Having landed 
his troops, the enemy ascended the river in his boats, 
carrying carronades and cannon, and keeping close to 
the bank, covered the flank of his troops, and dis- 
charged grape-shot against ours, v/ho retired as hp 

In the evening of the 7th, general Jackson had 
otdered general Adair, on whom, in consequence of 
the sickness of general Thomas, had devolved th«: 
chief command of the Kentuckv militia, to send a 
detachment of five hundred men, to re-enforce gene- 
ral Morg:nn's camp. The comm-iitd <^{ this re--en- 


forcement was given to colonel Davis, and after much 
fatigue and difficulty in crossing the river, the detacji- 
ment arrived, harassed and exhausted, at four o'clock 
in the morning, on Morgan's line, and there received 
orders to advance, to meet and repulse the enemy. 
What was the exact number of men under colonel 
Davis, has been a question of much contest. It ap- 
pears pretty certain that, on leaving the camp of Pre- 
vost's plantation, he had five hundred men; that only 
one-fourth part of these had arms, mostly in an ill 
condition, and that about seventy of them received 
arms at the naval arsenal; that colonel Davis had not 
above two hundred and fifty armed men with him, 
when he arrived at Morgan's line, the rest having re- 
mained behind, spent with fatigue, and faint for want 
of food, having taken hardly any nourishment since 
the morning of the 7th. They had marched five 
miles, from the ferry near the powder magazine to 
the line, in bad roads, sometimes knee-deep in mud. 
It appears also that their arms were in an ill condition, 
their ammunition bad, and several of their muskets 
without flints, some having nothing but pebbles in 
their stead. What could be expected from men thus 
dispirited, ill armed and exhausted with inanition and 

Colonel Davis took his station on Mayhew^s 
canal, about a mile in advance of Morgan's 
line, his left resting on the river bank. On the 
right of his detachment was stationed that of major 
Arnaud, consisting, as I have already observed, of 
one hundred men, of whom fifteen were without 
arms, and the others were armed with fowling-pieces. 


The enemy arrived in considerable force, and attack- 
ed tliat position with the troops that had landed, 
while his boats fired grape-shot at our flank. Colonel 
Davis made his troops fire two or three volleys, not 
without effect; but finding it impossible to maintain 
his ground any longer, as the enemy had already out- 
flanked him on the right, seeing himself abandoned 
by the detachment of major Arnaud, which, in spite 
of all the major's efforts to rally it, had taken to the 
wood, he determined to make his retreat on Morgan's 
lines, where he took a position on the right, along the 
canal, beyond the part that was fortified. It is to be 
observed, that owing to some cause to me unknown, 
there was a space unoccupied between the right of 
colonel Declouet, commanding the detachment of 
drafted militia, and colonel Davis's left. The troops 
under the latter's command, occupied a considerable 
front, the men were placed several feet from each 
other; and finally, on the same canal, but two hun- 
dred yards further to the right, was stationed lieute- 
nant-colonel Caldwell, also of the drafted militia, with 
a detachment of sixteen men. The disposition of 
the troops on these lines, when colonel Davis took 
his station there, was therefore as follows: The first 
regiment of militia, on the river; on its right the se- 
cond regiment; on the right of this last, the drafted 
militia of Louisiana. These corps occupied the 
whole length of the fortified line. Next to this was 
a space unguarded, extending to the left of colonel 
Davis, whose command occupied on the canal three 
hundred yards in front; and finally two hundred yards 
from his right was stationed colonel Caldwell with 


sixteen men; the whole forming a total of about six, 
hundred men, one-third of whom, as before observed, 
were ill armed. There were, mounted on those lines 
three pieces of cannon, one a twelve-pounder, com- 
inanded by midshipman Philibert, and two six- 
pounders, the one commanded by Mr. Batique, for- 
merly a captain of a vessel, the other by Mr. Hos- 
mer, both these gentlemen belonging to the first re- 
giment of militia. 

The enemy advancing rapidly by the road appo- 
site the left of the line, the artillery played on him 
with effect, and as soon as he approached near 
enough, the musketry also began to fire; which ha- 
ving obliged him to fall back, he next directed his 
attack against our right, one column moving towards 
the wood, and the other towards the centre of the line. 
It was now that was felt the effect of the bad posi- 
tion that we occupied. One of the enemy's columns 
turned our troops, at the extremity of colonel Davis's 
detachment, while the other penetrated into the un- 
guarded space between that detachment and the 
drafted militia. On this, the Kentucky militia gave 
way, nor was it possible from that moment to rally 
them, though their officers aiwl general Morgan made 
every exertion for that purpose. Confidence had 
vanished, and with it all spirit of resistance. If, in- 
stead of extending over so considerable a space, those 
troops had been formed in close column, the confu- 
sion that took place might easily have been avoided; 
and in case of a retreat's becoming necessary, it 
might have been made in good order, our troops 
still keeping up their fire. 


The enemy having turned our right, puslied on 
towards our left, which continued firing as long as 
possible; and at last the cannon was spiked, just as 
the enemy arrived on the bank of the canal. 

Commodore Patterson, who, from break of day 
had, without intermission, kept up a fire from the 
guns of the marine battery, on the enemy's troops 
advancing up the road, wished now to turn his can- 
non, in order to fire on those who had forced the 
right of the line; but the Kentucky troops and the 
drafted militia, masked the guns, and it was im- 
possible to fire without killing our own men. Seeing 
this, the commodore, enraged, I dare say, determined 
to spike his cannon, throw the ammunition into the 
river, arid go on board the Louisiana. 

The first and second regiments retreated by the 
road, and went to take a position on BoisgervHis' line, 
where a considerable number of the flying troops ral- 
lied. Jourdan's mill and bridge, and successively 
those of Flood and Cazelard were set on fire. 

A small detachment of th^ enemy advanced as far 
as the bridge of Cazelard's canal, and retired before 
evening; and in the course of the night all the ene- 
my's troops recrossed to the left bank. 

Let us now ♦ake a retrospective view of this affair. 
and let us examine the respective conduct of the corps 
of troops which defended the right bank. The task 
is painful indeed, but indispensable; for justice re- 
quires that it should be ascertained on which side lies 
the misconduct, that it may not be wrongfully im- 


The principal charges brought against the Ken- 
tuckians are, that they fled before the enemy, when 
they ought to have waited for him at the point of the 
bayonet; that they retreated in disorder, instep.d of 
keeping up their fire as they retired. To these 
charges they answer, " We were very ill armed; we 
had oeen on our feet for twenty. four hours, during 
which time we had hardly tasted food; the cartridges 
we had were too large for our pieces; on our arrival 
before day, after a hard march of several leagues partly 
through the mud, without being allowed a moment's 
rest, we were ordered to advance a mile further; 
having obeyed without a murmur, we found our- 
selves within view of the enemy, on whom we fired 
several volleys, maintaining that position, which was 
none of the best, until being outflanked on our right, 
and cannonaded with grape-shot from the barges 
on our left, we were forced to retreat on Morgan's 
line, where we were ordered to take a position 
along a canal, uncovered and extended on a front of 
three hundred yards, our left separated from the other 
troops by an unguarded space of ground, and our 
right covered by a paltry detachment of sixteen men, 
stationed two hundred yards from us; a vast plain, 
affording no manner of shelter, lying in our rear. We 
were turned on the right, and cut off" on the left. In 
so precarious a situation, how could we avoid giving 
way?" To this it may be answered, that the Ken- 
tuckians might have retreated without flying in dis- 
order. While I acknowledge that observation to be 
just, I believe that veteran troops of the line, in a less 
perilous situation, have not unfrequently been sfized 


\vith a panic, and given way; nor do I think that any 
military man of much experience will be surprised 
that militia troops, ill armed, drawn up, like Indians, 
on an immense front, seeing themselves turned and 
cut off by troops of the line, quitted ttieir post, and 
retired in disorder. 

What took place on the right bank, had made so 
much sensation in the immediate seat of war, and had 
been so variously reported abroad, to the disparage- 
ment of many brave men, that I thought it a duty 
ihcumbent on me to inquire into particulars, and trace 
the effect to its cause. I have stated facts from the 
best information. I have made observations and 
drawn inferences. The decision is left to the judg' 
ment of the reader. 

The result of the attack made by the enemy on 
the right bank, was, on his part, the loss of one hun-^ 
dred and twenty men killed or wounded, and on ours 
that of one man killed and five wounded. — (See in 
Appendix general Jackson's and commodore Patter- 
son's letters, No. 29.) 

The commander-in-ghief having received intelli- 
gence of the retreat of the troops on the right bank, 
ordered general Humbert, who had tendered his ser- 
vices as a volunteer, to cross over with a re-enforce- 
ment of four hundred men, take the com;mand of the 
troops, and repulse the enemy, cost what it might. 
This general arriving on the ground, communicated 
to general Morgan the order he had received, which 
was only verbal, owing to the urgency of the occasion. 
The latter appeared inclined to furnish general Hum- 
bert with the means of justifying the confidence with 


which g*eneral Jackson had honoured him; but there 
arose disputes concerning miHtary precedence. Other 
mihtia officers did not think it right that a French 
general, enjoying the confidence of a large proportion 
of the troops; known by a reputation which he had 
acquired, not on parade, or at reviews, but by his 
sword; holding a rank which he owed, not to the 
commission of a state governor and legislative as- 
sembly, but to which he had been raised, step by 
step, through all the inferior grades, and after having 
fought in a number of battles — those officers, I say, 
did not think it becoming, that the general to whom 
the French government had formerly confided the 
command of that expedition to Ireland, which will 
ever be recorded in the glorious pages of history, 
should be sent to remedy the faults of others, and 
repulse invaders, who, perhaps, would not, with im- 
punity, have landed on that bank, had he there com- 
manded. Happily, during this discussion, the ene- 
my, as I have observed, thought it prudent to retreat,, 
which they did that night and next morning. General 
Jackson made an address to the troops on the right 
bank, on the subject of the retreat they had made be- 
fore the enemy. That document, breathing the most 
noble sentiments of patriotism and military ardor, 
cannot fail to be read with pleasure. (See Appendix, 
No. 30.) 

In the course of the afternoon, the enemy sent a 
flag of truce, proposing a suspension of arms, for the 
purpose of burying the dead. General Jackson would 
grant a suspension for no longer than two hours, and 
only for the left bank; military operations being to 


cTontinu'fe on the right bank as usual. Fla«;s of truce 
were reciprocally passing until near four in the after- 
noon. At that hour, our batteries again began to 
cannonade those of the enemy, and our lieavy artille- 
ry fired on the buildings of Laronde's and Bienvcnu's 
plantations, where some groups of soldiers were 
seen. From one of tlie deserters who came over in 
the evening of the 8th we learned, that the. enemy's 
loss amounted to three thousand men, ahd that the 
commander-in-chief was killed, and generals Gibbs 
and Keane wounded. General Lambert, on whotn 
the command had devolved, was lately arrived, and 
was unknown to this deserter, who could not tell who 
commanded the British army.* 

* In the evening pf the 8th of January, the wouncled priV 
sonars were conveyed to New Orleans, a'.ul lodged in the bar- 
racks. The hospitals of the city being- occupied by our sick 
and the few wounded amongst us, accommodations had not been 
prepared for so great a number of those of the enemy. Captain 
Dubuys, commander of all the veteran corps and of the city at 
that period, represented to the citizens the v/ants of those unfor- 
tonate victims of British ambition, and immediately one hundred 
and forty matresses, a great number of pillows, with a large 
quantity of lint a^d old linen for dires^ing their wounds, were 
procured by contributions from all quarters, at a moment when 
such articles were extremely scarce ip New OrleaUs, where not 
a truss of straw could be purchased. 

Until the hospital directors could establish an hospital for 
those wounded n>en, whose number amounted to nearly four 
hundred, all kinds of refreshments and every attendance that 
their situation required, were liberally provided for them by a 
number of citizens. Several women of colour offered their 
services, and were employed intending them, without any con!- 
pensation ' the pleasure of relievin*.'; H".?[Vvii>c^ hnipaiiit', . 

A n 


On the 9th, by break of day, the artillery again 
began to fire at intervals, which greatly annoyed the 
enemy, who about ten o'clock sent out another flag 
of truce. The letter atldressed to general Jackson, 
signed *' Lambert,''^ but without mentioning that he 
who bore that name was now commander-in-chief of 
the British forces; an avowal which he wished to 
avoid, to conceal from us, as long as possible, the 
death of general Packenham, of which we were in- 
formed on the evening of the 8th. General Jackson 
replied, that he was ready to treat with the comman- 
der-in-chief of the British army, and that it was to 
him matter of surprise that the letter he had received 
was not directly from him. On this, general Lam- 
bert could not decline answering that he was com- 
fnander- in- chief; and then general Jackson granted 
the suspension of arms required. The bodies of all 
the British who had died on our side, were delivered 
to the enemy, on the advanced line of our posts and 
his; they were received by British officers and buried. 
On beholding the remains of the three officers killed 
on the redoubt, and particularly those of colonel Re- 
nee, the British soldiers could not forbear to manifest 
strong emotions of adm.iration and grief, paying the 
tribute of their tears to tlie brave man whom they 
perhaps had often followed in the road to glory, to a 
father (for so they called him) who probably had of- 
ten relieved their wants. He must have been an offi- 
cer of no common merit, whose death excited such 
regret! If he did not live long enough to acquire 
great renown in arms, if the thread of his life was se- 
vered before he had time to run a glorious career, at 


least all of him is not inclosed in the tomb; his me- 
mory survives in the grateful hearts bf those who ex- 
perienced his benevolence. 

On the 10th and 11th nothing occurred worthy 
of remark- Our troops on the right bank re-occu- 
pied their former position on Jourdan's plantation, 
where the engineer Lafon commenced a line of de- 
fence) which may be seen on the map, plate No. 5. 
In the night of the 11 th there was heard the report 
of a very brisk cannonade, which was thought to 
come from fort St. Philip at Plaquemine, and the 
next evening we learned that the enemy was bom- 
barding that fort. Our artillery continued to annoy 
the enemy to such a degree, that the deserters report- 
ed that the troops had no rest, and that all the out-posts 
had been doubled, as an attack was apprehended. 
On the 12th, fifty prisoners were brought in from 
Chef-Menteur. We every day continued to cannon- 
ade the enemy; the balls of our heavy pieces, as also 
of our shells, fell in his very camp, and greatly an- 
noyed the men. 

Several officers on our lines, who had long fol- 
lowed the military profession, perceived on the 15th 
some movements in the enemy's camp, which they 
thpught indicated a retreat, and about the same timd 
a deserter assured us that a retreat would shortly take 

On the 17th of January, in consequence of pro> 
posals made by general Lambert to general Jackson, 
the latter appointed his aid-de-camp, colonel Edward 
Livingston, to confer with major Smith, military se- 
cretary to general Lambert, between the lines of the 

18j0 historical memoia. 

out-posts, for the purpose of drawing up a cartel of 
prisoners; and these officers concluded upon one 
which was mutually approved of by the commander- 
in-chief of each army. (See that document, Appen- 
dix, No. 31.) 

Next day, towards noon, conformably to the arti- 
cles -of the cartel, the enemy delivered to us, on the line, 
«ixty-three of our prisoners; the greater part of whom 
had been taken in the affair of the 23d of December. 
A guard of honour, composed of a detachment of the 
company of carabineers, of Plauche's battalion, com- 
manded by captain Roche, with a detachment of cap- 
tain Beale's riflemen, preceded by the music of the 
battalion, went to receive and escort them into camp. 
Several of them were not yet out of danger from 
their wounds. Their return to their friends and ac- 
quaintances was the more grateful to all, as, until that 
moment, it was feared that many of them were among 
the dead. 

It recurred to Dr. R. Morrell and Mr. S. Shields^ 
on their return from the British fleet, that a few well- 
armed boats could annoy the enemy on Lake Borgne. 
This suggestion was made to commodore Patterson 
on the morning of the 15th January, the period of 
their arrival in town. The commodore, after various 
inquiries concerning thp description and force of the 
boats employed by the enemy on the lake, authorized 
those gentlemen to obtain volunteers for the expedi- 
tion.* On the 19th they proceeded from the bayou 

* I preserve in this narrative the form and nearly the words 
of the journal communicated to me by Dr. Morrell. 


St. John in four boats (one of which carried a twelve 
pound c'arronade, the others beini^ small) and thirty- 
four men, officers iucluded. Next morning they 
were joined at fort Petites Coquiiles by two small 
boats and nineteen men from captain Newman's 
command. This day they remained at the fort 
to fit masts and sails to the boats, and to dis- 
tribute the men among the boats so as to give 
to each a few sailors; for it must be recollected 
the greater part of their number were soldiers 
and along-shore men. On the morning of the 
20th they proceeded to pass Chef-Menteur, and ar- 
rived at the militia camp, situate about three miles 
from lake Borgne, at 2 P. M. Here they recon- 
noitred the enemy's boats, passing and re-passing 
from their army to their fleet. At 9 P. M. they got 
under weigh with muffled oars: at 10 were in the 
lake, and took a course along the land towards the 
Bigolets. At about 1 1 P. M. a large boat was dis- 
covered at anchor; immediately all hands pulled up 
to her as fast as possible. She was boarded on the 
bow, stern and centre nearly at the same moment. 
She surrendered after very little resistance; and had 
on board thirty-eight dragoons, a lieutenant and cor- 
net, and a master's mate and thirteen seamen. All 
returned to the encampment, where the prisoners 
were delivered to captain Collins, commanding offi- 
cer. At 1 A. M. another sortie was made, and row- 
ed about the lake till nearly day-light, but nothing 
could be found — 21st, laid by. 22d, at 4 A. M. 
went out again, and steered towards the Kigolets: at 
7 A^ M. they captured a transport boat; at half past 


8 captured a transport schooner of one hundred and 
ten tons, bound to the army, having only a few casks 
of rum on board, shaping her course for the Rigo- 
lets; soon after captured two lanches. Before 10 
A. M. captured three more boats; and at 11 reach- 
ed the mouth of the Rigolets with some of the 
small boats. When unfortunately Mr. Shields was 
obliged to set fire to the schooner, then about two 
jTrtiles off the Rigolets, the bar of which would not 
permit her to pass. The wind came out strong 
against us, the tide was also running out rapidly — 
and in truth boats from the schooner had hardly 
reached the shore, when we perceived boats stand- 
ing towards her from all directions. The smoke and 
blaze was very great. Our situation was now very 
alarming, having sixty-three prisoners and six prize- 
boats to guard, with a small force consisting of fifty- 
three men, inclusive, and this unhappily divided; 
for the wind and tide were so strong, that the largest 
boat, carrying the only piece of ordnance, was barely 
able to make the eastern shore of the Rigolets, where- 
as the others, as well as all the prizes except one, 
were on the western shore. The British boats, after 
vainly attempting to board the burning schooner, ap- 
proached the shore, to ascertain the character of our 
men. When they discovered them to be Americans, 
they sent three boats laden with troops, on their way 
from the army to the fleet, to land about a mile and 
a half above them. A party of twenty men, led l:^' 
Dr. Morrell, marclicd to meet them, and concealed 
themselves in the high grass, near where the first boat 
landed,. As soon as the enemy began to land, a fire 
was comn.enced on them: the men being stationed a 


few yards apart, presented the appearance of a long 
line. The enemy continued to land, but not so ra- 
pidly; a second fire was given which they instantly 
returned — the other boats came up, but did not land. 
Our men fired a third round, and they embarked in 
great confusion, and rowed oft. Our detachment 
returned to the body of our party, wlicre they arrived 
just in time to beiit off three other boats that came in, 
apparently to cut out two of the prizes. Soon after 
they saw two boats standing for the lanch on the 
opposite side, and apprehended she must be taken 
from the appearance of the enemy's boats; but hap- 
pily these fears were soon dispelled — sailing-master 
Daily throwing three shot so near them, tliat they 
hauled off without eftecting a landing. 

It was now nearly 4 P. M. — our men much fa- 
tigued, the prisoners troublesome, the wind and cur- 
rent so strong as to make it impossible to get through 
the Rigolets, and a gun-boat could be seen beating up 
for the expedition. It was determined that Dr. Mor- 
rell should go to fort Petites Coquilles (nine miles off) 
for a re-enforcement. Accordingly, he proceeded in 
a well-manned gig, and at 9 P. M. he reached the 
fort. Captain Newman promptly granted his request, 
and immediately embarked forty of his men; but be- 
fore they could arrive, Mr. Shields thought proper to 
discharge, on parole,* all the prisoners on the west- 
ern side. With the greatest exertion he was able to 
join the lanch on the other side and reach the fort 
next day at 2 o'clock, where twenty-one prisoners 
were delivered to captain Newman. 

* The enemy refused to consider this parole as valid 


On thi morning of the 19th, it was perceived that 
the enemy had evacuated, not a single man appearing. 
The commander-in-chief had already given orders to 
an officer to go out with a reconnoitring party, in or- 
der to ascertain whether the apparent evacuation were 
not a stratagem, when a doctor belonging to the Bri- 
tish army arrived at our lines, with a letter from ge- 
neral Lambert, informing general Jackson that the 
army under liis command had evacuated its position 
on the Mississippi, and had, for the present, relin- 
quished every undertaking against New Orleans and 
its vicinity. General Lambert recommended to the 
humanity and generosity of general Jackson, eighty 
wounded men, of whom three were officers, whom he 
was obliged to leave behind, as their wounds did not 
admit of their being removed. One of these officers^ 
lieutenant Darcy, had had his two legs carried off by 
a shell, at the moment when, after having been on 
guard for several days successively, while, as we have 
observed, the enemy hourly appreliended an attack, 
he was taking some repose, stretched on the ground, 
at the entrance of his bivouac. 

Doctor Kerr, surgeon-general of our arfny, was 
immediately sent with the British doctor to Jumon- 
ville's plantatipn, where was the principal hospital of 
the British army, to visit the wounded, and make 
suitable arrans:ements for their accommodation. 

Shortly after, general Jackson ordered colonel 
Hinds, commanding the cavalry, to repair with all 
speed to Villere's canal, and proceed along it as fur 
as possible, harassing the enemy on his retreat. Ma- 


ibr Lacoste was ordered to form a detachment of such 
of the native Louisianians in his battalion as were ex- 
pert hunters, to scour the woods in the vicinity of 
Viilere's canal, and pick up the stragglers of the 
enemy's army, as also such negroes as might hav(i 
escaped from them; for, as might be expected, 
the British had carried oft' all the negroes of the 
plantations occupied by their troops. 

General Jackson, accompanied by the officers of 
his staff, went to view the British camp. They had 
left in their dift'erent batteries fourteen pieces of can- 
non and carronades, the former spiked, or with a 
trunnion broken off, and the latter with their pom- 
millions also broken off, so as to be no longer service- 
able, and also a quantity of cannon balls. The general 
next proceeded to visit the wounded officers, whom 
he assured that they should receive every kind of 
assistance and attention that could tend to promote 
their cure. A few days after, all the wounded were 
conveyed in the steam-boat to NeW Orleans, where 
they were attended by the three surgeons who had 
been left by general Lambert for that purpose. Ail 
the buildings, as also the ground, of Chalmette's, 
Bienvenu's, and Laronde's plailtations, attested that 
our artillery must have been very destructive tp the 
enemy. Chalmette's sugar-house, and the dwelling- 
house of Bienvenu, were perforated in numerous 
places, by the balls of the marine battciy on the right 

Colonel Laronde, accompanied by colonel Kem- 
per, and a detachment of major Hinds^s cavalry, went 
in pursuit of the enemy through the prairie. They 

B b 


took four prisoners beyond the redoubt erected at the 
forks of bayou Mazant and Villere's canal, and ad- 
vanced within a mile of the forks of bayou Bienvenu, 
where, concluding from the confused sound of voices 
they heard, that the enemy must be very numerous, 
and that it would be imprudent to advance any far- 
ther, ihey returned and made their report to general 

It appears that, immediately after the affair of 
the 8th of January, the enemy had determined to 
evacuate, and that he was desirous of proceed- 
ing as far as possible by land. For that purpose 
he threw bridges over all the small bayous and 
streams that fall into bayou Mazant by the right 
bank, and at the confluence of bayou Jumonvillc 
he had constructed a bridge of boats. The route 
still continued on the right bank, as far as the 
confluence of the bayous Mazant and Bienvenu, 
where another bridge of boats transferred it to the 
opposite bank, along which it continued as far as the 
beginning of a long elbow, where it took a direction 
in a straight line across the prairie, to the Catalonian 
village. (See plate No. 5.) 

At the confluence of bayou Jumonvillc, on the 
right, the enemy in his retreat had thrown up an 
epaulement to cover the passage; the same had been 
done at the confluence of the bayous Bienvenu and 
Mazant; and at the Catalonian village he had com- 
menced a large inclosure, capable of containing one 
thousand men, but had left it unfinished. 

General Jackson received from major Overton, 
commanding at fort St. Philip, a letter dated the 


18th in the morning, announcing to him that the ene- 
my had discontinued to throw shells into the fort, 
and that his vessels had descended the river before 
day. General Jackson wrote on the same day to the 
secretary of war, informing him of the double retreat 
of the enemy. (See Appendix, No. 32.) 

So early as the 17th, general Jackson had given 
to governor Claiborne the command on the right 
bank, and had ordered general Morgan to prepare to 
advance with six hundred men, in order to harass the 
enemy on his retreat, which was not then expected to 
be so prompt and clandestine. 

The general requested the reverend abbe Du- 
bourg, apostolical prefect for the state of Louisiana, 
to appoint a day of public prayer and thanksgiving, 
for the signal favour it had pleased the Supreme Being 
to show to our country, in delivering it from its ene- 
mies. (See the general's letter, No. 32.) 

We will now proceed to the relation of the bom- 
bardment of fort St. Philip by the British; but it 
seems proper that it be preceded by a short descrip- 
tion of the fort, and of the means that had been taken 
to put it in the best possible state of defence. 



Fort St. Philip is an irregular work, the body 
a parallelogram. Approaches to it are nearly imprac- 
ticable, being surrounded by an impassable morass, 
a ditch, and in addition on the east by the bayou 
Mardi-Gras, forty-five yards wide. In the fort were 
mounted twenty-nine twenty-four-pounders, a thir- 


tcen-inch mortar, an eight and five-and-half-incb 
howitzer and a six -pounder, and in the covert- way 
two thirty-two pounders, mounted on a level with 
the water. 

During the summer of 1814, every effort was 
made by the garrison of fort St. Philip, consisting of 
two incomplete companies of artillery, to place that 
post in the state of defence corresponding with its 
importance as the key of Louisiana, commanding the 
pass of the Mississippi. In October, the cannon ha- 
ving been remounted, the gun-carriages repaired, a 
signal station established three miles below the fort, 
alterations made in some of the batteries so as to af- 
ford security to the artillerists in case of an attack, 
and additional works erected to protect the rear of the 
fort, and the season approaching when an attack from 
the enemy might be expected, it was suggested that 
if a battery was placed on the opposite side of the ri-^ 
ver, thirtj^-.two-pounders mounted in the covert- way, 
and a thirteen-incW mortar fixed in the fort, the de- 
fence of the pass would be then complete, supposing 
the old buildings destroyed, and the requisite num- 
ber of troops, and quantity of ordnance stores, &c. Sec. 
to be furnished, 

In the month of November, a company of infan- 
try re-enforced the garrison, and about the last of that 
month the inspector-general descended the river to 
the Balize, and caused a truard to be stationed there. 
Early in December, general Jackson visited the 
fort, and ordered the battery on the opposite side of 
the river to be immediately commenced, and that the 
thirty-two pounders and thirteen-inch mortar should 
be mounted as before mentioned. 


The mouth of the river was now more closely 
blockaded than before, and the guard stationed at the 
Balize was surprised and taken by the boats of the 
Herald sloop of war. The British at this time daily 
landed at the Balize, at which place a few of our 
pilots still remained. A re-enforcement arrived at 
the garrison of another company of the 7th infantry, 
antl a company of volunteer free men of colour. 

About the 15th December, major Overton of the 
rifle corps was placed in command, captain Woll- 
stonecraft, of the artillery, who had charge of the post 
since the month of May, being ordered to New Or- 
leans. On the 17th, the arrival of the enemy in our 
waters was ascertained, and a few davs afterwards the 
fate of the gun-boats was known. From the 23d every 
effort was made to repel the attack which it was sup- 
posed would shortly be made. The interior was 
disencumbered of the rubbish of the barracks which 
had been torn down, the main magazine was disguis- 
ed and secured by a covering of timber and earth, 
small magazines were erected, and covers made for 
the troops, as a security from the fragments of shells, 
should a bombardment take place, and the garrison 
were constantly on fatigue (under charge of captain 
Wollstonecraft, who had been ordered back from 
New Orleans,) for the above purpose, and in mount- 
ing the thirty-two-pounders in the covert-way, and 
the thirteen-inch mortar on the Spanish bastion, un 
til the 3d of January. The 24th December, cap 
tain Lagan's company arrived. The battery on the 
opposite side, which was commenced on the 15th 
December, progressed but slowly, as many of the 


carpenters, negroes, and the superintendant of artifi- 
cers, had ascended the river on the firstnoticc of the 
arrival of the enemy. The cannon intended for that 
fort were taken over the river to fort St. PhiHp as a 
place of security, being useless in the then unfinish- 
ed state of the works. The carpenters having been 
sent back from the 3d until the 8th January, the 
Works on the new battery were carried on with unre- 
mitted exertion, and when our look-out boat return- 
ed with information on that day of the approach of the 
enemy, but a few days more labour were required for 
the completing of the gun-carriages and the work it- 
self. On the 8th the gun-boat No. 65 warped into 
the bayou, and took post so as to flank the rear of the 
fort. To prevent the unfinished battery on the oppo- 
site side, which we were obliged to abandon, from 
being of any use to the enemy, every material capa- 
ble of being removed was brought over the river. 
Our attention was solely occupied on our defence, 
and we anxiously awaited the approach of the enemy, 
which was announced to us by signal on the morn- 
ing of the 9th. About 12 o'clock they hove in sight, 
when the furnace for hot shot was lighted, and the 
troops stationed at the posts before assigned to them 
in case of such an event taking place. 

The signal station was abandoned about 1 o'clock, 
and, in the hurry to escape, the guard omitted to fire 
the buildings and lime-kiln, which they had been or- 
dered to destroy, and at 2 o'clock that position was 
occupied by the enem}'-, by a force landed from their 


The garrison was composed of the following 
companies, viz. ^ 

Field and Staff, - . - - - 2 

Captain Wollstonecraft's Artillery, - 64 

Murray's Artillery, - - - 50 

Detachment of captain Walsh's Artillery, 3 

Captain Broutin's 7th regt. Infantry, - 78 

Waides's 7th Infantry, - - 85 

Lagan's Louisiana Volunteers, 54 

Listeau's Free men of Colour, 30 


making, with the crew of gun-boat No. 65, four 
hundred and six effective men. A detachment of 
lieutenant Cunningham's sailors, under the direction 
of that officer, had charge of two thirty-tvvo-pound- 
ers mounted in the covert- way. Captain Walsh 
commanded the right bastion: the centre bastion, on 
which an eight-inch howitzer and a thirteen-inch 
mortar were mounted, was commanded by captain 
Wollstonecraft; and the left battery was commanded 
by captain Murray. The infantry and volunteers not 
attached to the cannon, were stationed in the rear of 
the curtain, and otherwise posted under the command 
of captain Broutin, so as to be able to support the 
troops on the batteries, and to act as occasion might 
require. Captain Lagau's two lieutenants and a party 
of his company of Louisiana volunteers wtre attach- 
ed to the artillerists on the centre and left batteries. 
At 3 o'clock the enemy advanced several boats to 
sound opposite a point about one mile and a half 
from the fort, which had been cleared of its timber 


some time before, by order of the general. The 
guns of the left battery and those of the water batte- 
ries were opened on them, and they retreated. Ha- 
ving ascertained the distance to which our shot reach- 
ed their vessels, consisting of a sloop of war, a gun- 
brig, a schooner and two bomb-vessels, they came to 
anchor out of the range of our shot, at the distance 
of 3960 yards; the bomb-vessels formed broadside to 
the fort, behind the point of land, a little in advance 
6f the men of war, hoisted their colours, and com- 
meiiced the action. The first shell from the enemy 
fell short, but the next burst over the interior of the 
fort. All that day and night the firing continued, 
with only short intervals, generally a shell every two 
minutes. No injury was done to the men or works, 
36 the shells, from the nature of the soil, sunk in the 
ground, without bursting, or burst under the ground, 
at so great a depth as to produce no other effect than 
a tremulous motion. In the night several boats ap- 
proached near the fort, and came so close as to allow 
us almost distinctly to hear their crews conversing. 
They fired several rounds of gi-ape and round-shot 
over and into the fort. The wind blowing fair up 
the river, and in gusts during the night, this approach 
of the enemy was only considered as an effort to di- 
vert our attention from their vessels, which might at- 
tempt to pass under our smoke. Their attack was 
therefore received in silence, and our attention direct- 
ed to the vessels alone. Finding we were not to be 
moved by this strati^gem, they retired, and during 
the rest of the night fired a few shells from their 
!)oats stationed on both sides of the river. On tbr 


10th the bombardment was continued with the same 
vivacity as on the former day, except that a cessation 
occurrejd of about two hours at noon and at sun- 
down, which respite was daily granted us during the 
remainder of the siege. Occasionally on these two 
days a fire was opened from the batteries of the fort, 
but the shot fell short. On the third day of the bom- 
bardment several pieces of shells struck the flag- staff 
and in one instance nailed the halyards to the mast, 
in another severed them in the midst of the fire; the 
topmast was lowered down, and it took nearly an 
hour to ha e the flag replaced on the mast. This 
was done by a sailor who had the courage to stand on 
the cross-trees, exposed as a mark; and though the fire 
from the enemy was very brisk and well-directed, 
and several shells burst over his head, he escaped 
unhurt. The evening of this day the enemy direct- 
ed their fire with great exactness at the contractor's 
store, supposing it to be the main magazine. Several 
whole shells passed through this building, and two 
burst in it, killing one man and wounding another; 
but as their spies had only described the magazine in 
the state in which it was a few days before the attack 
commenced, they were deceived; and by making 
every effort to lodge shells in the before- mentioned 
building, which had the appearance of the powder- 
magazine in its former state, the magazine itself es- 
caped, having only been struck two or three times by 
fragments of shells. 

At four this evening the garrison opened an ani- 
mated fire for a quarter of an hour on the bomb ves- 
sels from all the guns that could bear on them, but 

r c 


apparently without any other effect than deranging 
their fire; it served however, to animate our men, 
showed the quickness and precision with which our 
guns were pointed and served, and gave a foretaste 
of what might be expected should the enemy attempt 
to pass up. 

On the 12th, 13th and 14th the firing continued 
with the usual intervals, doing comparatively little 
injury: the enemy, probably aware of the incffica- 
cy of their shells when discharged so as to alight 
Avhole in the interior of the works, now arranged 
their fuses, so that the shells burst in the air over 
the worksj and scattered fragments therein in every 
direction. The evening of the 14th a man was kill- 
ed on the right battery, another slightly wounded, a 
man on the centre battery lost his leg, and several of 
the gun-carriages were materially injured; on the right 
and centre batteries, the thirty-two-pounder in the 
covert way, in the angle of the Spanish bastion, was 
struck five times, and for upwards of an hour was 
rendered unserviceable. Several shells entered the 
blacksmith's shop; one burst near the main maga- 
zine, and another passed into the ditch through the 
magazine in the covert way. 

This evening we were employed in carrying into 
the fort all the timber that we could collect, and in 
forming covers between the guns, so as effectually 
to secure the men on the batteries from the fragments 
of shells, and to shelter them from the rain, which 
had fallen, with little intermission, from the com- 
mencement of the siege. This work was finished on 
the evening of the 15th, and it is almost incredible 


that during all this time, though the men were more 
exposed than before, passing in and out of the fort in 
parties, after materials, no one was hurt. At this 
time the interior of the fort was nearly a pond of wa- 
ter; the tents stood, many of them, torn by shells, but 
unoccupied. The small magazines were also strength- 
ened, and an additional quantity of earth thrown on 
them. This evening several boats arrived, with am- 
munition from New Orleans, fuses for the thirteen- 
inch mortars, &c. &.c. The 16th was occupied in 
conveying the powder and ordnance stores from about 
a mile above the fort into the magazine; and the 
weather being fair, we were comparatively comfort- 
able, and in high spirits, having now the means of 
annoying the enemy. On the morning of the 17th, 
the fire from the enemy was not as animated as usual; 
in the evening we returned their fire from our mortar 
with considerable effect, as far as we were able to 
judge, and for several hours they threw shells more 
frequently than before. At night one of our shells 
struck one of their bomb vessels; we distinctly 
heard the shock, and for near five minutes the fire 
from one of the vessels was discontinued. The firing 
continued during the night of the 17th; several shelly 
Avere lodged in the parapet; one burst passing through 
the ditch into the angle of the centre bastion. This 
was the last shot we received: a iitde before day the 
enemy got under way, and at daylight we could per. 
ceive the sternmost vessel descending the river. 

From three o'clock on the 9th until daylight on 
the 18th the bombardment continued with very little 
intermission. During that time the enemv threw 


more than one thousand shells and carcases, expend- 
ed upwards of seventy tons of shells, and more than 
twenty thousand pounds of powder, besides small 
shells, and round and grape-shot from their boats. Du- 
ring the whole of this bombardment, we lost no more 
than two men, one of whom was killed on the right 
battery, and the other in the contractor's store. Our 
wounded were two men on the right, and three on the 
centre battery, one in the store, and one in the inte- 
rior of the garrison. 

The troops were on the battery nine days, five 
days without cover; and exposed to the rain and wea- 
ther which was extremely cold. They cannot be deni- 
ed praise for the unremitted exertion they made to re- 
ceive the enemy, the fatigues they underwent during 
the bombardment, which vv^as almost incessant, and 
the patience they exercised thus exposed. Perhaps the 
duration of the siege would not have been so long, 
had the fuses, sent from the northward, been of a -^ 
good quality; for several days the mortar, with which 
only there was any probability of reaching the ene- 
my, was entirely or nearly useless. From the eifect 
produced after good fuses arrived (for there was no 
materials in the garrison to make any) it may perhaps 
be surmised that the enemy's vessels would have 
found it unsafe to have remained for so long a time 
in the station they occupied within the range of our 

From the day the attack commenced until it con- 
cluded, we were constantly employed in preparing 
grape and canister-shot from bar lead, making up 
fixed ammunition, repairing gun-carriages, making 


implements, &c. Sec. and we were, in fact, in a much 
better state of defence, and better provided when it 
terminated, than at its commencement. 

After the enemy left us we had time to examine 
the interior, and the ground in the neighbourhood of 
the fort; upwards of one hundred shells had fallen and 
buried themselves within the fort; the surrounding 
buildings, workshops, stores, and the hospital, were 
almost in ruins, and the ground for half a mile 
around, was literally torn up in every direction. (See 
Appendix, No. 34.) 

On the 20th of January the general made the 
necessary dispositions for the protection of the most 
vulnerable parts of the country, in case the ene- 
my should attempt a new attack. The 2d regiment 
of militia was ordered to encamp on Villere's plan- 
tation, while a detachment of the Kentucky troops 
encamped on that of Lacoste; and on the 21st, all the 
troops stationed on Jackson's lines, except the 7th 
regiment, which was left to guard them, returned to 

Their arrival was a triumph; the non-combatant 
part of the population of New Orleans, that is, the 
aged, the infirm, the matrons, daughters and children, 
all went out to meet their deliverers, to receive with 
felicitations the saviours of their country. Every 
countenance was expressive of gratitude — joy spar- 
kled in every feature, on beholding fathers, brothers, 
husbands, sons, who had so recently saved the lives, 
fortunes, and honour of their families, by repelling an 
enemy come to conquer and subjugate the country. 


Nor were the sensations of the brave soldiers less live- 
ly, on seeing themselves aljout to be compensated for 
all their sufferings by the enjoyment of domestic felici- 
ty. They once more embraced the objects of their ten- 
derest affections, were hailed by them as their saviours 
and deliverers, and felt conscious that they had deserved 
the honourable title. How light, how trifling, how in- 
considerable did their past toils and dangers appear to 
them at this glorious moment! All was forgotten, all 
painful recollections gave way to the most exquisite 
sensations of inexpressible joy. 

On the 22d, general Jackson gave orders for erect- 
ing a strong battery at the forks of the bayous Bien- 
venu and Mazant. For that purpose, colonel La- 
ronde was ordered to take the command of two hun- 
dred Kentuckians from camp Dupre, where general 
Thomas's division had been stationed some days be- 
fore, and proceed to reconnoitre the enemy. Colonel 
Laronde came up with the British advanced-posts at 
the forks of the bavous Jumonville and Mazant, 
where they had thrown up intrenchments, and had a 
strong detachment. Two large barges, and four small 
ones, were stationed opposite the intrenchments in the 
bayou; these barges fired twenty discharges of can- 
non, loaded with grape-shot, against colonel Laronde's 
detachment, as soon as it approached within can- 
non-shot; but without any effect. After having recon- 
noitred the enemy, finding it impossible to cross over 
for want of boats, bayou Jumonville being in that 
place sixty yards wide, colonel Laronde retired. 

The 23d of January having been appointed as a 
day of thanksgiving, for the interposition of Provi- 


dence, on which Te Deum was to be sung, every 
preparation was made to render the festival worthy 
the occasion. A temporary triumphal arch was erect- 
ed in the middle of the grand square, opposite the 
principal entrance of the cathedral. The different 
uniform companies of Plauche's battalion lined both 
sides of the way, from the entrance of the square 
towards the river, to the church. The balconies 
and windows of the city hall, the parsonage house, 
and all the adjacent buildings, were filled with spec- 
tators. The whole square, and the streets leading to 
it, were thronged with people. The triumphal arch 
was supported by six columns. Amongst tliose on 
the right was a young lady representing Justice, and 
on the left another representing Liberty. Under the 
arch were two young children, each on a pedestal, 
holding a crown of laurel. From the arch, in 
the middle of the square to the church, at proper 
intervals, were ranged young ladies, representing the 
different states and territories composing the Ameri- 
can union, all dressed in white, covered with transpa- 
rent veils, and vvearing a silver star on their fore- 
lK;ads. Each of these young ladies held in her right 
hand a flag, inscribed with the name of the stale she 
represented, and in her left a basket trimmed with 
blue ribands, and full of flowers. Behind each was 
a shield suspended on a lance stuck in the ground, 
inscribed with the name of a state or territory. The 
intervals had been so calculated, that the shields, 
linked together with verdant festoons, occupied the 
distance from the triumphal arch to the church. 


General Jackson, accompanied by the officers of 
his staff, arrived at the entrance of the square, where 
he was requested to proceed to the church by the 
walk prepared for him. As he passed under the 
arch, he received the crowns of laurel from the two 
children, and was congratulated in an address spoken 
by miss Kerr, who represented the state of Loui- 
siana. The general then proceeded to the church, 
amidst the salutations of the young ladies representing 
the different states, who strewed his passage with 
flowers. At the entrance of the church he was receiv- 
ed by the abbe Dubourg, who addressed him in a 
speech suitable to the occasion, and conducted him 
to a seat prepared for him near the altar. Te Deum 
was chaunted with impressive solemnity, and soon af- 
ter a guard of honour attended the general to his quar- 
ters, and in the evening the town, with its suburbs, 
was splendidly illuminated. (See the abbe Dubourg's 
speech, and the general's reply, in the Appendix, 
No. 35.) 

Thus, in the space of a little less than one month, 
was terminated a campaign, ever memorable in the an- 
nals of America. On the 23d of December the enemy 
succeeded so far as to take a position on the Mississip- 
pi, and on the 19th of January he had already disappear- 
ed, leaving behind him the dead bodies of some thou- 
sands of private soldiers, and of many officers of dis- 
tinction, and carrying with him the shame of having 
miscarried in an undertaking' so easy to accomplish, 
as he at ftrst believed; but, as he was taught by thirty 
day's experience, really too arduous to be attempted 
with any prospect of success. 


The British troops found that, notwithstanding 
the appalling renown which they thought had preced- 
ed their expedition to Louisiana, and the striking ef- 
fect they expected would be produced by the very title 
of heroes of Wellington, which several regiments had 
vauntingly assumed, they could make no impression, 
even with a great superiority of numbers, on undisci- 
plined militia, not one- fourth of whom had ever before 
seen a camp, or had any idea of the art of war. The 
whole success, indeed, of this boasted expedition, was 
the occupation of a tongue of land, beyond which the 
British army never durst advance, and which it left 
drenched with its bravest blood. 

During their stay on the banks of the Mississippi, 
the British made' several excursions into the settle- 
ment of Terre-aux-Bceufs, and even as far as Mr. 
Benjamin Morgan's plantation, two miles below the 
junction of the road on the Mississippi, with that of 
Terre-aux-BcEufs. They carried off tlie cattle of all 
the plantations, giving to the planters, in payment, 
one-halfor two-thirds of their value, and that seldom 
in money, but generally in draughts on the commissa- 
ry.general of their army. The youngest son of gene- 
ral Villere, a youth about the age of fourteen, had 
been detained by them on his fluher's plantation, from 
theh- first arrival. On the eve of their evacuation, 
which he did not perceive till pretty late next day, 
he received in payment of about eighty head of catdg 
consumed on the plantation, the sum of five hundred 
dollars in specie, which he returned, instead of three 
thousand dollars, which was their value at a low price. 
They also, as I have already observed, carried off all 




the negroes of the plantations they had occupied. 
There were doubtless some amongst these, who were 
very willing to follow them; but by far the greater 
part, particularly the women, were decoyed, or carri- 
ed off by force. 

It is an undeniable fact, that during the whole 
campaign, the negroes were employed by the British 
in working for the army in general, or as servants to 
officers. I will not speak of tl:^^ pillage of the differ- 
ent houses they occupied, that being an evil insepara- 
ble from the presence of an army in all countries; but 
here, as in Virginia, and on the shores of the Chesa- 
peake, the conduct of the British with respect to ne- 
groes cannot be palliated. After having repeatedly 
declared their intention to restore them to their own- 
ers, on their coming to claim them; after having 
gained time by specious pretences, the result was that 
they carried almost all the negroes off with them. Yet 
those negroes were private property, and without them 
their masters could not cultivate their plantations. 
Thus, several planters are ruined by the loss of their 
slaves, taken from them by the British, and are 
obliged to let their lands lie fallow. 

During the night of the 25th of January, colonel 
Hinds with his troop of horse, general Humbert and 
the engineer Latrobe, went once more to reconnoitre 
the enemy's position, which they found he had not 
changed. Colonel Hinds had one man killed and 
two wounded, by the cannon of the enemy; and find- 
ing it impossible to execute, for the present, the ob- 
ject he had in view, which was to erect a battery on 
bayou Bienvenu, in the place best calculated to op- 



pose the enemy, should he be disposed to revisit the 
Mississippi, he returned with his detachment. Gene- 
ral Jackson, aware that the enemy was still master of 
bayou Bienvenu, on which he had fortified himself, as 
also of lake Borgne, which enabled him still to attack 
many parts of the country, and it being impossible to 
discover against what quarter he might direct his 
forces, had several days before, ordered a redoubt to 
be constructed on Philippon's canal, another on Re- 
gio's, at Terre-aux-Boeufs, and a third on bayou Boeuf 
at the cut of lake Lery, the communication of whic}^ 
with the sea, bv the river aux Chenes, though very 
long and difficult, might still admit of flat boats. Lieu- 
tenant Bosquez of the artillery, had likewise been or- 
dered to continue the construction of the redoubt be- 
gun on the river of Chef-Menteur, at the confluence 
of bayou Sauvage; the number of troops encamped 
on Lafon's plantation, had been augmented with co- 
lonel Nelson's regiment of volunteers, from the Mis- 
sissippi territory, four hundred and fifty men strong. 
Major Reynolds occupied the post of the Temple, 
at Barataria, and a strong detachment was stationed 
down the river la Fourche, and another post establish- 
ed at Tigouyon could give notice of the approach of 
the enemy in time to oppose his landing, which he could 
not attempt, until he had first penetrated into lake Pont- 
chartrain, by forcing the passage of Chef-Menteur, or 
that of the Rigolets, defended by the fort of Petites 
Coquilles. The troops were distributed agreeably to 
these arrangements: those of generals Coffee and Car- 
rol, had returned to their encampment on Avart's 
plantation, four miles above New Orleans; the Ken 


tuckians were encamped on Dupre's line; Plauche*s 
battalion, the 44th regiment, and major Daquin's bat- 
talion of men of colour, had returned to town; that of 
major Lacoste furnished detachments for Chef-Men- 
teur; Jackson's lines were guarded by the 7th regi- 
ment; the 1st and 2nd of militia, a detachment of 
Kentuckians, and another of the militia of Red river, 
commanded b}^ colonel Plauche, occupied Villere's 
plantation, and furnished a strong advanced-guard, 
posted in the place where the enemy had thrown up 
fortifications when he landed at the junction of bayou 
Mazantlmd Villere's canal. 

The right bank was guarded by the drafted mi- 
litia, general Hopkins's brigade, and colonel John- 
son's regiment, which had arrived from Rapides on 
the 14th. The levy-en- masse of the militia had been 
arriving by companies every day from the 8th of the 
month. Every thing was in readiness vigorously to 
repulse the enemy, on whatever point he might make 
an attempt. All the damaged arms had been repair- 
ed, and a barge had arrived from Pittsburgh witii 
muskets, cannon, and balls. Louisiana had been de- 
fended and saved with means much inferior to those 
of the enemy; and towards the end of January she 
was in condition to defy double the force that had 
at first attacked her. 

About this time the remaining prisoners com- 
prised in the cartel, agreed to on the 18th of January, 
who being on board the British fleet could not be 
sooner returned, were delivered up at Petites Co- 
quilles, and arrived in town. 


During the course of the campaign the mayor of 
New Orleans, Mr. Nicholas Girod, and all those em- 
ployed under him, manifested the greatest zeal in as- 
sisting the troops to repel the invaders. 

The ladies of New Orleans were constantly em- 
ployed in making up clothes for the militia of Tennes- 
see, whom so long an absence from their homes had 
reduced to extreme want in that particular, as most of 
them had served in the campaign against the Creek 
Indians, and in the expedition against Pensacola, 
in which they had made many long and difficult 

General Jackson, in a letter to the mayor, express- 
ed his sense of the assistance he had received from 
that magistrate, and the citizens of New Orleans. 
The perusal of that letter cannot fail to interest the 
reader. (See Appendix, No. 36.) 

By a resolution of the 2d of February the legisla- 
ture voted thanks to the troops of Tennessee, Ken- 
tucky, and the Mississippi Territory; to their com- 
manders, generals Carroll, Coffee, Thomas, and 
Adair, and also to colonel Hinds, for their services 
in the defence of the state. Those of general Jackson 
they thought proper to pass over in silence: but that 
silence produced a greater effect in his favour in the 
public mind than the most laboured panegyric would 
have done. It was in vain to attempt to throw into 
the shade services so eminent, and so fresh in the re- 
membrance of a grateful people; they were present to 
every imagination, and, in the language of the Roman 
historian, shone with superior lustre for the very 
reason that they were not displayed. Prcefulgebant 


Cassius et Brutus^ eo ipso quod effigies eorum Jiou 

The governor, in compliance with the assembly's 
resolution, wrote a letter to each of the officers men- 
tioned in it, to which they severally replied. (See 
Appendix, No. 37.) General Coffee's answer is 
particularly worthy of observation. At the same 
time that he expresses his grateful sense of the high 
value which the legislature are pleased to set on his 
services, he cannot forbear to hint what it would be- 
come them to have done in justice to the great man 
under whose guidance those laurels were earned, 
which they had distributed with such an unequal 

' This act of flagrant injustice is attributed to the 
discontent of some of the leading members of the le- 
gislative body. History will search into their motives, 
and hold up to the animadversion of posterity those 
unworthy intrigues, which produced an instance of 
ingratitude unparalleled in the annals of mankind. 

Let me not be understood as reflecting on all the 
members; several of them there are, who evinced, by 
their conduct, both in the camp and in the house, 
that they were proof against the machinations of party 
spirit, and far above being influenced by petty consi- 
derations of private interest. But ingratitude is sup- 
posed to be characteristic of republics. It is well 
known that the very individuals, who extolled with 
enthusiasm, the measures adopted by general Jack- 
son, early in the campaign, while the enemy was ho- 
vering on our coast, became his malignant traducers,, 

* Tacit. Annal. 1. 3. 


when the danger was over, and they could enjoy the 
fruits of his foresight and energy, to which the coun- 
try owes its safety. 

On the 4th of February, Col. Edward Livingstbn 
was sent by general Jackson with a flag of truce, for 
the purpose of negociating a cartel for the general ex- 
change of prisoners (those of the navy not being yet 
exchanged) and of endeavouring at the same time to 
obtain the restitution of the negroes carried off by the 
British, at the time of their evacuation. To under- 
stand this matter, it is necessary to peruse the corres- 
pondence that took place on that subject, between 
general Lambert, admiral Cochrane, and general Jack- 
son. (See Appendix, No. 38.) 

The exchange of prisoners was agreed on and ar- 
ranged to the satisfaction of both parties. As to the 
negroes, general Lambert and admiral Cochrane in- 
flexibly adhered to the principle they ^ad laid down, 
that they could not be restored, without their own 
consent. (See Appendix, No. 38.) 


The British army having entirely abandoned the 
banks of the Mississippi-, and those of the bayou Bien- 
venu, proceeded towards Mobile point. The oflicers 
who commanded the expedition had conceived hopes 
of taking fort Bowyer, situate at the extremity of 
that point, in an advantageous position, as I have al- 
ready observed, for commanding the entrance of Mo- 
bile; but incapable, in its present condition, of defend- 
ing the point, or preventing the enemy's becoming 
master of the peninsula. 



After having suffered such signal and unforeseen 
reverses, the honour of the British arms seemed to 
require that their troops should achieve some exploit 
that might compensate, at least, for what could not be 
retrieved, and afford some consolation to the wounded 
pride of Britain. Every disposition, therefore, was 
made that could tend to insure the success of an attack 
on fort Bow3"cr. The enemy had learned by experi- 
ence, in his former attack, that that fort possessed on 
the sea-side means of defence, which rendered it formi- 
dable to ships; and though the naval force that could 
then be brought against it was sufficient for its speedy 
reduction, it was not improbable but the attempt would 
cost the enemy the loss of part of his squadron. He 
therefore prudently determined to attack the fort by 

It has already appeared, from the account of the 
attack made on it on the 15th of September, that fort 
Bowyer was so weak on the land- side, as to be inca- 
pable of defence against any considerable force. 

On the 6th of February the British fleet was 
descried off Dauphine island. On the 7th, at nine 
o'clock in the morning, it separated into several divi- 
sions. Twenty- five vessels anchored about five miles 
from the fort, in a circular position, extending from 
Dauphine island towards the peninsula of the Mobile. 
Thirteen ships of the line, or frigates, came to anchor 
about one mile from the land, in a line parallel with 
the coast, and at the distance of about two miles and 
a half from the back of the fort. In the afternoon se- 
veral barges were perceived on the look out, near 
Dauphine island. They returned to their several ships 


towards sunset. A few boats however still conti- 
nued, during that night, to keep up an incessant com- 
munication with the different ships of the fleet. 

Early in the morning of the 8th the enemy land- 
ed his troops, to the number of five thousand men, 
opposite the anchoring ground. They encamped at 
nearly an equal distance from both shores of the pe- 
ninsula, which in that part is only about half a mile 
in breadth. Their camp was covered, on the side ad- 
joining the continent, by two batteries erected half a 
mile from the encampment. The battery on the 
north side (marked B on the Map, plate No. 9.) 
mounted two field pieces, and was protected by two 
hundred men; the pieces were mounted behind a 
simple parapet, in front of which was a ditch that 
communicated with a lagoon, extending over two 
thirds of the breadth of the isthmus. The remaining 
space, as far as the shore of the ocean, was cut by a 
trench, and covered with an epaulment, behind which 
were mounted four pieces of cannon, (marked A on 
the Map) and protected by a detachment of three hun- 
dred men. By the erection of these two batteries, fort 
Bowyer was completely cut off from receiving any 
succours by land; and even could they have been 
taken) it would still have been necessary to force the 
camp, in order to arrive at the fort. Four gun- boats, 
which the enemy had taken from us at Malheureux 
island, were at anchor close to the shore, and covered 
the two extremities of the camp on the side of the 
gulf. On the opposite shore, within the bay, several 
barges and boats served to keep up a constant com- 
munication with Dauphine island. On the east point 

E e 


of that island, opposite the fort, was stationed general 
Kean's division, for the purpose of re-enforcing the 
principal camp, or of acting on any other point, as oc- 
casion might require. Towards noon the enemy- 
caused a number of riflemen, and some other detach- 
ments, to advance towards the fort to a considerable 
distance from his camp. A few discharges of cannon 
stopped their progress, and forced them to seek shel- 
ter behind sand hillocks, or in ditches. Our riflemen 
fired on several of the British sentinels, of whom 
one was killed. About nine in the evening a body of 
troops was seen advancing towards the fort, and was 
likewise forced to retire by a few discharges of our 

On the 9th, at break of day, it was discovered 
that the enemy had begun to cut a trench parallel to 
the curtain on the north side; and shortly after a brisk 
fire of artillery was directed against his works, which 
he had already advanced to the length of one hundred 
and fifty yards. The extremity of the trench was per- 
pendicular to the shore of the bay, and joined the 
downs, that skirted the whole compass of the peninsu- 
la, so that the enemy, in following the shore between 
the downs and the sea, had a communication from his 
camp to the trench, secure from all danger. He had 
stationed in the trench 750 riflemen, who, during the 
whole time of the siege, kept up, day and night, a 
fire of musketry, directed chiefly against our artillery- 
men, who could not show themselves at the em- 
brasure without being immediately assailed with a 
shower of bullets. Notwithstanding the constant fire 
from our cannon, the enemy succeeded in erecting 


batteries on the sandy mound that commands the 
fort. At noon some shells were thrown into the 
trench, which partly dispersed the soldiers stationed 
there; after which our riflemen dislodged almost all 
the others. Two ships now anchored between Mo- 
bile point and Dauphine island, and several boats full 
of men were passing and repassing the whole day 
between Dauphine island and Navy cove, lying at the 
distance of three miles from the back of fort Bow- 
yer, behind the British camp. About two in the af- 
ternoon the enemy was employed in cutting down 
and levelling the summit of the great mound; a few 
discharges from the battery of the right flank dispers- 
ed them, and in the course of the afternoon, the other 
parties at work were much incommoded by our 
bombs and shells. Two barges having approached 
the fort, were received with several discharges of can- 
non, which obliged them to return towards Dauphine 
island. The fire of our artillery and musketry was 
incessant the whole day until sunset. 

During the 10th, the enemy continued his works, 
notwithstanding the fire from the artillery of the fort. 
His riflemen were also engaged with ours, while his 
barges were employed in transporting troops from 
Dauphine island to Navy cove. Another trench had 
been commenced on the south fshore, at the dis- 
tance of three hundred yards, so as to be made, 
without much difficulty, to unite with that on the 
north side. Had the siege been protracted, these two 
trenches would have completely invested the fort. 
On the Uth, by break of day, it was discovered that 
during the night the enemy had advanced his works 


to within forty yards of the ditch of the fort, which 
was now completely hemmed in on its two sides be- 
hind. He had also completed the establishment of 
his batteries, erected at the distance of from three 
hundred yards to five hundred yards from the fort, 
whose rear batteries began to play. We hoped to 
have dislodged him from the advantageous posi- 
tion he had taken; but after having for some time kept 
up a very brisk fire, we found our expectations frus- 
trated by the parapets of his batteries, which were 
from fifteen to eighteen feet thick. By this time he 
had mounted on his battery, eight howitzers, two 
mortars, four eighteen pounders, with other pieces 
of inferior calibre. 

About 10 o'clock, a white flag was seen flying on 
the back of the trench; it was answered from the fort, 
and a suspension of hostilities took place. Lieutenant- 
colonel Lawrence then received from major-general 
Lambert, a summons to capitulate; on which he de- 
sired all the officers of the garrison to repair to his 
quarters, where he laid before them the articles of 
capitulation prQposed, and for an answer to which on- 
ly half an hour was allowed. That term was indeed 
prolonged until noon; but the enemy required the 
surrender of the fort that very evening; which article 
being rejected, it was finally agreed that the garrison 
should march out next day at noon. (For articles of 
capitulation, see Appendix, No. 39.) 

Next day, 12th of February, the garrison evacu- 
ated the fort, agreeably to the capitulation, and the 
evacuation was completely effected by two o*clock in 
tjie afternoon. The troops were embarked on board 


three ships of the line, where the officers and soldiers 
were treated with all the civilities due to brave men, 
forced to comply with the resistless exigency of cir- 

The loss sustained by the garrison during the 
siege, amounted only to one man killed, and ten 
wounded, among the latter was the brave commander. 
The besiegers had about forty men killed or wound- 

From this circumstantial account of the taking of 
fort Bowyer, the impartial reader will see that the 
brave garrison who defended it, being left to their 
own resources, deprived of all communication, and 
cut oiF from all hope of receiving relief, exerted all 
the means in their power to defend the fort intrusted 
to them; never failing to annoy the enemy, when he 
came within the range of their guns. What could 
they do more? What useful purpose could it have 
answered to expose themselves to a bombardment in 
a fort entirely constructed of timber, so combustible 
that a single shell falling within the parapet, would 
have sufficed to set the whole fort on fire? Attacked 
on the land side, what defence could they make 
against sixteen pieces of artillery, within so short a 
distance, behind strong intrenchments, that in less 
than half an hour would have battered down the para- 
pets of the fort, on that side not more than three feet 
thick, above the platforms? 

As no part of the fort was bomb proof, the am- 
munition was exposed, nor could even the wounded 
be sheltered; so that they with the whole garrison 
might have been destroyed by an explosion. The 


ground did not here present the advantages enjoyed 
by fort Plaquemine. A firm soil mixed with shells, 
that resisted the pressure of cannon without platforms, 
not yielding to the bombs, dreadful must have been 
the effects of their explosion; for all military men will 
agree that without casemates, no garrison can hold 
out against a regular bombardment. But it may be 
asked, why was no attempt made to dismount the 
enemy's batteries, as soon as they M^ere successively 
erected? It has already been seen, that nothing had 
been neglected to that effect by the garrison, but that 
all their efforts were vain. Besides, the enemy had 
worked chiefly by night, and it was also during the 
night that he had mounted his artillery. It has been 
seen that the parapets of his batteries were from fif- 
teen to eighteen feet thick, of hard sand, as firm as 
any kind of earth; and the inside was formed of sacks 
laid on one another. Could the slightest doubt still 
remain on this subject, I think it would be sufficient 
to remove it, to know that the mortars were esta- 
blished as is usual, on the most solid ground. Seven 
pieces of cannon, of which three were nine-pounders, 
three twelves and one twenty-four, were all the garri- 
son had to oppose to the enemy on the side where the 
attack was directed. It may be said that the gar- 
rison might, during the night, have made sorties, 
have carried the enemy's cannon, and have destroyed 
his works. All this may indeed be effected with 
adequate forces; but this garrison's effective force 
amounted to no more than three hundred and twen- 
ty men fit for service. It was surely impossible with 
so small a force to cross a trench which already com- 


manded the gate of the fort, and was guarded by about 
one thousand men, through which our troops must 
have cut their way, before they could arrive at batte- 
ries well manned, with powerful succours ready to 
re-enforce them. Any attempt of that kind, by a gar- 
rison of three hundred and twenty men, against an 
army of five thousand, which would within a fewhours 
receive are-enforcement of three thousand men, would 
certainly have been rather a culpable act of folly, than 
a laudable instance of valour. The brave garrison of 
fort Bowyer did, upon the AVliole, their duty, and all 
that could have been expected of them under such 
circumstances. Major-general Lambert testified to 
colonel Livingston, then on mission at his head- 
quarters, his warm approbation of the conduct of 
colonel Lawrence, adding, that under similar circum- 
stances, he should not think it derogatory to his ho- 
nour to act as that officer had done. 

On the arrival of colonel Lawrence at New Or- 
leans, it was directed in general orders of March 25th, 
that a court of inquiry should be held for the pur- 
pose of examining into his conduct, during the de- 
fence, and in the surrender of fort Bowyer. The 
court having heard several witnesses, after mature de- 
liberation, declared the conduct of colonel Lawrence, 
and that of the garrison under his command, no way 
reprehensible. (See Appendix, No. 40.) 

I have been more minute in relating the particu- 
lars of this affair, and have the more freely given way 
to my own reflections on it, as in the whole course of 
this glorious campaign, the surrender of fort Bowyer, 
is the only instance in which the efforts of the enemy 


obtained any advantage. Whoever considers the dis- 
proportion of the forces, and the desperate situation 
of the garrison, left to itself, beyond the reach of suc- 
cours; whoever asks himself the question, whether, 
under such circumstances, he should have acted differ- 
ently, must acknowledge that the glory acquired in 
this instance, by the troops of his Britannic majesty, 
amounts to a very inconsiderable advantage. 

The news of the success obtained over the enemy 
on the 8th of January, diffused the greatest joy 
throughout the union, particularly in Kentucky, the 
governor of which state transmitted a message to the 
legislature, recommending to them to vote a levy of 
ten thousand militia, to march to the assistance of 

While colonel Livingston was on board the Bri- 
tish fleet, the Brazen sloop of war, arrived with in- 
telligence of the preliminaries of peace between the 
United States and Great Britain having been signed. 
On the 10th of February, that officer returned with 
the gladsome tidings, which was received with univer- 
sal joy. 

On this occasion, general Jackson published an 

address to the army and citizens, exhorting them not 
to let themselves be so far led away by the hopes of 
peace founded on vague rumours, as to relax in their 
duty; observing that, even were it certain that peace 
had been concluded, and the treaty signed in Europe, 
it could not be considered as putting an end to the 
war, until ratified by the president of the United 
States, (See the address in the Appendix, No. 41.) 


After the affair of the 8th of January, some of our 
men found on the scene of action, an elegant sword, 
which was at first supposed merely to belong to some 
officer; but some prisoners chancing to see it, decla- 
red it to be the sword of general Packenham, the 
commander-in-chief. In this ^ persuasion we were 
confirmed, by the silence of the British officers on that 
subject, when general Keane caused application to be 
made to general Jackson, requesting his sword found 
on the field, to be restored to him, as he set a fond 
value on it, being the present of a friend. General 
Jackson accordingly gave the sword in charge to co- 
lonel Livingston, who went with the flag of truce; and 
the colonel in person delivered it into the hands of 
general Keane, who in return wrote to general Jackson 
the letter of thanks inserted in the Appendix, No. 42. 

In his letter of the 17th of February, to the secre- 
tary of war, general Jackson takes notice of this inci- 
dent, with several others, as may be seen in the Appen- 
dix, No. 43. 

Notwithstanding the assertion of general Keane, 
there are still some individuals inclined to think that 
that sword belonged to the general-in-chief, from this 
circumstance, amongst others, that the British officers 
who happened to be present at the delivery of it to 
general Keane, betrayed some surprise, and appeared 
not to have known that he had lost his sword; and 
hence they infer that the myster}^ in this affair, arose 
from a persuasion that, had it been known to us that 
the sword belonged to the commander-in-chief, it 
would have been retained as a trophy. 

F f 


About this period, the exchange of prisoners, and 
the claiming of the negroes carried off by the British, 
gave rise to a very animated correspondence between 
general Jackson, admiral Cochrane, and general Lam- 
bert. (See these letters in the Appendix, No. 44.) 

On the 24th of February, general Jackson an- 
nounced to the secretary of war, the surrender of fort 
Bowyer. (See Appendix, No. 45.) The opinion 
which the general expresses in his letter, as to 
the conduct of the garrison, was founded on mis- 
information; and he afterwards rendered justice 
to those brave men, as soon as he was correctly 
informed of the circumstances which had obliged 
them to capitulate. It has already been seen, in the 
account of the second attack on fort Bowyer, that 
a court martial honourably acquitted colonel Lau- 
rence and the garrison he commanded, declaring their 
conduct irreproachable. 

Four hundred prisoners had set out from New 
Orleans for the Balize, agreeably to the arrange- 
ments entered into by admiral Cochrane with colonel 
Livingston: the remaining prisoners, daily expected 
from Natchez, were to be sent immediately on their 
arrival. Of this, the general informed general Lam- 
bert, by a letter of the 26th. (See Appendix, No. 46.) 

On the 6th of March, general Jackson informed 
general Lambert, that he had reason to believe that 
the reaty of peace had been ratified by the president 
and senate of the United States; but that, owing to 
some mistake committed in the postmaster-general's 
office, the packet addressed to him on that subject, 
had not come to his hands. ^ 


The British commanders having promised to af- 
ford to the owners of the negroes who had followed 
them, every facility towards their prevailing on them 
to return, general Jackson made known to general 
Lambert, on the 7th of March, that he had given per- 
mission to a certain number of the owners of those 
negroes, to go to the British fleet with a flag of truce; 
and his letter concludes with a request to the British 
general, to restore the negroes. (See Appendix, 
No. 47.) 

On the 8th of March, general orders were pub- 
lished, discharging the levy in mass, from all further 
service. (See Appendix, No. 48.) 

At length general Jackson received the ofliicial 
confirmation of the ratification of the treaty of peace, 
and immediately communicated the intelligence to 
the commander of the British forces, by a letter of 
the 13th of March, which he transmitted by major 
Woodruff of the 3d regiment of infantry, who was 
appointed to receive the restitution of fort Bowyer, 
and such other posts and property of the United 
States, as might be in the possession of the British. 
(See that letter and major Woodruft'^s instructions ill 
the Appendix, No. 49.) 

In gc neral ordei's of the same day, the command- 
er-in-chief announced to the army, the ratification of 
the treaty of peace, revoking the general orders rela- 
tive to martial law, ordering a final cessa i -n of hos- 
tilities against Great Britain, and proclaiming a gene- 
ral pardon for all military offences, and the enlargement 
of all persons confined for the same. (Sec Appendix^, 
No. 50.) 


By general orders of the following da\', all the 
militia sent by the different states to the assistance of 
Louisiana, as also the militia of this latter state, were 
discharged. (See Appendix, No. 51.) 

The treaty of peace concluded at Ghent, on the 
14th of December, between the plenipotentiaries of 
the United States and those of Great Britain, is insert- 
ed at large in the Appendix, No. 52. Its construction 
having been a subject of discussion between general 
Jackson and the British commander-in-chief, I have 
thought that its insertion here would not be consider- 
ed out of place. 

I have likewise deemed proper to insert an ad- 
dress presented to general Jackson, by the different 
volunteer companies composing Piauche's battalion, 
with the general's answer. The sentiments express- 
ed in these documents do honour to those from whom 
they proceed. The address was presented to the 
general, immediately after a review which took place 
on the 16th of March on the lines. About to bid 
farewell to his brethren in arms, he wished once 
more to behold those brave men drawn up on the 
very ground that had so often been witness of their 
valour, and of the patience with which they en- 
dured extreme hardship. The time, the place, the 
crowd of spectators, all conspired to present an in- 
teresting spectacle, and to awaken affecting recol- 
lections. On that very ground where, two months 
before, those brave troops had given such signal 
proofs of courage and of love for their country, they 
were now assembled to bid farewell to one another, 
and seal with assurances of lasting attachment a 
friv^ndsh^ contracted in the midst of alarms. General 


Gaines, who was about to assume the immediate com- 
mand of t'lat part of the district, commanded the evo- 
lutions, which were executed by the 3d, the 7th, and 
the 44th regiments of infantry, and by majorPlauche's 
battalion of volunteers. (See Appendix, No. 53.) 

General Jackson wrote to the secretary of war, ac- 
knowledging the receipt of his letter of the 16th of 
the preceding month, by which he had announced to 
him the ratification of the preliminaries of peace, and 
informing the secretary that he had discharged all the 
militia. (See the general's letter in the Appendix, 
No. 54.) 

Major Woodruff having returned from the mis- 
sion on which he had been sent to the commander of 
tlie British forces, made his report to general Jack- 
son, which will be found in the Appendix, No. 55. 
It appears from that report, that, as to the long agi- 
tated question of slaves, the British constantly refused 
to consider them as personal property, and seemed 
inclined to leave them at their own disposal. Hence 
it follows, that they took upon themselves to give 
them their freedom. Surely such maxims can find 
no support in die law of nations. It is evident from 
the report, tliat general Lambert refused to execute 
tliat part of the treaty of peace entered into by the 
two nations, which extended to the restitution of 
slaves, under the general description of property. 
He pretended to construe it otherwise, but how could 
a British commander-in-chief take upon himself to 
explain away the plain and obvious meaning of a solemn 

The truth is, that though a portion of the negroes 
CiZriipd oif, enjoy amongst the British a e©nditioi> 


nearly equivalent to freedom, yet it is well known 
that a great number of them were prevailed upon to 
enlist in their black regiments, and a still greater 
number were sent to the island of Trinidad and New- 
Providence. Though the importation of foreign ne- 
groes into Jamaica is prohibited, yet it is notorious 
that they are imported thither clandestinely; and it has 
been asserted, not without some appearance of foun- 
dation, that numbers of the negroes, carried off from 
Georgia and Louisiana, found their way to that island 
through the means of fraudulent practices. 

In his letter of the 18th general Lambert uses 
this pitiful subterfuge — that he considers the negroes 
either as deserters, having come over of their own 
accord, or as property taken and carried off in the 
course of the war. 

He observes that he cannot abandon to the seve- 
rity of their masters, slaves who had come over to 
the army during the existence of hostilities, and had 
thus become criminal in the eye of the laAV of the 
country. (See that letter in the Appendix, No. 56.) 

This pretext is the more specious, as it appears 
to be founded on a humane and generous principle. 
But the reader must know that general Jackson 
had obtained from the masters of the slaves their 
word of honour, that they would grant them a full 
and entire pardon; and that the known honour of 
those planters leaving him no room to doubt of the 
strict performance of their promise, he had pledged 
himself to general Lambert that the slaves should suf- 
fer no manner of ill treatment on their return. 

The importance of the services rendered to the 
union by the army under the command of major-gc- 


neral Jackson, in Louisiana, was duly appreciated by 
the whole people of the United States, and the suc- 
cesses obtained at New Orleans were celebrated with 
public rejoicings in every town. The spirit of thfe 
nation exulted in the glorious achievement of her de- 
fenders. The newspapers were, for some months, 
filled with addresses presented, and speeches deliver- 
ed on the occasion. The legislatures of most of the 
states voted their thanks to general Jackson, and the 
army under his command, for the service they had 
I'endered to the union. Those votes have appear- 
ed in so many of the public prints, that it is not 
necessary to annex them to this work. But I have 
thought proper to insert in the Appendix some reso- 
lutions of congress, relative to the campaign of Loui- 
siana, as being the collective expression of the senti- 
ments of the several states. (See Appendix, No. 57.) 

In one of these resolutions, the congress tenders 
its thanks to the army and its general, and requests 
the president to cause a medal to be struck, orna- 
mented with suitable devices, commemorative of the 
victories over the English, in Louisiana, and to pre- 
sent it to general Jackson. 

If ever, at any important period, the representa- 
tives of the people were faithful interpreters of the 
public feeling, it was at this moment. The nation 
had already appreciated the services of its defenders, 
and had distinctly expressed its sentiments; the con- 
gress did nothing more than give chem body and 
shape, and convey them to posterity in an authentic 
and permanent form. 


These resolutions were communicated to the 
army, and received by the different corps with the 
most lively emotions of joy and gratitude. These 
brave men were about to return to their fire-sides and 
the objects of their affection. They bore with them 
a conviction highly flattering to freemen — that of 
having contributed to strengthen the independence 
of their country, to procure for it an honourable 
peace, and to establish its military glory on an imper- 
ishable basis: — they had surpassed the expectations 
of the nation, and this day received its thanks through 
its representatives: — ^they could desire nothing more. 

I have above remarked that immediately after the 
departure of the English troops from the shores of the 
Mississippi, a body of Kentucky militia was encamped 
on the plantation of Dupre, and the remainder on the 
right bank of the river. Those from Tennessee, un- 
der the orders of generals Carrol and Coffee, resum- 
ed their former encampment, on the plantation of 
Avart. The commanding general had thus wisely 
disposed them, that in case of need he might easily 
ti'ansfer them to such points of the coast as the ene- 
my should invade. The troops occupied those posts 
until the disbanding of the army, which took place, 
as we have seen above, when general Jackson receiv- 
ed the ratification of the treaty of peace by our go- 
vernment: they then took up the line of march for 
their respective states. The loss they had sustained 
during the campaign was very inconsiderable; and we 
shou Id thank providence that our triumphs were achiev- 
ed, at the exi)ense of so small a portion of the usual 
afflictions of war: yet, these undaunted soldiers, who 


were able to overwhelm the enemy with so destruc- 
tive a fire, and to bear the incessant fatigues of the 
campaign, were obliged. to pay a severe tribute to the 
climate of Louisiana. The hardships they were obli- 
ged to undergo, in the duties of a camp, within Jack- 
son's lines, added to the unhealthiness of a constant- 
ly wet soil, caused them to contract pernicious fevers 
and dysenteries, which soon became epidemical. The 
effect of these disorders were speedily seen and ter- 
ribly felt: — ^in the space of one month five hundred 
men perished in this way! Let us drop a tear to the 
memory of these noble fellows! May their virtues 
ever live in our memory. They lived long enough 
to glory and their country, which they freed from its 
enemies; but they did not live long enough to receive 
the recompense of their toils, to enjoy, in the midst 
of doiiFestic enjoyments, that felicity, which they had 
secured to others, and had thus acquired a right to 
expect for themselves. 

After the capitulation of fort Bowyer, the English 
army preserved its encampments oji Dauphine island 
and at Mobile point. General Lambert and admiral 
Cochrane, waiting an official communication of the 
ratification of the treaty of peace, by the president 
of the United States^ made the necessary preparations 
for the embarkation of their troops: — but, the ex- 
change of prisoners, and the difficulty of procuring 3 
sufficiency of water, for a long voyage, occupied much 
time, and rendered the embarkation tedious and pain- 
ful. Want of provisions obliged the commissaries of 
the English army to purchase them at New Orleans, 
wh^re they were obliged to put them in boats, which 

G p- 


carried them to the fleet, where tliey were distribii- 
ted among the transports. 

These dispositions occupied much time, during 
which the mortality among their troops, and espe- 
cially the black regiments was very great. The 
number of sick and wounded in the fleet is estimated 
at two thousand; but il is impossible to ascertain 
correctly the number of the victims of disease, from 
the 19th of January until the end of March, the time 
of evacuation by the army. Judging from the num- 
ber of graves around their camps, it certainly was 
considerable. We cannot but regret the lot of these 
unfortunate victims of the ambition of the British 
government. Those poor creatures, whose bodies 
are entombed on the shores of Louisiana, were but 
passive instruments which were broken in the hands 
of those who used them. They died in a foreign 
land, but they have, doubtless, left somewhere friends 
and relations to whom they were dear; and who will 
never have even the sad consolation of shedding a 
mournful tear on their graves. 

During the stay of the English prisoners at New 
Orleans, a fact occurred, which I shall detail circum- 
stantially, in order to counteract the effect of any 
Statement that may be made, unfavourable to the 
American nation. General Jackson, presuming that, 
after their departure from the waters of the Missis- 
sippi, the English would attempt to carry Mobile, 
and establish themselves on the Dauphine and Ship 
islands, made the proper dispositions to repel them. 
Among other measures to this end, he authorized 
general Humbert to form a legion, and per«iitted him 


tp enrol in it all the English deserters who were wil- 
ling to enter the service. Prudence requiring that 
they should be carefully m atched, it became necessa- 
ry, for want of a projier place, to confine some of them 
among the prisoners of \var. When the hero of 
Castlebar issued a proclamation, 'addressed princi- 
pally to the Irish, inviting the deserters to enter his 
legion, some prisoners of that nation requested to 
be also admitted; and unfortunately, the officer charg- 
ed with the recruiting service, from ignorance or 
mistake enlisted some of them. General Jackson, as 
soon as this circumstance was made known to him, 
ordered that the prisoners should be remitted to 
prison, with their companions, and when an exchange 
took place, they were, to their great regret, delivered 
up with the others. Fearing, however, lest thesie 
men, - on their arrival, should be severely punished, 
general Jackson interceded in their behalf, with ge- 
neral Lambert, (see Appendix, No. 58,) who an- 
swered, that in respect to him, the conduct of thosC 
prisoners should not be noticed in any manner. (See 
his letter, dated February 27, Appendix, No. 44.) 

The legislature of Louisiana passed a resolution 
expressive of their sense of the good conduct of cer- 
tain individuals, as well as of the patriotic zeal dis- 
played by the citizens of certain parts of the state, at 
the time of invasion by the enemy. (See Appendix, 
No. 59.) This article needs no comment. It is suf- 
ficient for me to recommend it to the attention of 
the reader, who will here have occasion to remark 
what I have, in the course of this work, had the plea= 
sure of announcing-— that, at this memorable crisis, 


all the inhabitants of Louisiana, without distinction 
of birth, colour, age, or sex, vied in zeal for the ser- 
vice of their country, and strained every nerve to re- 
pulse the enemy. I pass no encomium on the con- 
duct of the people of this state, while the enemy oc- 
cupied a portion of their territory. I am convinced 
that they attach to their actions no merit but that of 
doing their duty; and that the satisfaction they deriv- 
ed from this source was an ample reward; but these 
citizens have been calumniated; they were consider- 
ed, for a long time, as suspicious members of the 
American family, and as persons who could not be 
relied on; disposed, in fact, to receive, if not with 
joy, at least with indifference, such other form of go- 
vernment as the fate of war, or the train of political 
events might subject them to. It was not by words, 
that those meritorious citizens vindicated their cha- 
racter; but by the best proofs of devotion to their 
country, by defending it faithfully, and by valiant- 
ly repelling the invading enemy. Their conduct 
throughout this campaign is the most emphatic re- 
futation of the unjust charges of their calumniators. 

Mention is made, in this resolution, of the assist- 
ance received from the council of the city of Orleans, 
by those families, whose principals, being employed 
in the service of their countr}^ could not minister 
to their wants. I shall merely add, that more than 
thirty-four thousand rations of bread, and nearly 
thirteen thousand of meat, were distributed, to the 
most necessitous, in the space of about a month. 

The artillery and engineering service received 
very important assistance from the officers of the 



mayoralty. I have frequently witnessed their zeal 
in availing themselves of immediate resources, and 
even creating new ones, to hasten the transportation 
of materials, munitions, and provisions. 

I must be permitted to add to the enumeration 
of acts of zeal and devotion, noticed in this resolu- 
tion, an example of patriotism, worthy to be com- 
pared with the most brilliant instances of the same 
kind recorded in ancient histories. Madame De- 
vance Bienvenu, a respectable widow, and rich inha- 
bitant of Atakapas, after sending her four sons to the 
defence of their country, in captain Dubuclay's com- 
pany of dragoons, wrote to governor Claiborne that 
she sincerely regretted having no other sons to offer 
to her country, but that, if her own services, in the 
duty of taking care of the wounded, should be thought 
useful, notwithstanding her advanced age, and the 
great distance of her residence, she would hasten to 
New Orleans for that purpose. 

General Jackson, in his correspondence with the 
secretary at war, did not fail to notice the conduct of 
the " corsairs of Barataria," who were, as we have 
already seen, employed in the artillery service. In 
the course of the campaign they proved, in an une- 
quivocal manner, that they had been misjudged by 
the enemy, who, a short time previous to the invasion 
of Louisiana had hoped to enlist them in his cause. 
Many of them were killed or wounded in defence 
of the country. Their zeal, their courage, and their 
skill, were remarked by the whole army, who could 
no longer consider such brave men as criminals, or 
avoid wishing their permanent return to duty and the 


favour of the government. These favourable senti- 
ments were expressed by the legislature of the state, 
in a memorial to the president, and general Jackson 
added his and those of the army. The chief magis- 
trate of our government yielded to these interces- 
sions, and issued a proclamation, by which he granted 
a full and complete pardon to all those who, having 
formerly violated the laws of the United States, by 
SjjTiuggling at Baratiiria, had aided, during the cam- 
paign, in repulsing the enemy, and should produce 
a certificate, to this effect, from the governor of Loui- 
siana. He likewise ordered a suspension of all pro- 
ceedings against their persons and property, as well as 
therestitution of whatever might have been sequestrat- 
ed. This proclamation, written in a noble and dignified 
style, is fraught with the true principles of philan- 
thropy: a perusal of it cannot fail to afford pleasure. 
(It will be found in the Appendix, No. 60.) 

On the 23d of Dece«iber, 1814, when the ene- 
my approached the banks of the Mississippi, near 
the plantation of major-general Villere, after having 
taken prisoners the men who composed the detach- 
ment sent to the village of the Catalans, major Villere, 
his son, of the third regiment of Louisiana militia, had 
the immediate command of the post, formed at his 
father's plantation; and it was he who sent the de- 
tachment to the village, two days previous to the 
arrival of the enemy. Although it is to be regretted, 
that he Iwd not placed some intermediate posts be- 
tween this village and the Mississippi, which might 
have discovered the enemy, and given notice of his 
npproach, by the discharge of small arms or rockets, 


We must, in justice to major Villere affirm, that he 
does not deserve the reproaches inserted by some 
malignant or inconsiderate persons, in the different 
gazettes of the union. In his correspondence with 
the secretary at war, general Jackson has borne tes- 
timony to the good conduct of this officer, and the 
legislature, in the resolution, inserted in the Appen- 
dix, No. 59, notices the presence of mind, the ad- 
dress, and the courage, which he displayed in ©scap- 
ing the enemy, in a maimer, almost miraculous, and 
returned to give intelligence of their approach. The 
decision of the court-martial held to examine the con- 
duct of major Villere, who produced, however, no 
testimony in his own favour, will be found in the 
Appendix, No. 61. 

If it were not presumptuous to form a conjecture 
as to the unfortunate circumstance of the arrival of the 
enemy on the shores of the Mississippi, unperceived 
by us, I should be inclined to attribute it to the capture 
of our gun-boats, by which we were deprived of the , 
means of following his movements, and observing the 
point to which his attack was directed. If, as I have 
before remarked, in the narration of this affair, the 
number of our vessels on the lakes had been propor- 
tioned to the extent of coast we had to defend, the com- 
mander of the station, commodore Patterson, possess- 
ing an accurate knowledge of local circumstances, 
could have so disposed them, as to give timely notice 
of the approach of the enemy. 

The momentary success of the EngKsh, on the 
3th of Jimuary, on the right bank of the river, requir- 
ed an examination of the conduct of many officers of 


the Louisiana and of the Kentucky militia under the 
command of colonel Davis. In my narrative of the 
events of that day, I have endeavoured to remove 
unfavourable impressions, as to these troops, as well 
as to free the Kentuckians from the charges advanc- 
ed against them, I take the liberty of saying, with 
unjustifiable precipitation. If a shadow of doubt 
remain in the mind of the reader, on this subject, the 
decision of the court of inquiry, will, I think, re- 
move it entirely. (See Appendix, No. 62.) 

By order of commodore Patterson, a court of in- 
quiry was convened at New Orleans, for the purpose 
of hearing several testimonies relative to the conduct 
of lieutenant Jones, commanding the division of gun- 
boats, captured on the 14th December, by a flotilla 
of English barges. The report of this court, con- 
taining minute details of the conduct of the officers, 
and of the crews of the gun-boats, as well as an ac- 
count of the manner in which the attack was made, 
cannot fail to interest the reader. (See Appendix. 
No. 63.) 

So many vari'ous estimates have been made of 
the force of the British army which came to Louisi- 
ana, that it would be very difficult to ascertain which 
is the most correct; I have, however, procured a 
very circumstantial one, including the names of the 
different corps with those of their commanders, and 
the amount of their respective force, which I have 
inserted in the Appendix, No. 64. 

This document is supported by a letter from Dr. 
Morrell of the navy, who, having been detained 
several weeks on board the British fleet, had ma«y 



©pportunities to converse with British officers, on 
the subject of the force of their army. The circum- 
stances related by Dr. Morrell cannot fail to be inte- 
resting to my readers. 

Under the same number of the Appendix will 
also be found a list of the officers, composing the 
staff of the British army at the time of its landing. 

Arrived at the close of my narration of the import- 
ant events of the memorable campaign in Louisiana, 
I consider myself bound, as a faithful historian, to in- 
sert the official reports of the commanders of the 
British fleet and army relative to the operations of 
the forces confided to their charge. These will be 
found at length and in the order of their dates, in the 
Appendix, No. 66. 

No. 1 of these documents is a despatch of admiral 
Cochrane, addressed to the board of admiralty, in 
England, dated on board the Armide, oiF the Isle au 
Chat, 16th December, 1814, and accompanied by 
a report of captain tockyer, relative to the capture 
of our gun-boats, off Isle aux Malheureux, on the 
14th of the same month. No. 2 is a report of major- 
general Keane, addressed to the commanding gene- 
ral Packenham, dated 26th December, in which he 
mentions the disembarkation of his troops and their 
arrival on the banks of the Mississippi: it contains also 
an account of the affair of the 23d December at night. 
No. 3 is an extract of a journal kept by major For- 
rest, in the quarter-master-general's department, giv- 
ing a succinct account of all the transactions, from the 
arrival of general Packenham, on the banks oftheMis- 
sissippi, on the 25th of December 1814, until the 31st 



of the same month. No. 4 is a letter from major-ge- 
neral Lambert, addressed to lord Bathurst, secretary 
of state of his Britannic majesty, dated 10th January, 
1815, giving an account of the operations of the En- 
glish army up to this period, and particularly of the 
unfortunate result of their attack on our line on the 8th 
of January. No. 5 contains a report of colonel Thorn- 
ton, commanding the expedition on the right bank 
of the river, dated January 8, and addressed to gene- 
ral Packenham (now dead) detailhig the operations of 
the troops confided to his charge, on that side. No. 
6 is a despatch of admiral Cochrane, dated 18th Jan- 
uary 1815, addressed to the admiralty office, relating 
principally to the service of the rjiarines and sailors 
up to this date. No. 7 is a despatch of general Lam- 
bert, dated 28th January 1815, addressed to lord 
Bathurst, in which he sets forth the events posterior to 
the 10th January; and No. 8 is another despatch 
from the same officer to the same minister, dated 
head-quarters, Isle Dauphine, 14th February 1815, 
containing an account of the capture of fort Bovvyer 
on Mobile point. 

The same impartiality which induces me to in- 
sert these official reports demands some observa- 
tions on the facts and circumstances comprised in 
them. I shall follow the order in which I have placed 

In No. 1, admiral Cochrane, giving an account of 
the capture of the gun boats, vaunts the valour and 
skill of his force, and augments, according to custom, 
the difficulties surmounted. To establish a fair scale 
©f comparison between the attack and the defence. 


and to appreciate justly the respective merits of the 
conquerors and the conquered, it will be sufficient, 
in my opinion, to compare the disproportion of our 
forces with the strength of the enemy. 

Five gun-boats, some of which were planted in 
the mud, and, of course, unable from this circum- 
stance, in addition to that of a strong current, to 
change their position, defended by one hundred and 
eighty- two men, were attacked by forty-two barges 
and lanches, some of which were as large as our 
gun-boats, (one of those, which was sunk, carrying 
one hundred and eighty men,) and three gigs; — the 
whole having a complement of twelve hundred men! 
— Notwithstanding this monstrous disparity of force, 
the Americans defended themselves for ah hour and 
a half, and did not strike their flag until they had 
destroyed more than a third of the force of the ene- 
my, who now occupied the decks of these same ves- 
sels, where the victory had been disputed, blow for 
blow. Such is the plain fact, which the English ad- 
miral endeavours to involve in useless details, in or- 
der to divert the attention from the principal point. 
He says also that his barges advanced to the attack 
with the greatest resolution, in defiance of our ves- 
sels, which he calls formidable^ having the advantage 
of a chosen position^ &c. Unfortunately for sir Alex- 
ander, captain Lockyer, who commanded, and was 
wounded in this attack, and who, consequently, must 
have been better acquainted with all that passed, ex- 
presses himself thus, in his letter, above mentioned: 
*' Fortunately, for the Englishfotilla, the wind failing 
(th& American vessels,J after a chase of thirty-six 


hoursy they were obliged to come to off Isle St. Jo- 
seph."*^ In another part of the same letter he accords 
perfectly with the report of captain Jones, as to the 
velocity of the current. 

The admiral acknowledges that the victory cost 
them dear; and when we consider the price, we rea- 
dily pardon some little inaccuracies. He was doubt- 
less, too much occupied with his preparations for 
the establishment, at Orleans, of his judges, custom- 
house officers, and others brought over for the pur- 
pose of extending the blessings oi regular government 
to recolonized Louisiana; or in preparatory arrange- 
ments for the transportation of all the cotton and su- 
gar which he expected in a few minutes to possess, 
to give to his despatch the attention one would sup- 
pose it required. I shall make but one more remark 
on this report. The American sloop represented as 
carrying one six-pounder and two twelve-pound car- 
ronades, and twenty men, had only one four-pounder 
and eight men; and it is a fact, that this boat, which 
we should suppose, according to the reports of these 
gentlemen, to be of a size capable of defending her- 
self against an imposing force, was built five years 
previous, in the navy-yard, at New Orleans, to serve 
as a gig, for commodore Porter, then commanding 
on that station, who caused her to be transported, on 
a wagon, to bayou St. John, a distance of two miles, 
where she was used for short excursions on the 

Captain Lockyer has also made a mistake in his 
account of the captured gun-boats. He estimates 
the men ^ two hundred and forty-five, whereas their 


number was really but one hundred and eighty-two 
effective men — that is to say, the English force was 
to ours rather more than six to one. 

No. 2 is the report of general Keane, after the 
affair of the 23d of December. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that this paper is dated the 26th, three days af- 
the battle. The general had then, at least, two whole 
days to collect positive facts, and consequently, time 
to prepare an accurate report. Let us see how far 
he has made his conformable to truth. He says, 

" When the men^ much fatigued by the length of 
time they had been in the boats, were asleep in their 
bivouaCy a heavy fanking fire of round and grape-shot 
was opened upon them, by a large schooner and two 
gun-vessels, which had dropped down the river from 
the town, and anchored abreast our fires, Ss^r." As to 
the schooner, the general is literally correct. The 
fire was very lively, and well kept up. Commodore 
Patterson, who was on board, and captain Henley, 
who commanded the vessel, with his brave crew, 
knew too well what was due to such distinguished 
guests, to fail in paying them due honours; I hope 
they do not complain of this — if they do, they are 
certainly much to blame; for, before colonel Thorn- 
ton had made those Judicious dispositions, of which the 
report speaks, to place his brigade in safety behind 
the levee, more than one hundred of his men were 
killed or wounded by the fire of the Carolina. But 
what were those gun- vessels of which general Keane 
speaks? whence came they, and who saw them? 
There were, it is true, at that time on the waters of 
the Mississippi, a great many very large floating trees; 


its surface was sometimes covered with them, and 
I can find no other cause for this mistake of the gene- 
ral, than in some of those drifted logs, which, in the 
darkness of tlie night, he may have taken for ves- 
sels! This is not absolutely impossible; — but the 
gun-vessels that fired in company with the schooner! 
•—it is indeed too much. The reader must be struck 
with the similarity that there is between this little 
affair and the celebrated battle of the kegs at Philadel- 
phia during the revolutionary war! If general Keane's 
optic nerves were so affected on this memorable 
night of the attack of the schooner and two gu?t- boats, 
the reader may well expect to find his sense of hear- 
ing more acute, for it is said that nature always turns 
the loss of one sense to the profit of the others. It ap- 
pears, however, from the report of the general, that 
he was, at this time, as unfortunate in his hearing, as 
we have just shown him to have been in his sight. 
He says, that, ^^the enejnyy favoured by the darkness of 
the nighty concealed themselves under a high fence ^ and 
calling to his men, under the pretence of being a part of 
their own force, offered to assist them in getting over,^* 
&c. The general or some of his officers, certainly 
dreamt this; for I can affirm that no such thing oc- 
curred. The only circumstance which bore the 
least particle of resemblance to this romance, is that 
which I am about to relate. I leave the reader to 
trace the similitude, and draw his inference. 

It has been seen, in the narration of the affair of 
the 23d December, that colonel Piatt, quarter- master- 
general, advanced at the head of a detachment of the 
7th regiment, towards the enemy, for the purpose of 


J^econnoitring and repulsing him.-— On reaching the 
boundary lines of Laronde's and Laeoste's plantations, 
the detachment was saluted by a discharge of mus- 
ketry, from an advanced-guard of the enemy, which 
had not yet been discovered, although at a very short 
distance; this was owing to the soldiers being placed 
behind the fence, along both sides of the road, with 
one knee on the ground, and in this position they 
fired. The colonel advanced towards them, at a full 
gallop, and called to them to turn out and fight like 
brave men, instead of firing crouched on the ground 
like cowardly Indians. This is the only occurrence 
which has any relation to a fence. If this be the 
origin of the story given us by the general, he de- 
serves great credit, for his admirable talent in dress- 
ing up a report. — But let us proceed. The general 
places under the head of simple casualty^ the loss 
which he sustained from the fire of the schooner, and 
which we know positively to have been more than 
one hundred men. After supposing that the 85th regi- 
ment advanced in consequence of a pretended ruse de 
guerre on our part, he found himself, says the report, 
" surrounded by a superior number of the enemy ^ who 
ordered him to surrender'''' — " the answer ^'''^ continues 
he, *' was an instantaneous attack, A more extraordi- 
nary confiict has^ perhaps, never occurred; absohitely 
hand to hand^ both officers andmen.'''* This '• superior 
number of the enemy ,'' was simply captain Beale's 
company of volunteer riflemen, amounting in all to six- 
ty-two; they penetrated, as I have before mentioned, 
into the midst of the enemy's camp, without a bayo- 
net;, and nevertheless, disarmed and took prisoners 


a considerable number of his men. This took place 
within the enclosure of Lacoste's plantation, near the 
houses. I also refer the reader to my narrative of 
this affair to correct the mistake, which makes half of 
the company fall into the hands of the enemy, and 
which the general would fain attribute to the bravery 
of his 85th regiment. 

In another part of the same report, general Keane 
makes his 93d regiment advance to charge with the 
bayonet, keeping the 4th *' as his reserve.''^ Here 
there is only one single mistake, that of taking 
an American for a British corps; it certainly was 
Plauche's battalion, instead of his 93d regiment, of 
which the general meant to speak; for as soon as, 
throughout this part of our line, that is to say, from 
the left of our right division, which was directly in 
front of the centre, of which general Keane speaks, 
the general shout " a la hayonnette''' was given, this 
famous centre, after making a single discharge of 
musketry, gave way precipitately. The general may 
have heard the word *' bayonet ^^"^ and supposed it pro- 
ceeded from his own mouth! Let us pass over this 
mistake. I must, however, remark, that general 
Keane's watch was probably regulated for another 
meridian than that of Louisiana, since it was only- 
half past eight o'clock, when this took place, and the 
report says it happened at half past ten. But the 
general proceeds: " The enemy now determined to 
make a last effort, and collecting the whole of his force, 
formed an extensive line, and moved,^"* &c. " The 
line drove in all advanced posts ^'' &c. 


^Vho would not suppose, from the preceding sen- 
tence, that our little band had made a desperate and 
generaf attack! The report certainly conveys this idea, 
but it is very wide from the truth. The enemy retired 
before our right, and the firing had ceased on both 
sides, when general Coffee, who commanded the left 
division, advanced and drove them before him. I re- 
fer the reader again to my narrative of this affair, and 
to the Atlas, (plate No. 6.) I would have too much to 
do if I were obliged to correct all the errors in point 
of fact, and all the perversions of circumstances, con- 
tained in general Keane's report. I shall content my- 
self with remarking, that he states our force at five 
thousand men, whereas it consisted of but nineteen 
hundred effective; and that the engagement terminat- 
ed, not at half past twelve, as he pretends, but at half 
past nine. The remainder of the report consists of 
eulogies on the officers who distinguished themselves 
in this affair. I do not pretend to say that they have 
not merited this distinction, but I venture to affirm, 
that if the .reports of general Keane are correctly mad€ 
up from those handed him by the different com- 
manders of corps, these gentlemen must have been 
under great agitation during the engagement, to com- 
mit such gross blunders. They had better have ho- 
nestly confessed that they were unprepared for the 
scene, and that the firmness and promptitude of our 
attack astonished and disconcerted them. But it be- 
longs only to superior minds to make such acknow- 
ledgments, and besides, an official report, composed 
of such materials, would not have the desired effect^ 


and could not have been submitted to the inspection 
of the most thinking people of England, as one of 
their writers affects to call them. 

No. 3 contains an extract from major Forrest's 
journal, beforementioned. This extract dates the 
loss of the schooner Carolina on the 26th, whereas 
she blew up on the 27th: and again, the first attack 
on our line, said to have taken place on the 27th, was 
made on the 28th. The report of this last day is 
given in a very succinct form. I request the reader 
to compare it with my account. That of the 1st Jan- 
uary, 1815, is equally concise, and makes no mention 
of the effect of our artillery upon the enemy's bat- 
teries, nor of the number of men destroyed by our 
fire. As to the rest, this journal breathes a tone of 
moderation honourable to its author; if it does not 
contain the whole truth, it at least contains no direct 
assertions in opposition to it. 

No. 4 contains a despatch of major-general Lam- 
bert, on whom devolved the command of the British 
army, after the death of general Packenham, as being 
the next in rank, generals Gibbs and Keane having 
been carried off the field of battle, severely wounded, 
on the 8th of January. General Lambert assumed 
the command at a critical moment, and under very 
unfavourable auspices, and I doubt not, under cir- 
cumstances very painful to his feelings. He had a 
melancholy duty to perform, in announcing the re- 
sult of the attack of the 8th January. His was the 
painful task to render an account of a complete de- 
feat, to a minister of his government, to a member of 
the same cabinet who, with the sang froid of po- 


liticians, had prepared this formidable armament, 
whose success had not even been questioned and who, 
instead of the recital of a brilliant victory, announced 
in anticipation, in their gazettes, as a certain event, 
to express a doubt of which would have been an in- 
sult to the English nation, and of which, they said 
they awaited only the particulars — this general was 
obliged to detail a disaster the most complete, and a 
reverse the most poignant that the British arms had 
ever sustained in the new hemisphere. This task, 
it must be confessed, was hard to perform, especially 
as to the recital of an attack which had miscarried 
so entirely, though made by numerous and experi- 
enced troops, this officer must necessarily subjoin 
the enormous loss of his nation, in officers and men. 
It is well known that general Lambert felt and un- 
derstood all that was disagreeable and embarrassing 
in his situation, much better than he expressed it; 
but upon the whole, he gives a correct account of the 
localities and the respective positions of the troops. 

Our triumph was so distinguished, that I cannot, 
in honour, indulge in any reflections on this report. 
If general Lambert does not give all the details of 
an affair so disastrous to his army, if he passes slight- 
ly over many circumstances of this memorable day, 
the body of facts that he docs present, is neverthe- 
less generally correct. I shall take the liberty, how- 
ever, of rectifying two mistakes in his report. The 
first is, where he mentions the death of the com- 
mander-in-chief, general Packenham. It was not 
this officer, but brigade-major Wilkinson who fell, 
00 the glacis of our line. The former was killed by 


grape-shot, from the twelve pounder in battery No. 
S, while in the act of encouraging the troops, at the 
point marked in the plan of the affair of the 8th Ja- 
nuary. (See Atlas, plate 7.) 

The second and more important error, is in the 
passage, where general Lambert says. — " ^s they 
(the British troops,) advanced^ a continued and most 
galling fire was opened from every part of the Itne^'* 
&c. In my plan of this affair, I have distinguished, 
by lines, and I venture to say, with the greatest ex- 
actness, both the extent and the direction of our fire. 
The battalions of Piauche, Daquin, Lacoste, with 
three-fourths of the 44th regiment, that is to say, our 
whole centre, did not fire a single shot! Two com- 
panies of this last corps had fired two or three rounds, 
when the officers, observing that their shot did not 
reach the enemy, ordered them to cease firing. The 
majority of the troops under general Coffee did not 
fire at all, so that but one-half of our line was engag* 
ed. This is a fact for the truth of which I appeal 
to the individual testimony of every man in our army, 
and even to all those of the enemy who have can- 
dour enough to acknowledge an unpleasant truth. 

In my account of the affair of the 8th January, 
which I beg the reader to compare with the report 
of general Lambert, I have forgotten to mention a 
circumstance that reflects the highest honour on our 
troops. I shall insert it here; and it cannot fail to 
afford pleasure to the feeling mind. 

At the time of the preceding attacks, those of 
the 2Sth of December, and first of January, afier our 
artillery had silenced that of the enemy, and forced 


his troops to retire, repeated huzzas from the whole 
of our line rent the air; the most lively demonstra- 
tions of joy were everywhere exhibited by our sol- 
diers, a presage of the fate of the enemy, in a general 
attack. On the 8th of January, on the contrary, no 
sooner was the battle over than the roar of artillery 
and musketry gave place to the most profound si- 
lence. Flushed with victory, having just repulsed 
an enemy who had advanced to scatter death in 
their ranks, our soldiers saw, in the numerous corpses 
that strewed the plain, only the unfortunate victims 
of war; in the wounded and prisoners, whom they 
hastened to attend, only suifering and unhappy men, 
and in their vanquished enemies, brave men, worthy 
a better cause. Elated with their success, but over- 
powered by the feelings of a generous sympathy for 
those unfortunate victims of the ambition of their 
masters, they disdained to insult the unfortunate by 
an untimely exultation, and cautiously avoided any 
expression of joy, lest they should wound the feeU 
ings of those whom the chance of battle had placed 
in their hands. In the midst of the horrors of war, 
humanity dwells with delightful complacency, on 
the recital of such noble traits; they sooth the heart 
under the pressure of adversity, and divert the mind 
from the contemplation of ills which we can neither 
avoid nor entirely remedy. 

I have said, that the English troops advanced on 
our line, with the greatest firmness, and I willingly 
seize the present opportunity of adding my feeble 
testimony of this fact to that of general Lambert. In 
the list of killed and wounded, which is subjoined to 


his report, it will be remarked that the plroportion of 
officers is enormous. From this circumstance may- 
be formed a correct idea of the vigour of the attack, 
on the part of the enemy, and of the valour with which 
it was sustained. Independently of three general 
officers who succumbed, on this day a great many 
of the most distinguished families of England have 
to deplore the loss of some of their relatives, who 
died like heroes on the bed of honour; with such men 
it is always glorious to be connected. 

Tlie report of general Lambert is written in the 
same liberal and dignified style which has always 
been remarked in his communications with general 
Jackson and his officers. 

No. 5 is the report of colonel Thornton, com- 
mander of the English troops, in the attack on the 
right bank of the river, on the 8th of January. It is 
addressed to general Packenham, of whose death he 
was unadvised. The colonel in one part of this re- 
port says: " we met with 7io obstacle^ until we reached 
a picket^ posted behind a bridge^'* &c. " and secured 
by a small work^ apparently just thrown up.'''' The 
bridge, of which he here speaks, is that over May- 
he w's mill-race, but as for the " small work" appa- 
rently just thrown up, I really cannot conceive what 
he means. There existed nothing of this nature, or 
which he could consider as such, but the embank- 
ment of the canal, raised several years ago, with the 
earth dug out of it. If colonel Thornton should ever 
travel along the banks of the Mississippi, especially 
below New Orleans, he will meet with many such 


In the 5th plate of the Atlas, will be found a cor- 
rect view of that position, which, to colonel Thornton, 
seemed to be " a very formidable redoubt^ on the bank 
of the river ^ with the right fank secured by an en- 
trenchment, extending back to a thick wood, and its 
line protected by an incessant fire of grape.'''* This 
pretended redoubt, ^vith its entrenched fiank, extended 
but two hundred yards from the bank of the river, 
and not to a wood, as the colonel asserts. Beyond 
these two hundred yards, and in front of the troops 
under colonel Davis, there was only an extension of 
the old canal Raguet, two-thirds filled, and affording 
no sort of shelter. I refer the reader to what I have 
said, in this work, of the above line, and the disposi- 
tion of the troops, &c. 

According to this officer's account, our troops 
on the right bank of the river, amounted to fifteen 
hundred; while in fact the number of our effective men 
did not exceed eight hundred. He takes care not to 
say, that the greater part of our pieces of artillery were 
spiked — and their ammunition thrown into the ri- 
ver: it would seem, on the contrary, that he took a 
considerable quantity of it, which cannot be the case, 
as commodore Patterson had taken care to destroy 
them, and all that he got possession of were a few 
rounds for the pieces mounted on the line, and some 
musket cartridges. 

I renew my invitation to the reader, to compare 
every document of the enemy, with my narrative, 
and to trace the movements on the map, as the only 
means to arrive at the truth. 


No. 6 is a despatch of admiral Cochrane, to the 
secretary of the admiralty, which gives an account 
of the operations reported by his generals Keane and 
Lambert, with those mentioned by major Forrest, but 
in a more succinct manner. His letter is devoted 
principally to the operations of the marines and sai- 
lors landed from the fleet, to aid the land service; — 
and tlie mention of the marine officers who had distin^ 
guished themselves. Accompanying his letter is 
one of captain Thomas Trowbridge, who command- 
ed the sailors that were disembarked, reporting fa- 
vourably the names of some of his officers whose 
good cojiduct he had occasion to notice. 

Admiral Cochrane also announces the bombard- 
ment of fort Plaquemine, which he fears, has not yet 
produced ail the effect he no doubt had expected from 
it. More than one thousand bombs had been thrown 
at the fort — but in vain. It appears, that the admi- 
ral had not sufficiently studied the quality of the soil 
of Louisiana, when he despatched this little squadron 
into the Mississippi, to make, as he says, a diversion; 
but in fact, to force a passage; unfortunately, how- 
ever, for his expectations, the bravery and vigilance 
of the garrison of fort St. Philip defeated his scheme. 
No. 7 contains a long letter from general Lam- 
bert, addressed to lord Bathurst, detailing the move- 
ments of the British army, from the affair of the 8th 
of January until the 28th of the same month, the day 
after the total evacuation by their forces. In this let- 
ter, he says what is not altogether correct, viz. that 
the army was not at all harassed, in its retreat. I have 
given an account of the movements ordered by gc- 


iieral Jackson, to annoy the enemy, who certainly 
feared being harassed, as is proved by his placing, in 
the bayous, barges armed with artillery, to cover his 
retreat, and fire on the troops sent in pursuit, which 
they did, as I have related in this work, in its proper 
place. The enemy also raised breastworks, in se- 
veral places, on the borders of the bayous. (See 
Atlas, plate No. 5.) 

Eft'ectually to annoy the enemy, in his retreat, 
we had need of boats, to descend the bayou Bien- 
venu, sufficiently large to carry artillery. ThesC) 
as I have already said, we did not possess. General 
Jackson, with men and muskets could make soldiers; 
but he could not fabricate arms, nor supply the want 
of a naval force. 

In support of what I have advanced, as to the 
intention of the British government, to carry on a 
war of pillage and devastation against the United 
States, I insert several letters which establish this 
fact, beyond all possibility of doubt. (See Appen- 
dix, No. 67.) Some of these letters were written 
by superior officers, to others of similar grade; all 
of whom would have cautiously avoided the ex* 
pression of such sentiments, had they not been assur- 
ed beforehand, that they corresponded with those of 
their government. I shall abstain from all reflection 
on these letters — they speak for themselves. Com- 
ment upon them might subject me to the charge of 
wishing to influence the opinion of my readers res* 
pecting documents which are alone sufficient to give 
a finish to the picture of the enemy with whom we' 

had to contend. 

K k 


In the above review of the British official reports, 
I have been guided by that strici regard to truth 
and that severe impartiaHty, to which l n historian is 
ever bound to adhere and should never lose sight of. 
The reader may compare for himself and form his 
own opinion. He will also observe, that these re- 
ports are written in a style of decorum and modesty, 
by no means usual with the enemy, previous to this 
period. It appears to have been reserved for the 
British officers, to be taught on the shores of the 
Mississippi, to know a nation, who, neither in the 
course nor at the commencement of this struggle, had 
ever any cause for self reproach, but who, on the 
contrary, had given many proofs of her patience in 
enduring the repeated and long-continued injustice 
of the English, and was, at length obliged to redress 
her grievances by the sword. 

Far from me be the wish of recriminating fur- 
ther on the conduct of the British in the war which is 
now happily closed by a peace, honourable to both 
nations. I shall terminate this work, by offi^ring up, 
in common with all good citizens, my prayer to hea- 
ven that it may long endure, and the effusions of my 
gratitude to divine Providence, for the protection, 
which has encouraged and supported us through the 
glorious struggle. The unexampled prosperity, to 
which America has attained, notwithstanding the ob- 
stacles inseparable from a state of warfare, is a ne^v 
proof of the divine favour; and a sure pledge of our fu- 
ture safety. While the names of Bridgewater, Chippe- 
wa, fort Erie, Stonington, Plattsburg, Baltimore and 
New Orleans, will ever excite, in the hearts of Amc- 


ricans the most lively sensations of joy and of na- 
tional pride, it is to be hoped they will teach the 
English this important lesson, that none can insult 
with impunity a nation, which is firmly determined 
to maintain itself in the enjoyment of freedom and 




After what I have said m the text of this work, relative to 
the Barratarians, had been prepared for the press, other particu- 
lars came to my knowledge, which I have thought proper to in- 
sert here. 

In the month of So^tember, 1814, commodore Patterson 
had received instructions from the secretary of the navy, to dis- 
perse the Barratarian association, and the schooner Carolina had 
been ordered to New Orleans, for that purpose — he was accord- 
ingly making preparations, jointly with colonel Ross, of the 44th 
fegiment, then military commandant at New Orleans, but previous 
to the completion of his arrangements, communications of consid- 
erable importance were received by the governor, from Barrataria, 
which rendered doubtful the course which prudence required to be 
taken. These communications furnished the particulars of an over- 
ture which had been made by certain British officers, then at Pen- 
sacola, to Mr. Lafitte, as the officer commanding at Barrataria, to 
join the British, in an attack on New Orleans. The letters and 
propositions of the English were sent by Mr. Lafitte, under cover 
to Mr. Blanque, a distinguished and influential member of the 
legislatui'e. This gentleman deeming the disclosure by Mr. La- 
fitte, of great importance to the safety of the state, hastened to 
lay the same before the governor. Copies of these letters are 
inserted in the appendix. 

The governor of Louisiana thought proper to invite, on the oc- 
casion, the opinions and counsel of some of the principal officers 
of the army, navy, and militia, then in New Orleans, and to whom, 
after communicating the letters of the English officers, the man- 
ner in which they had come to his hands, or his reasons for believ- 
ing them genuine, he submitted two questions. — 1st, whether the 
letters were genuine, and 2d, whether it was proper that the go- 
vernor should hold intercourse, or enter into any correspondence 
with Mr. Lafitte and his associates. To each of those questions, 
an answer in the negative was returned; major-genera! Villere 
alone dissenting — this officer being, as well as the governor, who 
presiding in the council could not give his opinion, not onlv sa^ 

254 NOTES. 


tisfiecl as to the authenticity of the letters, but believing that the 
Barratarians might be employed at the present crisis, in such man- 
ner as greatly to contribute to the safety of the state and the an- 
noyance of the enemy. The preparations for the expedition, un- 
der caplain Patterson and colonel Ross, were continued, the for- 
mer acting under the orders of the secretary of the navy, and the 
latter co-operating, as is understood, at the request of the gover- 
nor of Liouisiai^a. The result of the expedition "was fully com- 
municated in a letter from captain Patterson to the secretary of 
the navy, which has been published in several of the newspapers. 
Many of the fugitives having reached New Orleans, and 
several being committed to jail, it was evident that the Barratarian 
association was extensive, and many good citizens seemed to think, 
that in the perilous condition of Louisiana, it was good policy to 
avail themselves of the services of men, most of whom had been 
accustomed to war, and who, from the perfect knowledge of our 
coast, and the various points of approach to New Orleans, might 
\)e particularly useful to the enemy, by whom it was now well 
ascertained, they had so earnestly been entreated to repair to his 
standard. But as a preliminary and indispensable step, a pardon 
for all real or supposed offences was necessary, and this could 
be granted only by the president. The governor was one of those, 
who thought that the Barratarians might be advantageously em- 
ployed against the enemy, and as early as the day of October 

1418, in a letter to the attorney-general of the United States, 
he recommended them to the favour of the executive. " It is 
greatly to be regretted (says the governor) that the general or 
state government had not sooner put them down — the length of 
time they were permitted to continue their practices, added much 
to their strength, and led the people here to view their course as 
less vitious, Measures tending to the prevention of crimes, can 
alone relieve us from the distress of punishing them; had such 
measures in regard to the offences in question, been earlier taken, 
we should not now have to lament the frequency of their commis- 
sion. Justice may require the punishment of some of the more 
culpable, but 1 see no good end to be attained by making the 
penalties of the law to fall extensively and heavily — the example 
is not the less imposing, by circumscribing the numbers of its vic-^ 


NOTES. 255 

tims, and the mercy which should dictate it seldom fails to make 
a salutary and lasting impression." After the capture of our gun- 
boats, the invasion of the state was inevitable, and the expedien- 
cy of inviting the Barratarians to our standard was generally ad- 
mitted. The governor conferred on the subject with major-gen- 
eral Jackson; and with his approbation issued, on the 17th of De- 
cember, 1814, the following general orders: 

" The governor of Louisiana, informed that many individuals, 
who may be or who are supposed to be, implicated in the of- 
fences heretofore committed against the United States at Barra- 
taria, and who have for some time past concealed themselves 
on account of their inability to procure bail in case of arrest; 
at the present crisis express a willingness to enrol them- 
selves and to march against the enemy. — He does hereby invite 
them to join the standard of the United States, and is authorized 
to say, should their conduct in the field meet the approbation of 
major-general Jackson, that that officer will unite with the go- 
vernor in a request to the president of the United States to ex- 
tend to each and every individual as aforesaid so marching and 
acting a free and full pardon." 

(Signed) William C. C. Claiborne. 

Governor commanding the militia. 

These orders were sent in every direction, and tended to 
bring to our standard many brave men and excellent artillerists, 
whose services contributed greatly to the safety of Louisiana, and 
received the highest approbation of the commanding general. 
The legislature of the state, previous to their adjournment, re- 
commended the Barratarians as proper objects for the clemency 
of the president, who, by his proclamation upon the subject bearing 
date the 6th of February 1815, and transmitted officially to the 
governor, by the secretary of state of the United States, granted 
to them a full and entire pardon. 

NOTE 2. 
It has been asserted from the concurrent report of a great 
number of the British prisoners and deserters, that on the memo- 
rable 8th of February, the parole and countersign of the enemy'ti 

256 NOTES. 

army were beauty and booty. Although this report is generally 
believed in the United States, particularly as it never has been 
formally denied by those whom it most concerns, I have not 
thought it sufficiently authenticated to record it as an historical 
fact. It is indeed a most heinous charge, and if untrue, requires not 
only a clear and positive denial, but also the proof of the genuine 
parole and countersign, which may be easily obtained, as it is well 
known that it is consigned in the orderly books of every corps in 
the army. It has been said that the British government considers 
it below its dignity to condescend to refute a calumny which has 
been only circulated through the medium of newspapers and 
other periodical publications in the United States. But this will not 
do; the almost unanimous assertion of the deserters and prisonei's 
on which this report is founded, is a fact too serious to be looked 
over, and it is but too much supported by the positive and repeated 
threats of admiral Cochrane in his letters of the 18th August and 
19th September 1 8 14, (See Appendix, No. 8,) by the letters of other 
officers intercepted on board the St. Lawrence, (see also Appen- 
dix No. 67) and the conduct of the British at Hampton, Alexandria, 
and other places. It cannot be considered derogatory to the dig- 
nity of any government to undeceive a great nation, among; 
whom every individual exercises a portion of the sovereignty. 
The voice of that nation will be heard, and its historians, if the 
British government persists in its unjustiliable silence, will at last 
no longer be swayed by the motives of delicacy and respect to a 
vanquished enemy which have actuated the author of these me- 
moirs. The fame of general Packenham and his officers, the 
moral character of the British military, strongly implicated by ;t 
charge of this nature, and the honour of the British government 
all imperiously demand that it be refuted, if capable of refutation^ 
which may be easily done, if general Lambert, v.hose honourable 
conduct in the course of this campaign does not permit the least 
doubt to be entertained of his veracity, will only come forward 
and state the real state of the fact— otherwise, and if proof, such 
as this, cannot be obtained, tfic report must be considered as true, 
and, I leave to future historians the unpleasant task of animad- 
verting upon a conduct so shocking to humanity.j 



NO. I. 

Copy of a letter from vice-admiral Cochrane to Mr. Monroe i 

Copy of a letter from Mr. Monroe to vice-admiral Coch- 
rane, Sec. ---_._- ii 
An extract from the National Intelligencer, - iv 
Copy of a letter from vice-admiral Cochrane to the secre- 
tary of state, .-_... V 

NO. II. 

Anonymous letter written from the Havanna, - - v 


Proclamation by lietenant-colonel Nicholls, - - vii 

Letter from the same to Mr. Laffite, . . - ix 
Directing orders by W. H. Percy, captain of the British 

ship the Hermes, &c. - - . . . ib. 

Letter from the same to captain Lockyer, &c. > - x 

NO. IV. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to captain Lockyer, - - xi 

NO. V. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to Mr. Blanque, - - - xii 

Letter from the same to the same, - - - xjiii 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to governor Claiborne, - ^ ib. 

NO. VI. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite the elder, to Mr. Blanque, xiv 


Circular letter from the war department to the governors 

of the several states, ----- xv 

Extract of a letter from general Jackson to govembv Clai- 
borne, - - - - • - . . xvi 
J. 1 


Militia general orders, - xvij 

NO. IX. 

Extract of a letter from general Jackson to governor Clai- 
borne, .--, --..-XX 

NO. X. 

Militia general orders, , _ - _ _ xx 

After general orders, . _ - - _ xxi 

NO. XI. 
Militia general orders, xxii 


Order of the day for the first coloniel battalion of the royal 

marines - - - - - - - xxiv 

Resolutions by the citizens of New Orleans, - - xxv 

Address from the committee of public defence to their fel- 
low citizens, xxvii 

NO. XV, 

Resolution by the committee of public defence, - xxviii 


Proclamation by general Jackson to the people of Loui- 
siana. - --.-_.- xxix 


Proclamation by general Jackson to the free coloured in- 
habitants of Louisiana, . . . . xxxf 


Anonymous letter to commodore Patterson - xxxii 


Letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary of the 

navy. - xxxii 


Report made by lieutenant Thomas Ap. Catesby Jones to 

commodore Patterson, ... - xxxiii 

NO, XX. 

Address by general Jackson to the militia of New Orleans, xxxvii 


Military order from the adjutant-general's office directed 

to the citizens of New Orleans, - - xxxix 


An act from the legislature of Louisiana to grant delays, Sec. xl 


Letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary of the 

navy. xlii 


Copy of a letter from general Jackson to the secretary at 

war, .-.-.. xliv 

Letter from the same to the same, - - xlv 


Copy of a letter from captain Henley, United States navy, to 

commodore Patterson, _ . _ xlvii 

Letter from general Jackson to the secretary at war, xlviii 

Copy of a letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary 

of the navy, . , . _ . xlix 


Letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary of the 

navy, ...... i 


Copy of a letter from genex'al Jackson to the secretary at 

war, lii 

Copy of a letter from the same to the same, - - liv 

Report made by colonel Hayne to general Jackson, Ivi 

Copy of a letter from general Jackson to the secretary at 

war, ib. 

Letter from the adjutant-general R. Butler to brigadier 

general Parker ._,._. jyiii 

Report of killed, wounded, &c, .... jjj.^ 


Letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary of the 

navy, - Ix 


Address of general Jackson to the troops stationed on the 

right bank of the Mississippi, - _ - - Ixiv 


Provisional articles of exchange for prisoners, - Ixvi 


Letter from general Jackson to the secretary at war, Ixvii 


Letter from general Jackson to reverend abbe Dubourg Ixviii 


Defence of fort St, Philip — extract of a letter from general 

Jackson to the secretary at war, _ . . Ixix 

Copy of a letter from major Overton to general Jackson, ib. 


Address by the rev. abbe Duborg to general Jackson at the 

ceremony of thanksgiving - - . - _ Ixxi 

Gener^il Jackson's answer, - . . . . Ixxiii 


Letter from general Jackson to the mayor of New Orleans, Ixxiii 


Letter from governor Claiborne to general Thomas Ixxv 

Answer, .>>.__. Ixxvi 

Letter from governor Claiborne to general CarroP Ixxvii 

Answer, _-__-.__ ib. 

Letter from governor Claiborne to general Adair, Ixxviii 

Answer, ------ ib. 

Letter from governor Claiborne to general Coffee, Ixxix 

Answer, . _ . . . Ixxx 

Letter from governor Claiborne to colonel Hinds, - Ixxxi 

Answer, . . _ . _ ib. 


Letter from general Lambert to general Jackson, Ixxxii 

Letter from admiral Cochrane to general Jackson, Ixxxiii 


Another from the same to the same, - - Ixxxiv 

Another letter from general Lambert to general Jackson, ib. 

Letter from general Jackson to admiral Cochrane, - Ixxxv 

Another from, the same to the same, - - Ixxxvi 


Letter from general Wmchester to the secretary at war, Ixxxvii 

Letter from colonel Lawrence to general Jackson, ib. 

Articles of capitulation of fort Bowyer, - Ixxxviii 

NO. XL. 

General orders relating to an inquiry into the conduct of 

colonel Lawrence, ... . Ixxxix 


Address of general Jackson to the soldiers and citizens of 

New Orleans, . _ - - xc 


Letter from general Keane to general Jackson. xci 

NO. XLIir. 

Letter from general Jackson to the secretary at war, xci 

Letter from general Lambert to general Jackson, - xciii 

Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert, - xciv 

Letter from the same to the same, - - - ib. 

Letter from major Woodruff to admiral Cochrane, xcv 

Letter from general Lambert to major Woodruff, xcvi 

Letter from general Lambert to general Jackson, ib. 

Letter from general Lambert to major Woodruff xcvii 


Letter from general Jackson to the secretary at war, xcvii 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert - xcviii 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert - xcix 


General orders, . . - . , xcix 

'i€^ . CONTENTS. 


Letter from general Jaclison to general Lambert, - c 

Letter from the same to major Woodruff, - '- cl 

NO. L. 

General orders relative to the treaty of peace, •^ ci 

After general orders, giving communication to the troops 

of a letter from the secretary at war, - - cii 


General orders discharguig all the militia, - - «iii 

NO. LU. 

The treaty of peace with Gritain Britain, - - c*- 

NO. Lin. 

Address from the city battalion of uniform companies to 

general Jackson, . _ . . cxiv 

General's answer. - - - - cxvi 

Letter from general Jackson to the secretary at war, cxviii 

NO. LV. 

Letter from major Woodruff to general Jackson, - cxix 


Letter from general Lambert to general Jackson, - cxx 


Resolutions by the congress of the United States relative 

to the conduct of the people of Louisiana and others, cxxii 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert, - cxxiv 

NO. Lix. 

Resolutions of the legislature of Louisiana, - cxxiv 

NO. LX. 

Proclamation by the president of the United States, cxxix 

Decision of the court-martial in the case of major Villere, cxx^cj 



Exiracts of the proceedings of a court of inquiry r elative 
to the retreat on the right bank of the Mississippi on 
the 8th January, 1815, - - - cxxxii 


Proceedings of a court of inquiry held in the naval arsenal 

at Nev/ Orleans, by order of commodore Patterson, cxxxii 


A list of the corps composing the British army, - cxxxvi 

StaiRF of the British army, ..... /cxxxvii 

Letter from Dr. Morrell to the author, - - ib. 


No. 1 . Despatches from admiral Cochrane to John Wil- 
son Crooker, esqr. - . - - - cxxxviii 
Letter from caytain Lockyer to admiral Cochrane cxl 
A list of the British killed and wounded in the capture 

of the American gun-boats, . . . . exlii 

No. 2. Letter from major-general Keane to major-general 

Packenham, -...,. cxliii 

No. 3. Extracts from the journal of the movements of the 

British army -....._ cxlvii 
No. 4. Despatch from general Lambert to lord Bathurst, cxlix 
Return of casualties, . - . . _ cliii 
No. 5. Letter from lieutenant-colonel Thornton to major- 
general Packenham, clvii 

No. 6. Letter from admiral Cochrane to John Wilson 

Crooker esqr clix 

Letter from captain Trowbridge to vice-admiral Coch- 
rane clxv 

No. 7. Letter from general Lambert to earl Bathurst clxvi 

Return of casualties, - clxx 

No. 8. Letter from general Lambert to earl Bathurst, clxxii 


Juetters found en boa-rd the St. Lawrence, » clx-xvi 


Negro stealing clxxx 


Address by major-general Jackson to the army, January 

21st, 1815. - - - - - - clxxxii 


NO. I. 

Copy of a letter from vice-admiral Cochrane to Mr. Monroe, 

His Britannic majesty's ship the Tonnant, 

in the Patuxent river, 18th AugHst, 1814. 

Sir — Having been called upon by the governor-general of the 
Canadas to aid him in carrying into effect measures of retaliation 
against the inhabitants of the United States, for the wanton de- 
struction committed by their army in Upper Canada, it has be- 
come imperiously my duty, conformably with the nature of the 
governor-general's application, to issue to the naval force under 
my command, an order to destroy and lay waste such towns and 
districts upon the coast, as may be found assailable. 

I had hoped that this contest would have terminated, with- 
out my being obliged to resort to severities, which are contrary to 
the usage of civilized warfare, and as it has been with extreme 
reluctance and concern that J have found myself compelled to 
adopt this system of devastation, I shall be equally gratified if the 
conduct of the executive of the United States will authorize my 
staying such proceedings, by making reparation to the suffering 
inhabitants of Upper Canada: thereby manifesting that if the de- 
structive measures pursued by their army were never sanctioned, 
they will no longer be permitted by the government. 

I have the honour to be, sir, with much consideration, your 
most obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) Alex. Cochrane. 


Cofiy of a letter from Mr, Moirroe to sir Alexander Cochrane^ ■Vice- 
admiral^ Sec. &c. 
» Department of state, September 6, 1814. 

Sir— I have had the honour to receive your letter of the 18th 
of August, stating, that having been called on by the governor- 
genf.ral of the Canadas, to aid him in carrying into effect mea- 
sure, of retaliation against the inhabitants of the United States, for 
the wanton desolation committed by their army in Upper Canada, 
it has become your duty, conformably with the nature of the go- 
vernor-general's application, to issue to the naval force under 
your command, an order to destroy and lay waste such towns and 
districts upon the coast as may be found assailable. 

It is seen with the greatest surprise, that this system of de- 
vastation which has been practised by the British forces, so mani- 
festly contrary to the usage of civilized warfare, is placed by you 
on the ground of retaliation. No sooner were the United Stales 
compelled to resort to war against Great Britain, than they resolv- 
ed to wage it in a manner most consonant to the principles of hu- 
manity, and to those friendly relations which it was desirable to 
preserve between the two nations, after the restoration of peace. 
They perceived however with the deepest regret, that a spirit 
alike just and humane was ncitlier cherished nor acted on by your 
government. Such an assertion would not be hazarded, if it was 
not supported by facts, the proof of which has perhaps already 
carried the same conviction to other nations that it has to the peo- 
ple of these states. Without dwelling on the deplorable cruelties 
committed by the savages in the British ranks, and in British pay, 
on American prisoners at the river Raisin, which to this day have 
never been disavowed or atoned, I refer, as more immediately 
connected with the subject of your letter, to the wanton desola- 
tion that was committed, at Havre-de-Grace, and at Georgetown, 
early in the Spring 1813. These villages were burnt and ravag- 
ed by the naval forces of Great Britain, to the ruin of their unarm- 
ed inhabitants, wlto saw with astonishment that they derived no 
protection to their property from the laws of war. During the 
same season, scenes of invasion and pillage, carried on under the 
same authority, were witnessed all along the waters of the Che- 
sapeake, to an extent inflicting the most serious private distress^ 


and under circumstances that justified the suspicion, that revenge 
and cupidity, rather than the manly motives that should dictate 
the hostility of the high-minded foe, led to their perpetration. The 
late destruction of the houses of the government in this city is 
another act which comes necessarily in view. In the wars of ma- 
dern Europe, no examples of the kind, even among nations the 
most liostile to each other, can be traced. In the course of ten 
years past, the capitals of the principal powers of the continent 
of Europe have been conquered, and occupied alternately by the 
victorious armies of each other, and no instance of such wanton 
and unjustifiable desti'uction has been seen. We must go back 
to distant and barbarous ages, to find a parallel for the acts of 
which I complain. 

Although these acts of desolation invited, if they did not im- 
pose on the government the necessity of retaliation, yet in no in- 
stance has it been authorized. The burning of the village of 
Newark in Upper Canada, posterior to the early outrages above 
enumerated, was not executed on that principle. The village of 
Newai'k adjoined fort George, and its destruction was justified by 
the officer who ordered it, on the ground that it became necessary 
in the military operations there. The act however was disavowed 
by the government. The burning which took place at Long 
Point was unauthorized by the government, and the conduct of 
the officer subjected to the investigation of a military tribunal. 
For the burning at St. David's, committed by stragglers, the offi- 
cer who commanded in that quarter was dismissed without a trial, 
for not preventing it. 

I am commanded by the president distinctly to state, that it 
as little comports with any oi'ders which have been issued to the 
military and naval commanders of the United States, as it does 
with the established and known humanity of the American nation, 
to pursue a system which it appears you have adopted. This go- 
vernment owes it to itself, to the principles which it has ever held 
sacred, to disavow, as justly chargeable to it, any such wanton, 
cruel and unjustifiable warfare. 

Whatever unauthorized irregularity may have been commit- 
ted by any of its troops, it would have been readj^, acting on these 
principles of sacred and eternal obligation, to disavow, and as far 


as might be practicable, to repair. But in the plan of desolating 
warfare which your letter so explicitly makes known, and which 
is attempted to be excused on a plea so utterly groundless, thb 
president perceives a spirit of deep-rooted hostility, which, with- 
out the evidence of such facts, he could not have believed existed, 
or would have been carried to such an extremity. 

For the reparation of injuries, of whatever nature they may 
be, not sanctioned by the law of nations, which the military or 
naval force of either power may have committed, against the other, 
this government will always be ready to enter into reciprocal ar- 
rangements. It is presumed that your government will neither 
expect nor propose any which are not reciprocal. 

Should your government adhere to a system of desolation, so 
Contrary to the views and practice of the United States, so re- 
volting to humanity, and repugnant to the sentiment and usages of 
the civilized world, whilst it will be seen with the deepest regret, 
it must and will be met with a determination and constancy be- 
coming a free people, contending in a just cause for their essen- 
tial rights, and their dearest interests. 

I have the honour to be, Avith great consideration, sir, your 
taost obedient humble servant, 

(Signed) James Monroe. 

From the N'ational Intelligencer. 

We observe it mentioned in some prints, that the late letter 
of admiral Cochrane to the secretary of state was received before 
the enemy entered Washington. This is not so. We state the 
fact, on the most unquestionable authority, that it did not arrive 
in Washington until late in the night of the 30th of August, and 
that it was not received by the secretary of state until the morning 
of the 31st. 

The letter was dated on the 1 8th, probably the very day the 
Tonnant arrived in the Patuxent. It affects to give previous no- 
tice of an intention to destroy and lay waste our towns, and yet is 
not even sent off (although antedated) until afttr this purpose 
has been accomplished at Washington. This is a very pretty little 
o-ic/(- played ofl' by the vice-admiral in his first essay at diplomatic 

correspondence, and we doubt not has been matter of pleasant 
chuckling between himself and friend, that accomplished and high- 
bred gentleman admiral George Cockburn. It is worthy of re- 
mark, that a near blood relation of the vice-admiral's has lately- 
been convicted in England and sentenced to the pillory for a de- 
ception practised upon the public there. The vice appears to 
run through the family. 

Fice-admiral Cochrane to the secretary of state. 

His B. M. ship the Chesapeake, Sept. 19, 1814. 
Sir — I had the honour to receive your letter of the 6th inst. 
this morning, in reply to the one which I addressed to you from 
the Patuxent. 

As I have no authority from my government to enter upon 
any khid of discussion relative to the points contained in your let- 
ter, I have only to regret that there does not appear to be any 
hope that I shall be authorized to recall my general order; which 
has been further sanctioned by a subsequent request from lieu- 
tenant-general sir George Provost. 

A copy of your letter will this day be forwarded by me to 
England, and until I receive instmctions from my government the 
measures which I have adopted must be persisted in: unless re- 
muneration be made to the inhabitants of the Canadas for the in- 
juries they have sustained from the outrages committed by the 
troops of the United States. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Alex. Coohrane. 



HavannOf August 8, 1814. 
Dear Sir, 

I EMBRACE an opportunity offered for Pensacola, to inform 
you, that an expedition has sailed from Bermuda for Mobile, who 
touched and left this on the 1 1 th instant, under the command of 
colonel Nicholls of the artillery, a brave officer well known in the 
European wars. 


They touched here far aid in gun-boats, small vessels, &c. 
and for leave to land at Pensacola, all of which were refused by the 
captain-general. However, I learn that they are determined to 
land at Pensacola, with or without leave, where they will dis- 
embark their park of artillery. The colonel was conveyed with 
his troops in two sloops of war, the Hermes, commanded by the 
hon. W. H. Percy, and the Caron, commanded by the hon. P. 
Spencer, who, with such vessels as may be on the station, will co- 
operate with the land forces. 

The brig Orpheus, some time past, landed arms and some 
officers at Apalachicola, to arrange with the Creek nation for 
future operations against Mobile, New Orleans and that district 
of the country, which they effected, and caused the breaking off 
the treaty. 

The whole nation are ready to join the British troops under 
colonel Nicholls, who will immediately on his arrival issue his 
proclamation, declaring all slaves who will join their standard free 
and liberated forever from their masters. He will also issue an- 
other to the Indians, promising all the tribes who will join him, to 
reinstate them in all their lands taken from them by the United 
States, and to guarantee the same to them forever. Having thus 
prepared the minds of the negroes and Indians, he will, on the ar- 
rival of two or three black regiments, from Nassau, 8cc. of fine 
troops, calculated for that climate (who may pass by this next 
veek) push for New Orleans — first having secured and fortified 
Mobile point, and taken Mobile, as well as placed a force at every 
point on the lakes, of any importance, as well as Plaquemines, in 
order to cut off all trade of the Mississippi. 

This force with him is small, but he will soon be re-enforced 
from Bermuda, 8cc. — the flying artillery appears well calculated 
for his operations in that country. 

When I have stated these facts, it will become ycvr duty, and 
the duty of every citizen in the state, who has property or a fami- 
ly to protect and defend, to rise in mass, and defeat this most damn- 
able and infamous plan of burning and carnage, the most horrible 
and atrocious ever before projected by a civilized nation. 

You have not a moment to lose; because if they get a footing, 
it will be very difficult to get clear of theip. The commander of 


tiie sea-forces, the hon. W. H. Percy, is a very young man, a 
Scotchman, and mild and gentlemanly, the son of lord Beverly; 
but the colonel is an impatient blustering Irishman, who was go- 
vernor of Andant, in the German seas, and apparently brave and 

I have only a moment to insist upon you again to save the 
state and the property of the planters at this awful crisis. 



By lieutenant-colonel Edward J^icholls, commanding' his Britannic 
majesty's forces in the Floridas. 

Natives of Louisiana! on you the first call is made to assist 
in liberating from a faithless, imbecile government, your paternal 
soil: Spaniards, Frenchmen, Italians, and British, whether settled 
or residing for a time, in Louisiana, on you, also, I call to aid me in 
this jftst cause: the American usurpation in this country must be 
abolished, and the lawful owners of the soil put in possession. I 
am at the head of a large body of Indians, well armed, disciplined, 
and commanded by British officers— a good train of artillery with 
every requisite, seconded by the powerful aid of a numerous Bri- 
tish and Spanish squadron of ships and vessels of war. Be not 
alarmed, inhabitants of the country, at our approach; the same good 
faith and disinterestedness which has distinguished the conduct of 
Britons in Europe, accompanies them here; you will have no fear 
of litigious taxes imposed on you for the purpose of carrying on an 
unnatural and unjust war; your property, your laws, the peace and 
tranquillity of your country, will be guaranteed to you by men who 
will suffer no infringement of theirs; rest assured that these brave 
red men only burn with an ardent desire of satisfaction, for the 
Wrongs they have suffered from the Americans, to join you in liber- 
ating these southern provinces from their yoke, and drive them into 
those limits formerly prescribed by my sovereign. The Indians 
have pledged themselves, in the most solemn manner, not to injure, 
in the slightest degree, the persons or properties ofany but enemies; 
to their Spanish or English fathers, a flag over any door, whether 
Spanish, French, or British, will be a certain protection, nor dare 
any Indian put his foot on the threshold thereof, under penalty of 

viii . APPENDIX. 

death from his own countrymen; not even an enemy will an Indian 
put to death, ejtcept resisting in arms, and as for injuring helpless 
women and children, the red men, by their good conduct and treat- 
ment to them, will (if it be possible) iiiake the Americans blush for 
their more inhuman conduct lately on the Escambia, and within a 
neutral territory. 

Inhabitants of Kentucky, you have too long borne with griev- 
ous impositions — the whole brunt of the war has fallen on your 
brave sons; be imposed on no longer, but either range yourselves 
imder the standard of your forefathers, or observe a strict neu- 
trality; if you comply with either of these offers, whatever provi- 
sions you send down, will be paid for in dollars, and the safety of 
the persons bringing it, as well as the free navigation of the Mis- 
sissippi, guaranteed to you. 

Men of Kentucky, let me call to your view (and I trust to 
your abhorrence) the conduct of those factions, which hurried you 
into this civil, unjust, and unnatural war, at a time when Great 
Britain was straining every nerve in defence of her own and the 
liberties of the world — when the bravest of her sons were fighting 
and bleeding in so sacred a cause— when she was spending mil- 
lions of her treasure in endeavouring to pull down one of the most 
formidable and dangerous tyrants that ever disgraced the form of 
man — when groaning Europe was almost in her last gasp — when 
Britons alone showed an undaunted front — basely did those assas- 
sins endeavour to stab her from the rear; she has turned on them, 
renovated from the bloody but successful struggle — Europe is 
happy and free, and she now hastens justly to avenge the unpro- 
voked insult. Show them that you are not collectively unjust; 
isave that contemptible few to shift for themselves; let those slaves 
«f the tyrant send an embassy to Elba, and implore his aid; but 
let every honest, upright American, spurn them with united con- 
tempt. After the experience of twenty-one years, can you any 
longer support those brawlers for liberty, who call it freedom, when 
themselves are free; be no longer their dupes — accept of my of- 
fers—every thing I have promised in this paper I guarantee to you, 
on the sacred honour of a British officer. 

Giren under my hand at my head-quarters^ 
Pcnsacola, this ^9lh day of August, 1814. 

Edward Nicholls, 


Edward JVicholls to M?-. Laffite, or (he commandant at Barataria. 
Head-quarters, Pensacola, August 31, 1814. 

I HAVE arrived in the Floridas for the purpose of annoying 

the only enemy Great Britain has in the world, as France and Eng- 
land are now friends. I call on you, with your brave followers, to 
enter into the service of Great Britain, in which you shall have 
tke rank of a captain; lands will be given to you all, in proportion 
to your respective ranks, on a peace taking place, and I invite you 
on the following terms. Your property shall be guaranteed to you, 
and your persons protected: in return for which I ask you to cease 
all hostilities against Spain, or the allies of Great Britain. — Your 
ships and vessels to be placed under the orders of the command- 
ing officer on this station, until the commander-in-chief's pleasure 
is known; but I guarantee their fair value at all events. I here- 
with inclose you a copy of my proclamation to the inhabitants of 
Louisiana, which will, I trust, point out to you the honourable in- 
tentions of my government. You may be an useful assistant to 
me, in forwarding them; therefore, if you determine, lose no time. 
The bearer of this, captain M'Williams, will satisfy you on any 
other point you may be anxious to learn, as will captain Lockyer 
of the Sophia, who brings him to you. We have a powerful re- 
enforcement on its way here, and I hope to cut out some other 
work for the Americans than oppressing the inhabitants of Louisi- 
ana. Be expeditious in your resolves, and rely on the verity of 

Your very humble servant, 

EdwArd Nicholes. 

By the hon. IVilliam Henry Percy., cafitain of his niajesty^s shi/i 
Hermes, and senior officer in the ^ulf of Mexico, 
Having understood that some British merchantmen have 
been detained, taken into, and sold by the inhabitants of Barataria, 
I have directed captain Lockyer, of his majesty's sloop Sophia, to 
proceed to that place, and inquire into the circumstances, with 
positive orders to demand instant restitution, and in case of refusal 
to destroy to his titmost every vessel there, as well as to carry de.- 
Sitruction over the whole place, and* at the same time to assure 
him of the co-operation of all his majesty's naval forces on this sta- 
tion. I trust at the same time, that the inhaljitants of Baratari^a, 



consulting their own interest, will not make it necessary to pro- 
ceed to such extremities — I hold out at the same time, a war in- 
stantly destructive to them; and on the other hand, should they be 
inclined to assist Great Britain in her just and unprovoked war 
against the United States, the security of their property, the bles- 
sin§[S of the British constitution — and should they be inclined to 
settle on this continent, lands will, at the conclusion of the war, be 
allotted to them in his majesty's colonies in America. In return 
for all these concessions on the part of Great Britain, I expect 
that the directions of their armed vessels will be put into my hands 
(for which they will be renumerated,) the instant cessation of 
hostilities against the Spanish government, and the restitution of 
any undisposed property of that nation. 

Should any inhabitants be inclined to volunteer their services 
into his majesty's forces, either naval or military, for limited 
service, they will be received; and if any British subject, being at 
Barataria, wishes to return to his native country, he will, on join- 
ing his majesty's service, receive a fi'ee pard'on. 

Given under my hand on board H. M. ship Hermes, 
Pensacola, this 1st day of September, 1814. 
W. H. Percy, 
Cujitain and senior officer. 

Letter from the hun. W. H. Percy ^ captain of his majesty's ship 
Hermes^ and senior officer in the gulf of Mexico., to Nicholas 
Lockyer, esq. commander of H. M. sloop Sophia. 

You are hereby required and directed, after having received 
on board an officer belonging to the first battalion of Royal colo- 
nial marines, to proceed in his majesty's sloop under your com- 
mand, without a moment's loss of time, for Barataria. 

On your arrival at that place, you will communicate with the 
chief persons there — you will urge them to throw themselves un- 
der the protection of Great Britain — and should you find them in- 
clined to pursue such a step, you will hold out to tkem that their 
property shall be secured to them, that they shall be considered 
British subjects, and at the conclusion of tiie war, lands within his 
majesty's colonies in America, will be allotted to them in return 


lor these concessions. You will insist on an immediate cessation 
of hostilities against Spain, and in case they should have any Spa- 
nish property not disposed of, that it be restored, ancl that they put 
their naval force into the hands of the senior officer here, until the 
commander-in-chief's pleasure is known. In the event of their 
not being inclined to act otfensively against the United States, you 
"will do all in your power to persuade them to a strict neutrality, 
and still endeavour to put a stop to their hostilities against Spain. 
Should you succeed completely in the ol)jcct for which you are 
sent, you will concert such measures for the annoyance of the ene- 
my as you judge best from circumstances; — having an eye to the 
junction of their small armed vessels with me for the capture of 
Mobile, &c. You will at all events yourself join me with the ut- 
most despatch at this post, with the accounts of your success. 

Given under my hand on board his majesty's ship Hermes, %t 
Pensacola, this 30th day of August, 1814. 

W. H. Percy, capt. 

NO. IV. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to Cafitain Lockyer, 

Barataria, 4,th Sefitember.^ 1814. 

The confusion which prevailed in our camp yesterday and 
this morning, and of which you have a complete knowledge, has 
prevented me from answering in a precise manner to the object 
of your mission; nor even at this moment can I give you all the 
satisfaction that you desire; however, if you could grant me a 
fortnight, I would be entirely at your disposal at the end of that 
time— this delay is indispensable to send away .the three persons 
who have alone occasioned all the disturbance — the two who 
were the most troublesome are to leave this place in eight days, 
and the other is to go to town — the remainder of the time is ne- 
cessary to enable me to put my affairs in order — you may com- 
municate with me, in sending a boat to the eastern point of the pass, 
where I will be found. You have inspired me with more confi- 
dence than the admiral, your superior officer, could have done 
himself; with you alone I wish to deal, and from you also I will 


claim, in due time, the reward of the services which I may render 
to you. 

Be so good, sir, as lo favour me with an answer, and believe 
me yours, &c. LAFFixr,- 

NO. V. 

Inciter from Mr. Luffite to, Mr. Blanquc. 

Barataria^ 4th Sefitetnber^ 1814. 

Though proscribed by my adoptive country, I will neverlet slip 
any occasion of serving her, or of proving that she has never ceased 
to be dear to me. Of this you will here see a convincing proof. 
Yesterday, the 3d of September, there appeared here, under a Hag 
of truce, a boat coming from an English brig, at anchor about two 
leagues from the pass. Mr. Nicholas Lockyer, a British officer of 
high rank, delivered me the following papers, two directed to m^e, 
a proclamation, and the admiral's instructions to that officer, all 
herewith enclosed. You will see from their contents the advan- 
tages I might have derived from that kind of association. I may 
have evaded the payment of duties to the custom house; but I 
have never ceased to be a good citizen; and all the offence I have 
committed, I was forced to by certain vices in our laws. In short, 
sir, I make you the depository of the secret on which perhaps de- 
pends the tranquillity of our country; please to make such use of it 
as your judgment may direct. I might expatiate on this proof of 
patriotism, but I let the fact speak for itself. I presume, how- 
ever, to hope that such proceedings may obtain amelioration of 
the situation of my unhappy brother, with which view I recom- 
mend him particularly, to your influence. It is in the bosom of a 
just man, of a true American, endowed with all other qualities that 
are honoured in society, that I think I am depositing the interests 
of our common country, and what particularly concerns myself. 

Our enemies have endeavoured to work on me by a motive_,„ 
which few men would have resisted. They represented to me a bro- ' 
ther in irons, a brother who is to me very dear! whose deliverer I 
might become, and I declined the proposal. Well persuaded of hi.s 
innocence. 1 am free from apprehension as to the issue of a trial; 


but he is sick and not in a place ^yhere he can receive the assist- 
ance his state requires. I recommend him to you, in the name of 

As to the flag of truce, I have done with regard to it eveiy thing 
that prudence suggested to me at the time. I have asked fifteen 
days to determine, assigning such plausible pretexts, that I hope 
the term will be granted. I am waiting for the Britisli officer's 
answer, and for yours to this. Be so good as to assist me with 
your judicious counsel in so weighty an affair. 

I have the honour to salute you, 

J. Laffite. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to Mr. Blanque. 

Gra7ide Terre^ 7th Sefitember^ 1814. 

You will always find me eager to evince my devotedness to 
the good of the country, of which I endeavoured to give some 
proof in my letter of the 4th, which I make no doubt you receiv- 
ed. Amongst other papers that have fallen into my hands, I send 
you a scrap which appears to me of sufficient importance to merit 
your attention.* 

Since the depai'ture of the officer who came with the flag of 
truce, his ship, with two other ships of war have remained on the 
coast, within sight. Doubtless this point is considered as impor- 
tant. We have hitherto kept on a respectable defensive; if, how- 
ever, the British attach to the possession of this place, the impor- 
tance they give us room to suspect they do, they may employ 
means above our strength. I know not whether, in that case, pro- 
posals of intelligence with government would be out of season. 
It is always from my high opinion of ypur enlightened mind, that 
J request you to advise me in this affair. 

I have the honour to salute you, 

J. Laffite. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite to his excellency TV. C. C. Claiborne. 

In the firm persuasion that the choice made of you to fill the 
office of first magistrate of this state, Avas dictated by the esteem of 

• This piece is numbered II in this Appendix. 


your fellow-citizens, and was conferred on merit, I confidently ad- 
dress you on an affair on which may depend the safety of this 

I offer to you to restore to this state several citizens, who per- 
haps in your eyes have lost that sacred title. I offer you them, 
however, such as you could vi^ish to find them, ready to exert their 
utmost efforts in defence of the country. This pomt of Louisiana, 
which I occupy, is of great importance in the present crisis. I 
tender my services to defend it; and the only reward I ask is that 
a stop be put to the proscription against me and my adherents, by 
an act of oblivion for all that has been done hitherto. I am the 
stray sheep, wishing to return to the sbeepfold. If you were 
thoroughly acquainted with the nature of my offences, I should 
appear to you much less guilty, and still worthy to discharge the 
duties of a good citizen. I have never sailed under any flag but 
that of the i-epublic of Carthagena, and my vessels are perfectly 
regular in that respect. If I could have brought my lawful prizes 
into the ports of this state, I should not have employed the illicit 
means that have caused me to be proscribed. I decline saying 
more on the subject, until I have the honour of your excellen- 
cy's answer, which I am persuaded can be dictated only by wis- 
dom. Should your answer not be favourable to my ardent de- 
sires, I declare to you that 1 will instantly leave the country, to 
avoid the imputation of having co-operated towards an invasion on 
this point, which cannot fail to take place, and to rest secure in the 
acquittal of my own conscience. 

I have the honour to be 

Your excellency's, 8cc. 

J. Laffitk 

NO. VI. 

Letter from Mr. Laffite.^ the elder., to Mr. BlanquCy 

Grande Terrc, lOt/i September, 18U. 


On my arrival here, I was informed of all the occurrences 
that have taken place; I think I may justly commend my bro- 
ther's conduct under such difficult circumstances. I g,m per- 


suaded he could not have made a better choice, than in making 
you the depositary of the papers that were sent to us, and which 
may be of great importance to the state. Being fully determined 
to follow the plan that may reconcile us with the government, I 
herewith send you a letter directed to his excellency the gover- 
nor, which I submit to your discretion, to deliver or not, as you 
may think proper. I have not yet been honoured with an answer 
from you. The moments are precious; pray send me an answer 
that may serve to direct my measures in the circumstances in 
which I find myself. 

I have the honour to be, Sec. 

P. Laffitk. 

P. S. 1 join with this the letter for Mr. Claiborne, which I 
submit to your judgment. Should you think, from its contents, 
that it may be delivered or communicated to him, you will do 
either, as you think proper. I send it to you under cover; after 
havuig read it, I request you to seal it. 


Circular letter to the governors of the several states, 

" War depart ment., July Ath, 1814. 

" The late pacification in Europe, offers to the enemy a 
large disposable force, both naval and military, and with it the 
means of giving to the war here a character of new and increased 
activity and extent — without knowing with certainty, that such 
will be its application, and still less that any particular point or 
points will become objects of attack, the president has deemed it 
advisable, as a measure of precaution, to strengthen ourselves on 
the line of the Atlantic, and (as the principal means of doing this 
will be found in the militia) to invite the executives of certain 
states, to organize and hold in i-eadiness for immediate service, a 
corps of ninety-three thousand, five hundred men, under the laws 
ofthe 28th of February 1795, andthe 18th of April 1814. • 

" The enclosed detail, will show your excellency, what, un- 
der this requisition, will be the quota of your state. 


" As far as volunteer uniform corps can be formed, they will 
be preferred. 

" The expediency of regarding (as well in the designation of 
the militia, as of their places of rendezvous) the points^ the im- 
portance or exposure of which, will be nnost likely to attract the 
views of tUe enemy, need not be suggested. 

" A report of the organization of your quota, when complet- 
ed, and of the place or places of rendezvous will be acceptable. 

I have the honour to be, £cc. 
(Signed) John Armstrong." 

Of the force thus required to be holden in readiness, the 
quota assigned to Georgia, was three regiments, and one battalion 
— viz. three hundred and fifty artillery, three thousand one hun- 
dred and fifty infantry, total, three thousand five hundred. To 
Kentucky five regiments, and one battalion, viz. five thousand five 
hundred infantry. To Tennessee, two regiments, and one battalion 
— viz. two thousand five hundred infantry. To the INIississippi ter- 
ritory one battalion, viz. five hundred infantry; — and Louisiana, 
was required to furnish one regiment, viz. one thousand infantry. 

The letter of the secretary at war reached governor Clai- 
borne early in August, and by him was promptly attended to. On 
the 6th of March, he apportioned the quota assigned to Louisiana, 
between the first and seeond division of militia of the state. 

Extract of a letter from major-general Jackson to governor Clai- 
borne, dated head-quarters, 7th military district,fort Jackson 
2lst Juhj, 1814. 

This morning I was presented with a new British musket 
given to a friendly Indian by those at Apalachicola bay. Informa- 
tion has been received by this fellow tending to confirm the ru- 
mour of a considerable force having landed there with a large 
quantity of arms and other munitions of war, and with intentions 
to strike a decisive blow against the lower country. Mobile and 
Orleans are of such importance as to hold out strong inducements 
to them, at such a crisis: I must look to the constitutional autho- 
rities of the state of Louisiana for such support as will be effective 
in any emergency, and I trust this support will be afforded with 
promptitude whenever required. 

AP{>ENDIX, xyii 


J^lilitia ffe7ieral orders, head-quarters, 

JVeiv Orlea7is,Augnist 6th, 1814. 

In a letter from the honourable the secretary at war, under 
date of the 4th ultimo, the governor of Louisiana has received the 
orders of the president of the United States, to organize and hold 
in readiness for immediate service, a corps of a thousand militia 
infantry, being the quota assigned to this state, of a requisition for 
ninety-three thousand five hundred men, made on the executives 
of the several states, under the laws of the 28th February 1795, 
and 18th of April 1814, the governor and commander-in-chief in 
consequence directs, that one complete regiment, a thousand strong, 
to be composed of two battalions 1st and 2nd be organized and 
equipped for service, with the least possible delay. The first divi- 
sion of militia will furnish four full companies, each company to 
consist of one captain, one first lieutenant, two second lieutenant", 
four Serjeants, four corporals, one drummer, one fifer, and ninety 
privates — the whole to be apportioned among the several brigades 
or regiments attached to the first division by the major-general 
commanding the same, and under his orders to be organized on 
or before the 4th of September next, and due returns made to the 
ad j utant-general. 

The second division of militia will furnish five full compa- 
nies — each company to consist as aforesaid of one captain, one 
first lieutenant, two second lieutenants, four Serjeants, four corpo- 
rals, one drummer, one fifer, and ninety privates- — the whole to be 
apportioned among the several brigades or regiments attached to 
the second division by the major-general commanding the same; 
and under his orders to be completely organized on or before the 
15th September next, and due I'eturns made of the same. 

In all cases volunteer uniform companies of the strength re- 
quired will be preferred, and a tender of service from all such 
promptly accepted in assigning the quota of the first and second di- 
vision. The commandei'-in-chief, as was his duty, has taken into view 
the exposure of particular points, and the amount and description 
of population; like considerations will influence the major-generals 
ill making; apportionment among the several brigades and regi- 


nients. The returns to the adjutant-general will give the namea 
of the officers, non-commissioned officers and privates, and pai'- 
ticularly state the number and condition of the arms, in order that 
provision may be made for the supply of deficiencies. Each non- 
commissioned officer and private to furnish himself vyith a knap- 
sack and blanket. The colonel-commandant of the i-egimeut, and 
the medical staff will be named by the commander-in-chief; the 
major of the first battalion to be selected by the major-general of 
the second division; the major of the second battalion by the ma- 
jor-general of the first division, and the paymaster, adjutant, and 
quartermaster of the regiment by the colonel-commandant. 

The corps thus to be organized and kept in readiness for 
active duty, will on the further commands of the president, or on 
the requisition of any officer acting under his authority, be order- 
ed into the service of the United States, for a term not exceeding 
six months after their arrival at the point of rendezvous unless 
sooner discharged. The point of rendezvous for the detachment 
drawn from the first division, will be the city of New Orleans, and 
from the detachment drawn from the second division, the town of 
Baton Rouge. 

" The late pacification in Europe (says the secretary at war) 
offers to the enemy a large disposable force, both naval and mili- 
tary, and with it the means of giving to the war here a character 
of new and increased activity and extent. 

" Without knowing with certainty, that such will be its appli- 
cation, and still less that any particular point or points, will be- 
come objects of attack, the president has deemed advisable, as a 
measure of precaution, to strengthen ourselves on the line of the 
Atlantic." To these just reflections, the commander-in-chief will 
only add his firm reliance, that Louisiana will cheerfully partici- 
pate with the sister states in whatever toils or dangers, the safety 
of our common country shall advise. 

The desire manifested by the United States to sheathe the 
sword, on terms alike honourable to both parties, may indeed be 
met with a correspondent disposition. It is not easy to believe, 
that a nation should be so wholly regardless of duty to herself, 
as always to reject the claims of justice — but let us not be so far 
deluded with a hope of peace, as to leave our country uncovered 


and unprotected. If the latest reports from Europe are to be ac- 
credited, the enemy had determhied on the most vigorous prose- 
cution of the war — it is added, that this section of the imion was 
to be attacked v/ith design " of wresting Louisiana from the hands 
of the United States and restoring it to Spain." 

A project so chimerical illy comports with that character for 
wisdom, to which the English government aspires, nor is it be- 
'lieved to be seriously contemplated. That the bare rumour, 
however, of such a design should awaken some anxiety, is cause 
of no surprise. But if there be individuals so much deceived, as 
to suppose its accomplishment possible, they are cautioned against 
being instrumental in deceiving others. The principles of the 
American government, no less than the interest and honour of the 
American people forbid the relinquishment of one tenth of the 
American territory. Whilst the western rivers flow, no foreign 
power can hold or detach Louisiana from the United States. She 
may indeed be temporarily exposed to an invading foe, but until 
by some convulsion of nature that numerous, gallant, and hardy 
race of men, inhabiting the vast tract of country watered by the 
tributary streams of the Mississippi, shall become extinct, the po- 
litical destiny of Louisiana is placed beyond the possibility of 
change. Her connexipn, interest and government must remain 
American. We however do not solely rely for security on our 
northern and western brethren. We shall not be wanting in duty 
to ourselves. The commander-in-chief therefore avails himself 
of this occasion, to invite the officers thoughout the state, and 
particularly colonels of regiments, and commandants of separate 
corps, to be faithful and diligent in the discharge of their i-espec- 
tive duties. He orders the several regimental, battalion and com- 
pany musters, as prescribed by lav/ to be regularly holden, and 
every effort made to introduce order and discipline. If the war 
continues, we cannot hope for exemption from its calamities. 

In case of invasion, the whole militia will be ordered to front 
the enemy — if our homes and fire-sides are menaced, union, zeal, 
and mutual confidence should warm every heart and strengthen 
every arm. 

By order of his excellency William C. C. Claiborne, gover- 
nor and commander-in-chief. 

rSigned) A. Laneuvillk. 


NO. IX. 

Extract of a letter from major-general Jackson to governor {Jlai-. 
borne^ dated fort Jackson, August I5t/i, 1815. 
Infoumation this moment received by express from Alaba- 
ma Heights, bringing me a letter from Pensacola, added to the in- 
telligence received by captain Gordon, who was the bearer of a 
letter from me to the governor t)f Pensacola, makes it necessary, 
that all the forces allotted for the 7th military district, should be • 
held in a state of preparation to march to any point required at a 
aioment's warning. 

NO. X. 

Militia general orders,, head-qv^artersf 

J\''ew Orleans^ September 5th, 1814. 
Major-general Jackson acting under the authority of the 
president, having dernanded the immediate service in the field of 
the whole corps of Louisiana militia, directed to be holden in 
readiness for service, under the general orders of the 6th ult. the 
governor and commander-in-chief directs that the officers, non- 
commissioned officers and privates, drawn from the first, second, 
third, fourth, and fifth regiments under the orders aforesaid, ren- 
dezvous in New Orleans, on Saturday the 10th instant, at 10 
o'clock, A. M. in the enclosure in front of the barracks, where, be- 
ing organized into companies under the orders of major-general 
Viliere, in manner heretofore directed, they will be inspected by 
major Hughes, inspector-general of the seventh military district, 
and mustered into the service of the United States, and quartered 
in or near New Orleans, until further orders. 

Every individual will be punctual in his attendance: those, if 
if any there be, who may be prevented by severe indisposition, 
will send well attested certificates of the fact, or they will be re- 
ported as delinquents. Those who may claim exemption on the 
ground of bodily infirmity (and some few have exhibited such 
claims) will attend at the rendezvous, where they will be examined 
by a surgeon, upon whose report they will be rejected or passed 
by the inspector as justice shall dictate. Privates, wishing to serve 
by substitutes, will attend with the same, being previously instruct- 
ed that no substitute will be received but an able-bodied mart 


The time of rendezvous for detachments drawn from the more 
distant counties, will be fixed in after orders. 

(Signed) W. C. C. Claiborne. 


H. Q. JVew Orleans, September 5th, 1814. 
Major-general Jackson, acting under the authority of the 
president, having required the service in the field of the whole 
corps of Louisiana militia, holden in readiness for active service 
under the orders of the 6th ult. the governor and commander-in- 
chief directs that the detachment drawn from the second division 
of militia, rendezvous at the post of Baton Rouge, on or before 
the 1st day of October next, where after being organized into 
companies, under the order of major-general Thomas, in manner 
as heretofore directed, they will be inspected and mustered into 
tlie service of the United States. 

The commander-in-chief, confiding in flie patriotism of the 
several corps attached to the second division, assures himself that 
at this moment of peril, they will deserve well of their country. 
Louisiana is openly menaced, and it is believed that the force 
destined to invade her is at this time assembled at Apalachicola 
and Pensacola. Major-general Jackson, commanding the seventh 
military district, who has often led the western warriors to victo- 
ry, invites me to lose no time in preparing for the defence of the 
state. This gallant commander is now at or near Mobile watch- 
ing the movements of the enemy, and making the necessary pre- 
parations to cover and defend this section of the union. He will 
in due time receive re-enforcements from the other states on the 
Mississippi: he calculates also, on the zealous support of the 
Louisianians, and must not be disappointed. The time has come 
when every man must do his duty, when no faithful American will 
be found absent from his post. 

By order of his excellency W. C. C- Claiborne. 
(Signed) A. Laneuville, 

By another general order the detachment drawn from the 
sixth, seventh, eighth, and ninth regiments, are ordered to ren- 
dezvous at the Magasin barracks opposite New Orleans, on Sa- 
turday the 4th instant. 


NO. XI. 

Milida i^-eneral orders^ head-quarters, 

.Yevj Orleans^ September 8th, 181.4. 
The governor and commander-in-chief directs that the several 
companies of militia, within the city and suburbs of New Orleans, 
muster for inspection and exercise twice, and those in the interior 
counties of the state, once in each and every week, at such times 
and places as the captains or officers commanding companies shall 
designate. He recommends also to all fathers of families and 
others who, by their stations or age, are exempted from militia ser- 
vice, to afford at this eventful crisis a laudable example; he invites 
them to the formation of military associations; to choose their offi- 
cers; to procure arms, and to assemble occasionally for military 

The commander-in-chief would be sorry unnecessarily to 
draw his fellow citizens from their private pursuits and subject 
them to useless fatigues, but in his judgment their safety demands 
" that they be trained to the use of arms, and holden in readiness to 
turn out at a moment's warning in defence of their families and 
homes; he does not wish to excite alarm, and trusts none will ex- 
ist; but it is his duty to declare that the state is menaced with dan- 
gers which require all our union, zeal, and activity to avert. A hope 
is still cherished that the pending negociation between the United 
States and Great Britain may eventuate in a peace honourable to 
both parties; but there is too much reason to apprehend that the 
enemy feeling power may forget right. Indeed from the informa- 
tion before us, we shall act wisely in preparing for the worst. At 
this moment a fleet of the enemy is hovering on our coast, and he is 
assembling a force at Apalachicola, Pcnsacola, and elsewhere, 
avowedly for the invasion of Louisiana. We must be prepared to 
meet him; to dispute every inch of ground; harass him on his 
march; make a stand at every favourable position, and finally to tri- 
umph or lose with our country, our lives. Every individual, there- 
fore, attached to the militia will be in constant readiness for active 
service — officers of every gi-ade at all times be prepared to repair 
to their posts, and assume the command which may be assigned 
tlicm — non-comrnissioned officers and privates will put their ariiis, 
whether muskets, rifles, or shot-guns in the best possible condition- 


furnish themselves with six flints each, as much powder and ball as 
can conveniently be carried, and pack in their knapsacks one blan- 
ket, one shirt, and one pair of shoes, being the necessary clothing 
on a march. The greatest vigilance will be observed, and every 
precaution taken to guard against surprise. Captains and subal- 
terns will keep their field officers advised of every occurrence 
which interests the public safety, and colonels or officers com- 
manding regiments will communicate the same to the generals of 
their respective brigades and division, and the general officers to 
the eommander-in-chief. Strong patroles will be ordered on every 
night, particularly within the city and suburbs of New Orleans 
and the adjacent counties. The strictest discipline will be main- 
tained among the slaves, and every person of suspicious conduct 
or character, will be arrested and carried before a judge, or jus- 
tice of tJie peace, for examination. If the enemy should enter the 
state, the several colonels of militia nearest the point of attack, will 
immediately order into the field their respective regiments, and 
(after detailing a suitable guard for the protection of the women 
and children, and the maintenance of a proper police on the plan- 
tations) will advance without waiting for further orders to the 
scene of danger. Of the skUl and courage of the regular troops 
of the United States in our vicinity, we are fully assured; we will 
unite our efforts with theirs against the common enemy, and if 
called to act with our gallant countrymen of the western states, 
vie with them also in deeds of valour. 

The commander-in-chief persuades himself that no efforts 
which have or may be made to divide us, will prove successful. 
The intrigues, the means of corruption by which in other coun- 
tries our enemy has so much profited, will doubtless be attempt- 
ed here. But his character is well understood, and it is hoped, 
that his arts will not avail him. In defence of our homes and fa- 
milies there surely will be but one opinion — one sentiment. The 
American citizen, on contrasting his situation with that of the citi- 
zen or subject of any other country on earth, will see abundant 
cause to be content with his destiny. He must be aware how lit- 
tle he can gain, and how much he must lose by a revolution, ov 
change of government. 


If there be a citizen who believes that his rights and proper- 
ty would be respected by an invading foe, the weakness of his head 
should excite pity. If there be an individual who supposes the 
kind offeree with which we are menaced could be restrained from 
acts of violence, he knows little of the character of those allies of 
Great Britain, who committed the massacre at fort Mims. 

In these evil days, small indeed is the portion of affliction' 
which has hitherto befallen Louisiana: when a hostile army breaks 
into the territory of a nation, its course is marked with scenes of 
desolation, which centuries of industry cannot repair. With what 
union, with what zeal, should all our energies be exerted to de- 
fend our country against like misfortunes! 

(Signed) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 


Head-quarters, Pensacola, August 26, 1814. 
Order of the day for tbe fiist colonial battalion of the royal corps of marines. 

You are called upon to discharge a duty of the utmost danger, of 
the utmost peril. You will have to perform long and tedious marches 
through wildernesses, swamps and water-courses; your enemy from 
long habit inured to the climate, will have great advantages overyou. 
But remember the twenty-one years of toil and glory of your coun- 
tJ-y, and resolve to follow the example of your glorious companions, 
who have fought and spilt their blood in her service. Be equally 
faithful and strict in your moral discipline, and this, the last and 
most perfidious of your enemies, will not long maintain himself 
before you. A cause so sacred as that which has led you to draw 
your swords in Europe, will make you unshcath them in America, 
and I trust you will use them with equal credit and advantage. In 
Europe, your arms were not employed in defence of your country 
only, but of all those who groaned in the chahas of oppression, and 
in America they are to have the s'ame direction. The people 
whom you are now to aid and assist have suffered robberies and 
murders committed on them by the Americans. 

The noble Spanish nation has grieved to see her territories 
insulted; having been robbed and despoiled of a portion of them 
while she was overwhelmed with distress and held down by the 


chains which a tyrant had imposed on her gloriously struggling for 
the greatest ot all possible blessings (true libei uy.) The treache- 
rous Americans, who call themselves free, have attacked her, like 
assassins, while she was fallen. But the rlay of retribution is fast 
approaching. These atrocities will excite horror in the heart of 
a British soldier, they will stimulate you to avenge them, and you 
will avenge them like British soldiers. Valour, then, and hu- 

As to the Indians, you are to exhibit to them the most exact 
discipline, being a pattern to those children of nature. You will have 
to teach and instruct them; in doing which you will manifest the ut- 
most patience, and you will correct them when they deserve it. 
But you will regard their affections and antifiathies.) and never give 
them just cause of offence. Sobriety, above all things, should be 
your greatest care — a single instance of drunkenness may be our 
ruin; and I declare to you, in the most solemn manner, that no con- 
sideration whatsoever shall induce me to forgive a drunkard. Ap- 
prised of this declaration, if any of you break my orders in this 
respect, he will consider himself as the just cause of his own chas- 
tisement. Sobriety is your first duty; I ask of you the observance 
of it among your brethren. Vigilance is our next duty. Nothing 
is so disgraceful to our army as surprise. — Nothing so destructive 

to our cause. 

Edward Nicholls. 


At a very numerous and I'espectable meeting of the citizens of 
New Orleans and its vicinity, assembled pursuant to public 
notice at Tremoulet's coffee-house, on the i5th day of Sep- 
tember, 1814, to consider of the propriety of naming a com- 
mittee to co-operate with the constituted authorities ot the state 
and general government, in suggesting measures of defence, 
and calling out the force of the country in the present emer- 

Edward Livingston, Esq. was called to the chair, and Rich- 
ard Relf, Esq. appointed secretary of the meeting. 

The chairman opened the meeting by a speech analogous to 
the occasion, in which he showed the propriety and necessity of the 


meeting, aiid the good effects that would prohably result from all 
expression of public opinion in the present posture of our affairs, 
and took occasion, from the English assertion of disaffection in 
this state, to show, that we owed it to ourselves to disavow such 
unfounded and calumnious insinuations, and by a prompt and 
cheerful offer of support, to show to the rest of the United States 
that we are not unworthy of a place among them. After a strong 
and eloquent invitation to union, he proposed the following resolu- 
tions, which were unanimously adopted: 

Resolved, That on all important" national questions, it is pro- 
per, and in urgent emergencies it is necessaiy, for the citizens of 
a free government to aid their magistrates and officers by a proffer 
of their support in the performance of their functions. 

Resolved, That in this state such an expression of public 
opinion is peculiarly proper, because the enemy has dared to al- 
lege that we are disaffected to our government, and ready to assist 
him in his attempts on our independence, an allegation which Ave 
declare to be false and insidious, tending to ci'eate doubts of our 
fidelity to the union of which v/e are a member, and which we re- 
pel with the indignation they are calculated to inspire. 

Resolved, That an union with the other states is necessary to 
the prosperity of this, and that while we rely upon them for as- 
sistance and protection, we will not be wanting in every exertion 
proportionate to our strength, in order to maintain internal tran 
quillity, rei>el invasion, and preserve to the United States this im- 
pprtant accession to its commerce and security. 

Resolved, As the sense of this assembly, that the good peo- 
ple of this state are attached to the government of the United 
States, and that tliey will repel with indignation every attempt to 
create disaffection and weaken the force of the country, by excit- 
ing dissentions and jealousies at a moment when union is most 

Resolved, That we consider the present as a crisis serious but 
not alarming — that our country is capable of defence — that we do 
not despair of the republic, and that we will at the risk of our 
lives and fortunes defend it. 

Resolved, That a committee of nine members be appointed 
to co-operate with the constituted civil and military authorities, in 

APPENDIX. xxvii 

suggesting means of defence, and calling forth the energies of the 
country to repel invasion and preserve domestic tranquillity, and 
that the said committee consist of the following persons: Edward 
Livingston, PieiTC Foucher, Dussuau de la Croix, Benjamin Mor- 
gan, George M. Ogden, Dominique Bouligny, J. Noel Destre- 
han, John Blanque, Augustin Macarty. 

(Signed) Edwakd Livingston, chairman. 

(Signed) Richard Relf, sccretanj. 


Address from the committee of Jniblie defence^ to their fellow 

-Fellow Citizens, 

Named by a numerous assembly of the citizens of New Or- 
leans, to aid the constituted authorities in devising the most certain 
means of guarding against the dangers which threatened you, our 
first duty is to apprize you of the extent of those dangers — your 
open enemy is preparing to attack you from without, and by means 
of his vile agents dispersed through the country, endeavours to 
excite to insurrection a more cruel and dangerous one in the midst 
of you. 

Fellow citizens! the most perfect union is necessary among 
all the individuals which compose our community; all have an 
equal interest in yielding a free and full obedience to their magis- 
trates and officers, and in forwarding their views for the public 
good— all have not only their property, but their very existence 
at stake; you have, through your representatives in the convention,, 
contracted the solemn obligation of becoming an integral part of 
the United States of America; by this measure you secured your 
own sovereignty and acquired the invaluable blessing of indepen- 
dence. God forbid that we should believe there are any among 
us disposed to fail in the sacred duties required by fidelity and 
honour. A just idea of the geographical situation of your coun- 
try will convince you that your safety, and in a greater degree your 
prosperity, depends on your being irrevocably and faithfully at-« 
tached to an union with the other states; but if there exist among- 
you men base or mad enough to undervalue thei^* duties and theii! 

xxviii APPENDIX. 

true interest — let them tremble on considering the dreadful evils 
they will bring down upon themselves and upon us, if by their 
criminal indifference they favour the enterprises of the enemy 
against our beloved country. 

Fellow citizensl the navigation of the Mississippi is as ne- 
cessary to two millions of our western brethren, as the blood is to 
the pulsation of the heart — those brave men, closely attached to 
the union, will never suffer, whatever seducing offers maybe made 
to them — they will never suffer the state of Louisiana to be sub- 
ject to a foreign power, and should the events of war enable the 
enemy to occupy it, they will make every sacrifice to recover a 
country so necessary to their existence. A war ruinous to you would 
be the consequence, the enemy, to whom you would have had the 
weakness to yield, would subject you to a militaiy despotism, of 
all others the most dreadful; your estates, your slaves, your per- 
sons would be put in requisition, and you would be forced at the 
point of the bayonet to fight against those very men whom you 
have voluntarily chosen for fello\y citizens and brethren. Beloved 
countrymen, listen to the men honoured by your confidence, and 
who will endeavour to merit it; listen to the voice of honour, of 
duty, and of nature! unitel form but one body, one soul, and de- 
fend to the last extremity your sovereignty, your property — de- 
fend your own lives, and the dearer existence of your wives tind 


''Pierre FoVcher, 
Benjamin Morgan, 
.f^. J. J Edward Livingston, 


(Augustus Macarty, 
George M. Ogden, 


NO. XV. 

.4t a meeting' of the committee of public defence on the 2\it Sep-^ 
tembcr^ 1814, 

On motion, resolved, that a sabre^ with a suitable inscription 
and proper emblems, be presented to major W. Lawrence, as a 


testimonial of the sense which is entertained of his skill and gal<^ 
lantry in the defence of fort Bowyer, and in the repulse of the 
enemy's squadron and forces before that place. 

Ordered, that the chairman communicate a copy of this reso- 
lution to major Lawrence, with a request that he will convey to 
the brave officers and men under his command, the expression of 
gratitude which is felt for the important service they have render- 
ed to this state, as well as to the United States. 

(Signed) Edward Livingston, c/mirmcw. 



Head-quarters, seventh military district, 

Mobile, September 2lst, 1814. 


The base, the perfidious Britons have attempted to invade your 
country — they had the temerity to attack fort Bowyer with their in- 
congruous horde of Indians and negro assassins — they seemed to 
have forgotten that this fort was defended by freemen — they were 
not long indulged in their error — the gallant Lawrence, with his 
little spartan band, has given them a lecture that will last for ages; 
he has taught them what men can do when fighting for their liber- 
ty, when contending against slaves. He has convinced sir W. H. 
Percy that his companions in arms are not to be conquered by 
proclamations; that the strongest British bark is not invulnerable 
to the force of American artillery, directed by the steady nervou 
arm of a freeman. 

Louipianians! — The proud Briton, the natural and sworn ene- 
mies of all Frenchmen, has called upon you, by proclamation, to 
aid him in his tyranny, and to prostrate the holy temple of our li- 
berty. Can Louisianians, can Frenchmen, can Americans, ever 
stoop to be the slaves or allies of Britain. 

The proud, vain-glorious boaster colonel NichoUs, when he 
addressed you, Louisianians and Kentuckians, had forgotten that 
you were the votaries of freedom, or he would never have pledg- 
ed the honour of a British officer for the faithful performance of 
his promise, to lure you from your fidelity to the government of 


your choice. I ask you, Louisianians, can we place any confidence 
in he honour of men who have courted an alliance with pirates 
and robbers? Have not these noble Britons, these honourable men, 
colonel NichoUs and the honourable captain W. H. Percy, the 
true representatives of their royal master, done this? Have they 
not made offers to the pirates of Barataria to join them, and their 
holy cause? And have they not dared to insult you by calling on 
you to associate, as brethren with them, and this hellish banditti. 

Louisianians! — The government of your choice are engaged 
in a just and honourable contest for the security of your individu- 
al and her national rights — on you, a part of America, the only 
country on earth where every man enjoys freedom, where its 
blessings are alike extended to the poor and the rich, calls to pro- 
tect these jights from the invading usurpation of Britain; and she 
calls not in vain. I well know that every man whose soul beats 
high at the proud title of freeman; that every Louiaianian, either 
by birth or adoption, will promptly obey the voice of his country; 
will rally round the eagle of Columbia, secure it from the pend- 
ing danger, or nobly die in the last ditch in its defence. 

The individual who refuses to defend his rights, when called 
upon by his government, deserves to be a slave, and must be 
punished as an enemy to his country, and a friend to her foe. 

The undersigned has been intrusted with the defence of your 
country—on you he relies to aid him in this important duty; in 
this reliance he hopes not to be mistaken. He trusts in the jus^ 
tice of his cause and the patriotism of his countrymen — confident 
that any future attempt to invade our soil will be repelled as the 
last, he calls not upon either pirates or i-obbers to join him in the 
glorious cause. 

Your governor has be6n fully authorized by me to organize 
any volunteer company, battalion, or regiment which may proffer 
its services under this call, and is informed of their probable des- 

(Signed) A.ndrew Jabkson 


" NO. XVII. 


iiead-gunriers, 7 th military district, Mobile, Se fit ember 2\, 1814. 

7o the free coloured inhabitants of Louisiana. 

Through a mistaken policy you have heretofore been de- 
prived of a participation in the glorious struggle for national rights 
in which our country is engaged. This no longer shall exist. 

As sons of freedom, you are now called upon to defend <Hir 
mt)St inestimable blessing. As Americans, your country looks 
with confidence to her adopted children, for a valorous support, 
as a faithful return for the advantages enjoyed under her mild asd 
equitable government. As fathers, husbands, and brothers, you 
are summoned to rally round the standard of the eagle, to defend 
all which is dear in existence. 

Your country, although calling for your exertions, does not 
wish you to engage in her cause, without amply remunerating you 
for the services rendered. Your intelligent minds are not to be 
led away by false representations. — Your love of honour would 
cause you to despise the man who should attempt to deceive you. 
In the sincerity of a soldier, and the language of truth I address 

To every noble-hearted, generous freeman of colour, volun- 
teering to serve during the present contest with Great Britain, 
and no longer, there will be paid the same bounty in money and 
lands, now received by the white soldiers of the United States, viz. 
one hundred and twenty-four dollars in money, and one hundred 
and sixty acres of land. The non-commissioned officers and pri- 
vates will also be entitled to the same monthly pay and daily ra- 
tions, and clothes furnished to any American soldier. 

On enrolling yourselves in companies, the major-general 
commanding will select officers for your government, from your 
white fellow citizens. Your non-commissioned officers will be 
appointed from among yourselves. 

Due regard will be paid to the feelings of freemen and sol- 
diers. You will not, by being associated with white men in the 
same corps, be exposed to improper comparisons or unjust sar- 
casm. As a distinct, independent battalion or regiment, pursuing 
the path of glory, you will, undivided, receive the applause and 
gratitude of your countrymen. 

xxxii APPENDIX. 

To assure you of the sincerity of my intentions and my anxiety 
to engage your invaluable services to our country, I have commu- 
nicated my wishes to the governor of Louisiana, vv^ho is fully in- 
formed as to the manner of enrolment, and virill give you every ne- 
cessary information on the subject of this address. 

Andrew Jackson, 
Major-general commanding. 


To commodore Daniel T. Patterson^ J^Teiv Orleans. 

Pensacola.) 5th December, 18 14.^ 

I FEEL it a duty to apprize you of a very large force of the 
enemy off this port, and it is generally understood New Orleans 
is the object of attack. It amounts at present to about eighty vessels, 
and more than double that number are momentarily looked for, to 
form a junction, when an immediate commencement of their ope- 
rations will take place. I am not able to learn, how, when, or 
where the attack will be made; but I heard that they have vessels 
of all descriptions, and a large body of troops. Admiral Cochrane 
commands, and his ship, the Tonnant, lies at this moment just out- 
side the bar; they certainly appear to have swept the West Indies 
of troops, and probably no means will be left untried to obtain their 
object. — The admiral arrived only yesterday noon. 

I am yours, 8cc. 

1^ * * *_ 


Copy of a letter from commodore Patterson to the secretary of (he 

navy, dated J^'ew Orleans, 17th March, 1815. 

Inclosed I have the honour to transmit for your information 
a copy of a letter from lieutenant Thomas Ap Catesby Jones, giv- 
ing a detailed account of the action bet^veen the gun- vessels under 
his commaud, and a flotilla of the enemy's lanches and barges, on 

APPENDIX. xxxiii 

\he 14th December, 1814, which, after a most gallant resistance, 
terminated, as stated in my letter of the 1 7th December, in the 
capture of our squadron. 

The courage and skill which was displayed in the defence of 
the gun- vessels and tender, for such a length of time, against such 
an overwhelming force as they had to contend with, reflects ad- 
ditional splendour on our naval glory, and will, I trust, diminish 
the regret occasioned by their loss. 

I have the honour to be. Sec. 

Daniel T. Patterson. 

JVew Orleans, I2ih March, 1815. 

Having sufficiently recovered my strength, I do myself the 
hono\n' of reporting to you the particulars of the capture of the di- 
vision of United States' gun'-boats late under my command. 

On the 12th December, 1814, the enemy's fleet off Ship 
island increased to such a force as to render it no longer safe or 
prudent for me to continue on that part of the lakes with the small 
force which I commanded. I therefore determined to gain a sta- 
tion near the Malhereux islands as soon as possible, which situa- 
tion would better enable me to oppose a further penetration of the 
enemy up the lakes, and at the same time afford me an opportuni- 
ty of retreating to the Petite Coquilles if necessary. 

At 10, A. M. on the 13th I discovered a large flotilla of bar- 
ges had left the fleet, (shaping their course towards the Pass 
Christian) which I supposed to be a disembarkation of troops in- 
tended to land at that place. About 2, P. M. the enemy's flotilla 
having gained the Pass Christian, ajod continuing their course to 
the westward, convinced me that an attack on the gun-boats was 
designed. At this time the water in the lakes was uncommonly 
low, owing to the westerly wind which had prevailed for a number 
of days previous, and which still continued from the same quar^ 
ter. Nos. 156, 162 and 163, although in the best channel, werfe 
in 12 or 18 inches less water than their draught. Every effort 
Was made to get them afloat by throwing overboard all articles of 
weight that could be dispensed with. At 3 30, the flood-tide had 
commenced; got under weigh, making the best of my way to- 
wards the Petite Coquilles. At 3 45, the enemy despatched three 

xxxiv APPENDIX. 

boats to cut out the schooner Seahorse, whicli had been sent into 
the bay St. Louis that morning to assist in the removal of the public 
stores, which I had previously ordered. There finding a removal 
impracticable, I ordered preparations to be made for their destruc- 
tion, least they should fall into the enemy's hands. A few dis- 
charges of grape-shot from the Seahorse compelled the three 
boats, which had attacked her, to retire out of reach of her gun, 
until they were joined by four others, Avhen the attack was re- 
commenced by the seven boats. Mr. Johnson having chosen an 
advantageous position near the two six-pounders mounted on the 
bank, maintained a sharp action for near 30 minutes, when the ene- 
my hauled off, having one boat apparently much injured, and with 
the loss of several men killed and wounded. At 7 30, an explo- 
sion at the bay, and soon after a large fire, induced me to believe 
the Seahorse was blown up and the public storehouse set on fire, 
which has proved to be the fact. 

Abo»it 1 A. M. on the 14th, the wind having entirely died away, 
and our vessels become unmanageable, came to anchor in the 
west end of Malheureux island's passage. At daylight next 
morning, still a perfect calm, tlie enemy's flotilla was about nine 
miles from us at anchor, but soon got in motion and rapidly ad- 
vanced on us. The want of wind, and the strong ebb-tide which 
was setting through the pass, left me but one alternative; which 
was, to put myself in the most advantageous position, to give the 
enemy as warm a reception as possible. The commanders were all 
called on board and made acquainted with my intentions, and the 
position which each vessel was to take, the whole to form a close 
line abreast across the channel, anchored by the stern with springs 
on the cable, 8cc. Sec. Thus we remained anxiously awaiting an 
attack from the advancing foe, whose force I now clearly distin- 
guished to be composed of forty-two heavy lanches and gun-bar- 
ges, with three light gigs, manned with upwards of one tiiousand 
men and officers. About 9 30, the Alligator (tender) which was 
to the southward and eastward, and endeavouring to join the di- 
vision, was captured by several of the enemy's barges, when the 
whole flotilla came to, with their grampnels a little out of I'cach 
of our shot, apparently making arrangements for the attack — At 
10 30, the enemy weighed, forming a line abreast in open order, 
and steering direct for our line, which was unfortunately in some 


degree broken by the force of the current, drivhig Nos. 155 and 1 63 
about one hundred yards in advance. As soon as the enemy came 
within reach of our shot, a deliberate fire from our long guns was 
opened upon him, but witliout much eflcct, the objects being of 
so small a size. At 10 minutes before 11, the enemy opened a 
fire from the whole of his line, when the action became general 
and destructive on both sides. About 1 1 49, the advance boats of 
the enemy, three in number, attempted to board No. ! 56, but were 
repulsed with the loss of nearly every officer killed or wounded, 
and two boats sunk. — A second attempt to board was then made 
by four other boats, which shared almost a similar fate. At this 
moment I received a severe \Y^ound in my left shoulder, which 
compelled me to quit the deck, leaving it in charge of Mr. 
George Parker, master's-mate, who gallantly defended the vessel 
until he was severely wounded, when the enemy, by his superior 
number, succeeded in gaining possession of the deck about 10 
minutes past 12 o'clock. The enemy immediately turned the 
guns of his prize on tlie other gun-boats, and fired several shot 
previous to striking the American colours. The action continued 
with unabating severity until 40 minutes past 12 o<clock, when it 
terminated with the surrender of No. 2a, all the other vessels hav- 
ing previously fallen into the hands of the enemy. 

In this unequal contest our loss in killed and wounded has been 
trifling, compared to that of the enemy. 

Enclosed you will receive a list of the killed and wounded, 
and a correct statement of the force which I had the honour to 
command at the commencement of the action, together with an 
estimate of the force I had to contend against, as acknowledged 
by the enemy, which will enable you to decide how far the honour 
of our country's flag has been supported in this conflict. 

I have the honour to be, &,c. 
(Signed) Thomas Ap Catesby Jones. 

Statement of the effective forces of a division of the United States' 
gun-boats under the command of lieu tena7it -commanding Tho- 
mas All Catesby Jones^ at the C07nmencement of the action^ ivith 
a flotilla of English boats, on the 14th December, 1814. 
Gun-boat No. 5, 5 guns, 36 men, sailing-master John D. Fer • 

risj gun-boat 23, 5 guns, 39 men, lieutenant Isaac M'Keeve 

xxxvi APPENDIX. 

gun-boat NTo. 156, 5 guns, 41 men, lieutenant-commandant Tho- 
mas A. C.Jones; gun-boat 162, 5 guns, 35 men, lieutenant Ro- 
bert Spedden; gun-boat 163, 3 guns, 31 men, sailing-master 
George Ulrick — Total, 23 guns, 182 men. 

N.' B. The schooner Seahorse, had one six-pounder, and 14 
men, sailing-master William Johnson, commander; none killed or 

The sloop Alligator (tender) had one foui'-pounder and 8 
men, sailing-master Richard S. Shepperd, commander. 

(Signed) Thomas Ap Catesby Jones. 

The/olloiving is a correct statement of the Britishforces which were 
engaged in the cafiture of the late United States' gun-boats^ 
JVos. 23, 156, 5, 162 and 163, near the Malhereux islands^ lake 
Borgnc, 14th December^ 1814. 

Forty lanches and barges, mounting one carronade, each ot 
12, 18, and 24 calibre. 

One lanch mounting one long brass twelve-pounder. 
One lanch mounting one long bi'ass nine-pounder. 
Three gigs, with small arms only. 

Total number of boats 45 

Total number of cannon 43 

The above flotilla was manned with one tliousand two hun- 
dred men and officers, commanded by captain Lockyer, who re-^ 
ceived three severe wounds in the action. The enemy, as usual, 
will not acknowledge his loss on this occasion in boats or men; 
but from the nature of the action, and the observations made by 
pur officers, while prisoners in their fleet, his loss in killed and 
wounded may be justly estimated to exceed three hundred, among 
Y/hom are an unusual proportion qf officers. 

APPENDIX.' xx^^ii 

NO. XX. 

0n Sunday, the 18th Decembei', general Jackson reviewed the 
militia of the city, the battalion commanded by major Plauche, 
and a part of the regiment of men of colour. Being drawn vip 
on their respective pai'ades, the following addresses were read 
to them by Mr. Livingston, one of his aids: 


Fellow citizens and soldiers! 

The general commanding in chief would not do justice to 
the noble ardour that has animated you in the hour of danger, he 
would not do justice to his own feeling, if he suffered the example 
you have shown to pass without public notice. Inhabitants of an 
opulent and commercial town, you have, by a spontaneous effort, 
shaken off the habits which are ci'eated by wealth, and shown that 
you are resolved to deserve the blessings of fortune by bravely de- 
fending them. Long strangers to the perils of war, you have em- 
bodied yourselves to face them with the cool countenance of vete- 
rans — and with motives of disunion that might operate on weak 
minds, you have forgotten the difference of language and the pre- 
judices of national pride, and united with a cordiality that does 
honour to your understandings as well as to your patriotism. Na- 
tives of the United States! They are the oppressors of your infant 
political existence, with whom you are to contend — they are the 
men your fathers conquered whom you are to oppose. Descend- 
ants of Frenchmen! natives of France! they are English, the he- 
reditary, the eternal enemies of your ancient country, the invaders 
of that you have adopted, who are your foes. Spaniards! remem- 
ber the conduct of your allies at St. Sebastians, and recently at 
Pensacola, and rejoice that you have an opportunity of avenging 
the brutal injuries inflicted by men who dishonour the human race. 

P'ellow citizens, of every description, remember for what and 
against whom you contend. For ail that can render life desira- 
ble — for a country blessed wilh every gift of nature — for property, 
for life — for those dearer than either, your wives and children — 
and for liberty, without which, country, life, property, are no 
longer worth possessing; as even the embraces of wives and chil- 
dren become a rcpj-oach to the wretch who would deprive them 

xxxviii APPENDIX. 

by his cowardice of those invaluable blessings. You ai'e to con- 
tend foi' ail this against an enemy whose continued effort is to de- 
prive you of the least of these blessings — who avows a war of ven- 
geance and desolation, carried on and marked by cruelty, lust, and 
horrors unknown to civilized nations. 

Citizens of Louisiana! the general commanding in chief, re- 
joices to see the spirit that animates you, not only for your honour 
but for your safetyj for whatever had been your conduct or wishes, 
his duty would have led, and will now lead hiui to confound the 
citizen unmindful of his rights, with the enemy he ceases to oppose. 
Now, leading men who know their rights, who are determined to 
defend them, he salutes you, brave Louisianians, as brethren in 
arms, and has now a new motive to exert all his faculties which 
shall be strained to the utmost in your defence. Continue with 
the energy you have begun, and he promises you not only safety, 
but victory over the insolent enemy who insulted you by an affect- 
ed doubt of your attachment to the constitution of your country. 


When I first looked at you on the day of my arrival, I was 
satisfied with your appearance, and every day's inspection since 
has confirmed the opinion I then formed. Your numbers have 
increased with the increase of danger, and your ardour has aug- 
mented since it was known that your post would be one of peril 
and honour. This is the true love of country! You have added 
to it an exact discipline, and a skill in evolutions rarely attained 
by veterans; the state of your corps does equal honour to the skill 
of the officers and the attention of the men. With such defenders 
our country has nothing to fear. Every thing I h;ivc said to the 
body of militia, applies equally to you — you have made the same 
sacrifices — you have the same country to defend, die same motive 
for exertion — but I should have been unjust had I not noticed, as 
it deserved, the excellence of your discipline and the martial ap- 
pearance of your corps. 


Soldiers — Frou) the shores of Mobile I collected you to 
arms — I invited you to share in the perils and to divide the glory 
of your white countrymen. I expected much from you, for I was 
not uninformed of those qualities Avhich must render you so for- 


APPENDIX. xxxix 

midable to an invading foe — I knew that you could endure hunger 
and thirst and all the hardships of war — I knew that you loved the 
land of your nativity, and that, like ourselves, you had to defendall 
that is most dear to man — but you surpass my hopes. I have found 
in you, united to those qualities, that noble enthusiasm which im- 
pels to great deeds. 

Soldiers — The president of the United States shall be in- 
formed of your conduct on the present occasion, and the voice of 
the representatives of the American nation shall applaud your va- 
lour, as your general now praises your ardour. The enemy is 
near; his " sails cover the lakesj" but the brave are united; and if 
he finds us contending among ourselves, it will be for the prize 
of valour and fame, its noblest reward. 

(By command) Thomas L. Butler, 



The following spirited order gives a sufficient account of the 
motives which induced general Jackson to resort to the measure 
of proclaiming martial law. At the same time that it served to con- 
vince the emissaries, whom the enemy might have sent among us, 
of the inutility of their mission, it convinced also the people of 
Louisiana, that the man who had come to take command of the 
forces, was decidedly determined to save the country, and to make 
use of all the means in his power to obtain that desirable end. 

j\''eiv Orleans.) December 15, IS 14, 


The major-general commanding, has, with astonishment and 
regret, learned that great consternation and alarm pervade your 
city. It is true the enemy is on our coast and threatens an inva- 
sion of our territory, but it is equally true, with union, energy, and 
the approbation of Heaven, we will beat him at every point his 
temerity may induce him to set foot upon our soil. The general, with 
still greater astonishment, has heard that British emissaries have 
been permitted to propagate seditious reports among you, that the 
threatened invasion is with a view of restoring the country to 
Spain, from a supposition that some of you would be willing to 


return to your ancient govei'nment. Believe not such incredible 
tales — your government is at peace with Spain — it is the vital ene- 
my of your country, the common enemy of mankind, the highway 
robber of the world that threatens you, and has sent his hirelings 
amongst you with this false report, to put you off your guard, that 
you may fall an easy prey to him;—- then look to your liberties) 
your property, the chastity of your wives and daughters — take a 
retrospect of the conduct of the British army at Hampton and 
other places, where it has entered our country, and every bosom 
which glows with patriotism and virtue, will be inspired with in- 
dignation, and pant for the arrival of the hour when we shall meet 
and revenge those outrages against the laws of civilization and hu- 

The general calls upon the inhabitants of the city to trace 
this unfounded report to its source, and bring the propagator to 
condign punishment. The rules and articles of war annex the 
punishment of death to any person holding secret correspondence 
with the enemy, creating false alarm, or supplying him with pro- 
vision; and the general announces his unalterable determination 
rigidly to execute the martial law in all cases which may come 
within his province. 

The safety of the district entrusted to the protection of the 
general, must and will be maintained with the best blood of the 
country; and he is confident all good citizens will be found at their 
posts, with their arms in their hands, determined to dispute every 
inch of ground with the enemy: tliat unanimity will pervade the 
country generally: but should the general be disappointed in this 
expectation, he will separate our enemies from our friends — those 
who are not for us are against us, and will be dealt with accordingly. 

(By command) Thomas L. Butler, aid-d-e-camp. 

NO. XXil. 


1 grant a delay in the cases therein mentioned. 

Whereas the present crisis will oblige a great number ot 
citizens to take up arms in defence of this state, and compel them 


to quit their homes, and thus leave their private affairs in a state 
of abandonment, which may expose them to great distress, if the 
legislature should not, by measures adapted to the circumstances, 
come to their relief, 

Sec. 1. Be it enacted by the senate and house of re^iresenta' 
fives of the state oj" Louisiana i?i general assembly convened, That 
no protest on any note or bill of exchange, payable to order or 
bearer, or on any note, bill of exchange, or obligation for the pay- 
ment of money, shall or can be legally made, until one hundred 
and twenty days after the promulgation of the present act. 

Seo. 2. And be it further enacted, That no property, either 
moveable or immoveable, belonging to successions or bankrupts, 
or any property seized by virtue of any execution issued by the 
courts of justice, or justices of the peace of this state, shall be 
sold within one hundred and twenty days after the promulgation of 
the present act; Provided however, that the delay aforesaid shall 
not prejudice the holders or proprietors of the said notes, bills, 
obligations, or judgments, from demanding the intei'ests which 
they would or might have legally demanded, if the said delay did 
not exist. 

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That frorn and after the 
promulgation of this act, no civil suit or action shall be commen- 
ced or prosecuted before any court of record or other tribunal of 
this state, nor shall any execution issue or be proceeded upon; and 
all proceedings in civil suits or actions, now pending before any 
such court or tribunal, shall henceforth cease and be suspended 
during the time this act shall remain in force. 

Sec. 4. And be it further enacted. That no sale of lands or 
slaves which may be passed during the time this act remains in 
force, shall have any effect to the prejudice of the rights of the 
creditor or creditors, of the persons makmg such sale. Provided 
however, that such creditor or creditors who may have no existing 
lien on such property, shall, before the first day of June next, make 
known to the person possessing the same, the claim or demand he 
or they may have against the person who shall have sold the same. 

Sec 5. And be it further enacted, That for the purpose of 
preserving the securities of creditors under tlic said suspension 



of judicial proceedings, the several judges and justices of tht: 
peace of this state, having original jurisdiction, shall have the 
power of granting writs of sequestration, in case any debtor or 
debtors, during such suspension, shall remove or attempt to re- 
move their personal estate and slaves, or either of them without 
the jurisdiction of the courts; wliich may be detained under se- 
questration on petition filed by the creditor, the allegations con- 
tained in which petition shall be supported by the oath of the pe- 
titioner, his agent or attorney. Provided homever, that the debtor 
may replevy his estate so sequestered, on giving bond and securi- 
ty for the payment of any judgment against him, or any debt to be 
liquidated by judgment or otherwise by the debtor and creditor. 

Sec. 6. ^nd be it further enacted^ That this act, within the 
parish of Orleans, shall be considered as being legally promulga- 
ted, on the day it shall have been appi'oved by the governor, and 
within the other parishes of this state, on the day of its promulga- 
tion, agreeably to the now existing laws. This act shall continue 
an;! be in force until the first day of May next and no longer. 

Magloire Guichard, 
Sfieaker of the house of refireaentatives. 
FuLWAR Skipwith, President of the Senate. 
Jpfirovedf December 18, 1814. 

William C. Claiborne. 
Governor of the state of Louisiana. 


Letter from commodore Patterson to the Hon. Secretary at War, 

U. S. ship. Louisiana, December 28, 1814 

I HAVE the honour to inform you that on the 23d instant, while 
at the bayou St. John, examining the batteries erecting there by 
the navy, under the superintendance of captain Henley of the Caro- 
lina, I learnt that information had been received by general Jack- 
son that the enemy had penetrated through bayou Bienvenu with 
a large force, and had effected a landing at general Villere's plan- 
tation on the banks of the Mississippi, which upon application to 
the general proved to be true. The alarm was immediately given in 

APPENDIX. xliii 

to^fn, and the troops put in motion; I repaired on board the Uni- 
ted States' schooner Carolina, with captain Henley, and after order- 
ing the Louisiana, commanded by lieutenant-commandant C. B. 
Thompson, to follow me, at 4 P. M. weighed, and it being calm, 
dropped down with the current; at about half past six I received a 
request from general Jackson, through Mr. Edward Livingston, his 
aid-de-camp, to anchor abreast of the enemy's camp, which he 
pointed out, and open a fire upon them. It continuing calm, got 
out sweeps, and a few minutes after, having been frequently hail- 
ed by the enemy's sentinels, anchored, veered out a long scope of 
cable, sheered close in shore abreast of their camp, and commen- 
ced a heavy (and as I have since learned most destructive) fire 
from our starboard battery and small arms, which was returned 
most spiritedly by the enemy with congreve rockets and musket- 
ry from their whole force, when after about forty mintites of most 
incessant fire, the enemy was silenced; the fire from our battery 
was continued till nine o'clock upon the enemy's flank while en- 
gaged in the field with our army, at which hour ceased firing, 
supposing from the distance of the enemy's fire (for it was too 
dark to see any thing on shore) that they had retreated beyond the 
range of our guns — weighed and swept across the river, in hopes 
of a breeze the next morning to enable me to renew the attack 
upon the enemy, should they be returned to their encampment; 
but was disappointed on the 24th by a light air from north-north- 
west, which towards the evening, hauled toward northwest, and 
blew a heavy gale, compelling me to remain during the 24th, 25th, 
and 26th at anchor in a position abreast of the enemy, although 
every possible exertion was made by captain Henley to warp the 
schooner up, without success, from the extreme rapidity of the cur- 
rent occasioned by the very uncommon rise of the river. On the af- 
ternoon of the 2 6th, at the request of general Jackson,! visited him 
at his head-quarters, and went from thence to town to equip and 
arm with two thirty-two-pounders, such merchant vessels in port, 
as I might find capable of supporting them. During the 24th, 25th, 
and 26th, fired at the enemy whenever they could be seen. Ow- 
ing to the calmness of the night of the 23d, the Louisiana could 
not join me till the morning of the 24th, when she fortunately 
anchored about one mile above the Carolina. Bv the fire from the 


enemy on the night of the 23d, one man only was wounded, and 
very little injury done to the hull, sails, and rigging;- in her bul- 
warks were a great number of musket balls, several in her masts 
and topmasts, and through her mainsail. Nothing could exceed 
the incessant fire from the Carolina, which alone can be attributed 
to the high state of discipline to which captain Henley has brought 
her crew. Of him, lieutenants Norris and Crawley, and sailing- 
master Haller, I cannot speak in too high terms; the petty officers 
and crew behaved with that cool determined courage and zeal 
which has so strongly characterized the American tars in the 
present war. I have the honour to be, Sec. 



Cofiy of a letter from general Andrew Jackson to the secretary of 
war, dated 
Cam/i near JVew Orleans, 26th December, 1814. 

The enemy having, by the capture of our gun-boats, obtained 
command of the lakes, were enabled to effect a passage to the 
Mississippi at a point on the side of New Orleans, and about nine 
miles below it. The moment I received the intelligence, I has- 
tened to attack him in his first position. It was brought on in the 
night and resulted very honourably to our arms. The heavy 
smoke, occasioned by an excessive fire, rendered it necessary that 
I should draw off my troops, after a severe conflict of upwards of 
an hour. 

The attack was made on the night of the 23d. Since then 
both armies have remained near the battle-ground, making pre- 
parations for something more decisive. 

The enemy's force exceeded ours by double, and their loss 
was proportionably greater. The moment I can spare the time, 
I will forward you a detailed account. In the meantime I expect 
something far more important will take place, 1 hope to be able 
to sustain tho fiononr of our arms and to secure the safety of this 

I have the honour to be, Sic. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Major-generalJackson to the secretary of war. 

Head-quarters., 7th inilitary district^ camp, beloto Neiu Orleans^ 11 th 

December^ A. M. 

The loss of our gun-boats near the pass of the Rigolets, 
having given the enemy command of lake Borgne, he vi^as ena- 
bled to choose his point of attack. It became therefore an ob- 
ject of importance to obstruct the numerous bayous and canals 
leading from that lake to the highlands on the Mississippi. This 
important service was committed, in the first instance, to a detach- 
ment from the 7th regiment, afterwards to colonel Delaronde of 
the Louisiana militia, and lastly, to make all sure, to major-general 
Villere, commanding the district between the river and the lakes, 
and who, being a native of the country, was presumed to be best 
acquainted with all those passes. Unfortunately, however, a pic- 
quet which the general had established at the mouth of the bayou 
Bienvenu, and which, notwithstanding my orders, had been left 
unobstructed, was completely surprised, and the enemy penetrated 
through a canal leading to his farm about two leagues below the 
city, and succeeded in cutting off a company of militia stationed 
there. The intelligence was communicated to me about 2 o'clock 
of the 23d. My force, at this time, consisted of parts of the 7th 
and 44th regiments, not exceeding six hundred together, the city 
militia, a part of general Coffee's brigade of mounted gun-men, 
and the detached militia from the western division of Tennessee, 
under the command of major-general Carrol — these two last 
corps were stationed four miles above the city. Apprehending a 
double attack by the way of Chef-Menteur, I left general Car- 
roll's force, and the militia of the city, posted on the Gentilly road; 
and at 5 o'clock P. M. marched to meet the enemy, whom I was 
resolved to attack in his first position, with major Hind's dra- 
goons, general Coffee's brigade, parts of the 7th and 44th regi- 
ments, the uniform companies of militia under the command of 
major Plauche, two hundred men of colour (chiefly from St. Do- 
mingo) raised by colonel Savary and acting under the command 
of major Daquin, and a detachment of artillery under the direction 
of colonel M'Rea, with two six-pounders under the command of 
lieut Spots — not exceeding in all fifteen hundred. I arrived near 

xl^i APPENDIX. • 

the enemy's encampment about 7, and immediately made my dis- 
positions for the attack. His forces amounting at that time on 
land to about three thousand, extended half a mile on the river, 
and in the rear nearly to the Avood. General Coffee was ordered 
to turn their right, while, with the residue of the force, I at- 
tacked his strongest position on the left, near the river. Commo- 
dore Patterson having dropped down the river in the schooner Ca- 
rolina, was directed to open a fire upon their camp, which he exe- 
cuted at about half after 7. This being the signal of attack, gene- 
ral Coffee's men, with their usual impetuosity, rushed on the ene- 
my's right, and entered their camp, while our right advanced 
with equal ardour. There can be but little doubt that we should 
have succeeded on that occasion, with our inferior force, in de- 
stroying or capturing the enemy, had not a thick fog, which arose 
about 8 o'clock, occasioned some confusion among the different 
corps. Fearing the consequences, under this circumstance, of 
the further prosecution of a night attack with troops then acting 
together for the first time, I contented myself with lying on the 
field that night; and at 4 in the morning assumed a stronger posi- 
tion about two miles nearer to the city. At this position I remain 
encamped, waiting the arrival of the Kentucky militia and other 
re-enforcements. As the safety of the city will depend on the fate 
of this army, it must not be incautiously exposed. 

In this affair the whole corps under my command deserve 
the greatest credit. The best compliment I can pay to general 
Coffee and his brigade, is to say they behaved as they have al- 
ways done while under my command. The 7th, led by major 
Peire, and the 44th, commanded by colonel Ross, distinguished 
themselves. The battalion of city militia, commanded by major 
Plauche, realized my anticipations, and behaved like veterans — 
Savary's volunteers manifested great bravery— and the company 
of city riflemen, having penetrated into the midst of the enemy's 
camp, were surrounded, and fought their way out with the great- 
est heroism, bringing with them a number of prisoners. The 
two field pieces were well served by the officer commanding 

All my officers in the line did their duty, and I have every 
reason to be satisfied with the whole of mv field and stijff. — Colo- 

APPENDIX. xlvii 

nels Butler and Piatt, and major Clwtard, by their intrepidity, 
saved the artillery. Colonel Haynes was every where that duty 
or danger called. I was deprived of the services of one of my 
aids, captain Butler, whom I was obliged to station, to his great 
regret in town. Captain Reid, my other aid, and Messrs. Liv- 
ingston, Duplessis and Davezac, who had volunteered their ser- 
vices, faced danger wherever it was to be met, and cai'ried my 
orders with the utmost promptitude. 

We made one major, two subalterns, and sixty-three privates 
prisoners; and the enemy's loss in killed and wounded must have 
been at least . My own loss I have not as yet been able to as- 
certain with exactness, but suppose it to amount to one hundred 
in killed, wounded and missing. Among the former I have to 
lament the loss of coloned Lauderdale of general Coffee's brigade, 
who fell while bravely fighting. Colonels Dyer and Gibson, of 
the same corps, were wounded, and major Kavenaugh taken pri- 

Colonel Delaronde, major Villere of the Louisiana militia, 
inajor Latour of engineers, having no command, volunteered their 
services, as did Drs. Kerr and Flood, and were of great assist- 
ance to me. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Cofiy of a letter from captain Henley.^ commanding late Uniteii 
States' schooner Carolina, to coinmodore Fattersoji, dated 

I JVew Orleans, December 28, 1814. 


I HAVE the honour to inform you, that after you left here on 

the 26th instant, in pursuance to your order, every possible ex- 
ertion was made to move the schooner Carolina higher up the ri- 
ver and near general Jackson's camp, without success; the M'ind 
being at N. N. W. and blowing fresh and too scant to get under 
way, and the current too rapid to move her by warping, which I 
had endeavoured to do with my crew. 

At daylight, on the morning of the 2rth, the enenay opened 
upon the Carolina a battery of five guns, from which they thretv^ 

xlviii APPENDIX. 

shells and hot shot; returned their fire with the long twelve-pound- 
er, the only gun on board which could reach across the river, the 
remainder of her battery being light twelve-pound carronacies. 

The air being light and at north, rendered it impossible to 
get under way; the second shot fired by the enemy lodged in the 
schooner's main-hold under her cables, and in such a situation as~ 
not to be come at, and fired her, whicli rapidly progressed; finding 
that hot shot were passing through her cabin and filling room, 
which contained a considerable quantity of powder; her bulwarks 
all knocked down by the enemy's shot, the vessel in a sinking situa- 
tion, and the fire increasing, and expecting every moment that she 
would blow up, at a little after sunrise I reluctantly gave orders 
for the crew to abandon her, which was effected, with the loss of 
one killed and six wounded; a short time after I had succeeded in 
getting the crew on shore, I had the extreme mortification of see- 
ing her blow up. 

It affords me great pleasure to acknowledge the able assist- 
ance 1 received from lieutenants Norris and Crawley, and sailing- 
master Haller, and to say that my officers and crew behaved on 
this occasion, as well as on the 23d when under your own eye, in a 
most gallant manner. 

Almost every article of clothing belonging to the officers and 
crew, from the rapid progress of the fire, was involved in the de- 
struction of the vessel, 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 
(Signed) John D. Henley. 

P. S. I have not made out a detailed account of the action on 
the night of the 23d, as you were on board during the whole action. 

I^e tier from major-general Jackson, to the secretary of war, dated 

Head-cjuarterSf seventh military district, 

Camfi below New Orleans, December 29, 1814. 

The enemy succeeded on the 27th in blowing up the Caro- 
lina (she being becalmed) by means of hot shot from a land bat- 
t,ery which he had erected in the night. Emboldened by this event, 
he marched his whole force the next day up the levee, in the hope 
of driving us from our position, and witJi this view, opened upon 


^Is, at the distance of about half mile, his bombs and rockets. He 
was repulsed, however, with considerable loss; not less, it is be- 
lieved, that) one hundred and twenty in killed. Ours was incon- 
siderable; not exceeding- half a dozen killed and a dozen wounded. 

Since then he has not ventured to repeat his attempt, though 
lying close together. There has been frequent skirmishing be- 
tween our picquets. 

I lament that I have not the means of carrying on more of- 
fensive operations. The Kentucky troops have not arrived, and 
my effective force at this point, does not exceed three thousand. 
Theirs must be at least double; both prisoners and deserters agree- 
ing in the statement that seven thousand landed from their boats. 

Andrew Jackson. 

Cojiy of a letter from commodore Patterson, commanding our na- 
val force on the Orleans station, to the secretary of the navy, 
dated U. S. ship. Louisiana, 4 miles below J^teio Orleans, 

29th December, 1814. 

I HAVE the honour to inform you, that on the morning of the 

08th instant, at about half past seven, perceived our advanced-guard 
retreating towards our lines — the enemy pursuing; fired shot, 
shells, and rockets, from field artillery, with which they advanced 
on the road behind the levee; sprung the ship to bring the star- 
board guns to bear upon the enemy; at 25 minutes past 8 A. M. 
the enemy opened their fire upon the ship, with shells, hot shot, 
and rockets, which was instandy returned with great spirit and 
much apparent effect, and continued without intermission till one 
P. M. when the enemy slackened their fire, and retreated with 
a part of their artillery from each of their batteries, evidently with 
great loss. Two attempts were made to screen one heavy piece 
of ordnance mounted behind the levee, with which they threw hot 
shot at the ship, and which had been a long time abandoned be* 
fore they succeeded in recovering it, and then it must have been 
with very great loss, as I distinctly saw, with the aid of my glass, 
several shot strike in the midst of the men (seamen) who were 
employed dragging it away. At 3 P. M. the enemy were silenced; 
at 4 P. M. ceased firing from the ship, the enemy having retireil 
beyond the range of hev-guns. Many of their shot passed over tfrc 


ship, and their shells burst over her decks, which were strewed 
with their fragmrnts; yet, after an incessant cannonading of up- 
wards of seven hours, during which time eight hundred shot were 
fired from the ship, one man only was wounded slightly, by the 
piece of a shell, and one shot passed between the bowsprit and 
heel of the jib-boom. 

The enemy drew up his whole force, evidently with an in- 
tention of assaulting general Jackson's lines, under cover of his 
heavy cannon; but his cannonading being so warmly returned from 
the lines and ship Louisiana, caused him, I presume, to abandoQ 
his project, as he retired without making the attempt. You will 
have learned by my former letters, that the crew of the Louisiana 
is composed of men of all nations, (English excepted) taken from 
the streets of New Orleans not a fortnight before the battle; yet 
I never knew guns better served, or a more animated fire, than 
was supported from her. 

Lieutenant C. C. 13. Thompson deserves great credit for the 
discipline to which in so short a time he had brought such -men, 
two-thirds of whom do not understand English. 

General Jackson having applied for officers and seamen te 
work the heavy cannon on his lines furnished by me, lieutenants 
Norris and Crawley, of the late schooner Carolina, instantly vo- 
lunteered, and with the greater part of her crew were sent to 
those cannon, which they served during the action herein detail- 
e<cl. The enemy must have suffered a great loss in that day's 
action, by the heavy fire from this ship and general Jackson's 
lines, where the cannon was of heavy calibi-e, and served with 
great spirit. 

I have the honour to be, with great consideration and respect, 
your obedient servant, 

Daniel T. Patterson. 

NO. xxvin. * 

Letter frovi commodore Patterson to the secretary of the navy. 

Marine Batteries^ 5 miles below JV. Orleans^ January 2, 1815. 

Finding the advantageous effect which resulted from the 
flanking-fire upon the enemy from the Louisiana, as detailed in 


my letter of the 29th ultimo, I that night had brought down 
from the navy yard, and mounted in silence, a twenty- four pounder 
on shore, in a position where it could most annoy the enemy when 
throwing up works on the levee or in the field. Oh the 30th 
opened upon the enemy with the twenty-four pounder, which 
drove them from their works, the ship firing at the same time 
upon their advance, which retired from the levee and sheltered 
itself behind houses. Sec. The great effect produced by the gun 
on shore, induced me on the 3 1st to land from the Louisiana two 
twelve-pounders, which I mounted behind the levee in the most 
advantageous position, to harass the flank of the enemy in his ap- 
proaches to our lines, and to aid our right. At four A. M. the 
enemy opened a fire upon the left of our line with artillery and 
musketry, which was returned most spiritly with artillery and 
musketry. At two P. M. the enemy having retired, the firing 

On the first instant, at ten A. M. after a very thick fog, the 
enemy commenced a heavy cannonading upon general Jackson's 
lines and my battery, from batteries they had thrown up during 
the preceding night on tJie levee; which was returned from our 
lines and my battery, and terminated, after a most incessant fire 
from both parties of nearly five hours, in the enemy being silenced 
and driven from their works; many of their shells went immedi- 
ately over my battery, and their shot passed through my breast- 
work and embrazures, without injuring a man. On this, as on 
the 28th, I am happy to say, that my officers and men behaved 
to my entire satisfaction; but I beg leave particularly to name 
acting lieutenant Campbell, acting sailing-master John Gates, 
acting midshipman Philip Philibert, of the Louisiana, and sailing- 
master Haller, of the late schooner Carolina. 1 did not drop the 
Louisiana down wnthin the range of their shot, having learnt from 
deserters that a furnace of sbot was kept in constant readiness at 
each of their batteries to burn her; and the guns being of much 
greater effect on shore, her men were drawn to man them, and I 
was particularly desirous to preserve her from the hot shot, as I 
deemed her of incalculable service to cover the army in the event 
of general Jackson retiring from his present line to those which 

he had thrown up in his rear. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Daniel T. Patteuson. 



Cofiy of a letter from major-general Jackson to the secretary of 

'war, dated 

Camji^ four miles belotv Orleans, '^th January, 1815. 

During the days of tlie 6th and 7th, the enemy had been ac- 
tively employed in making preparations for an attack on my lines. 
With infinite labo\ir they had succeeded on the night of the 7th 
in getting their boats across from the lake to the river, by widen- 
ing and deepening the canal on v/hich they had effected their dis- 
embarkation. It had not been in my power to impede these ope- 
rations by a general attack — added to other reasons, the nature 
of the troops under my command, mostly militia, rendered it too 
hazardous to attempt extensive offensive movements in an open 
country, against a numerous and well-disciplined army. Although 
my forces, as to number, had been increased by the arrival of the 
Kentucky division, my strength had received very little addition; 
a small portion only of that detachment being provided with arms. 
Compelled thus to wait the attack of the enemy, I took every 
measure to repel it when it should be made, and to defeat the ob- 
ject he had in view. General Morgan with the Orleans contin- 
gent, the Louisiana militia, and a strong detachment of the Ken- 
tucky troops, occupied an intrenched camp on the opposite side 
of the river, protected by strong batteries on the bank, erected and 
superintended by commodore Patterson. 

In my encampment every thing was ready for action, when 
early on the morning of the 8th the enemy, after throwing a heavy 
shower of bombs and congreve rockets, advanced their columns 
on my right and left, to storm my intrenchments. I cannot speak 
sufficiently in praise of the firmness and deliberation with which my 
whole line received their approach. More could not have been 
expected from veterans inured to war. — For an hour the fire of 
the small arms was as incessant and severe as can be imagined. 
The artillery, too, directed by officers who displayed equal skill 
and courage, did great execution. Yet the columns of the enemy 
continued to advance with a fiimness which reflects upon them 
the greatest credit. Twice the column which approached me on 
my left, was repulsed by the troops of general Carroll, those of 


general Coffee and a division of the Kentucky militia, and twice 
they formed again and rencAved the assault. At length, however,' 
cut to pieces, they fled in confusion from the field, leaving it co- 
vered with their dead and wounded. The loss which ihe enemy 
sustained on this occasion, cannot be estimated at less than fifteen 
hundred in killed, wounded, and prisoners. Upv/ards of three 
hundred have already been delivered over for buri:^l; and my men 
are still engaged in picking them up within my lines, and carry- 
ing them to the point where the enemy are to receive them. This 
is in addition to the dead and wounded whom the enemy have been 
enabled to carry from the field during and since the action, and 
to those who have since died of the wounds they received. We 
have taken about five hundred prisoners, upwards of three hun- 
dred of whom arc wounded, and a great part of them mortally. 
My loss has not exceeded, and I believe has not amounted to ten 
killed and as many wounded. The entire destruction of the ene- 
my's army was now inevitable, had it not been for an unfortunate 
occurrence, which at this moment took place on the other side of 
the river. Simultaneously with his advance upon my lines, he 
had thrown over in his boats a considerable force to the other side 
of the river. These having landed, were hardy enough to ad- 
vance against the works of general Morgan; and, what is strange 
and difficult to account for, at the very moment when their entire 
discomfiture was looked for with a confidence approaching to cer- 
tainty, the Kentucky re-enforcements, in whom so much reliance 
had been placed, ingloriously fled, drawing after them, by their 
example, the remainder of the forces; and thus yielding to the 
enemy that most formidable position. The batteries which had 
rendered me, for many days, the most important service, though 
bravely defended, were, of course, now abandoned; not however 
until the guns had been spiked. 

This unfortunate rout had totally changed the aspect of af- 
fairs. The enemy now occupied a position from which they 
might annoy us without hazard, and by means of which they might 
have been able to defeat, in a great measure, the effects of our 
success on this side the river. It became therefore an object of 
the first consequence to dislodge him as soon as possible. For 
this object, all the means in my power, which I could with any 


safety use, were immediately put in preparation. Perhaps, how- 
-#Ver, it was owing; somewhat to another cause that I succeeded 
even beyond my expectations. In negociating the terms of a tem- 
porary suspension of hostilities, to enable the enemy to bury their 
dead and provide for their wounded, I had required certain pro- 
positions to be acceded to as a basis, among which this was one- 
thai, although hostilities should cease on this side the river until 
twelve o'clock of this day, yet it was not to be understood that 
they should cease en the other side; but that no re-enforcements 
should be sent across by either army until the expiration of that 
day. His excellency major-general Lambert begged time to con- 
sider of those propositions until ten o'clock of to-day, and in the 
meantime re-crossed his troops. I need not tell you with how 
much eagerness I immediately regained possession of the posi- 
tion he had thus happily quitted. 

The enemy having concentrated his forces, may again at- 
tempt to drive me from my position by storm. Wheneyer he 
does, I have no doubt my men will act with their usual firmness, 
and sustain a character now become dear to them. 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 

Andrew Jackson. 

Copy of a letter from major-general Jackson, to the secretary of 
war, dated 
Camp, four miles below J\''ew Orleans, January 13, lt>l5.. 

At such a crisis I conceive it my duty to keep you constantr 

ly advised of my situation. 

On the 10th instant I forwarded you an account of the bold 
attempt made by the enemy on the morning of the 8th, to take 
possession of my works by storm, and of the severe repulse which 
he met with. That report h2.ving been sent by the mail which 
crosses the lake, may possibly have miscarried; for which reason 
I think it the more necessary briefly to repeat the substance of it. 

Early on the morning of the 8th, the enemy having been ac- 
tively employed the two preceding days in making preparations 
for a storm, advanced in two strong columns on my right and left. 
They were received however, with a firmness which it seems thfey 
Httle expected, and which defeated all their hopes. My men, un- 


disturbed by their approach, which indeed they had long anxious- 
ly wished for, opened upon them a fire so deliberate and certain, 
as rendered their scaling ladders and fascines, as their more direct 
implements of warfare, perfectly useless. For upwards -of an 
hour it was continued with a briskness of which there has been 
but few instances, perhaps, in any country. In justice to the ene- 
my it must be said, they withstood it as long as could have 
been expected from the most determined bravery. At length, 
however, when all prospects of success became hopeless, they 
fled in confusion from the field — leaving it covered with their 
dead and wounded. Their loss was immense. I had first com- 
puted it at fifteen hundred; it is since ascertained to have beeo 
much greater. Upon information which is believed to be correct, 
colonel Hayne, the inspector-general, reports it to be in the to- 
tal two thousand six hundred. His report I enclose you. My 
loss was inconsiderable being only seven killed and six wounded.* 
Such a disproportion in loss, when we consider the number and 
the kind of troops engaged, must, I know, excite astonishment, 
and may not every where, be fully credited; yet I am perfectly 
satisfied that the account is not exaggerated on the one part, nor 
underrated on the other. 

The enemy having hastily quitted a post which they had gain- 
ed possession of on the other side of the river, and we having im- 
mediately I'eturned to it, both armies at present occupy their for- 
mer positions. Whether, after the severe loss he has sustained, 
he is preparing to return to his shipping or to make still mightier 
efforts to attain his first object, I do not pretend to determine — it 
becomes me to act as though the latter were his intention. One 
thing, however, seems certain, that if he still calculates on efi'ect- 
ing what he has hitherto been unable to accomplish, he must ex- 
pect considerable re-enforcements; as the force with which he 
landed must undoubtedly be diminished by at least three thousand. 
Besides the loss which he sustained on the night of the 23d ult. 
which is estimated at four hundred, he cannot have suff*cred less 
between that period and the morning of the 8th inst. than three 
hundred — having, within that time, been repulsed in two general 

* This was in the action on the line — afterwards s'kirmishing was kept 
up, in which a few more of out men were lost. 


attempts to drive us from our position, and there having been con- 
tinual cannonading and skirmishing during the wliole of it. Yet 
he is still able to show a very formidable force. 

There is little doubt that the commanding general, sir Ed- 
ward Packenham, was killed in the action of the 8th, and that ma- 
jor-generals Kean and Gibbs were badly wounded. 

Whenever a more leisure moment shall occur, I will take the 

liberty to make out and forward you a more circumstantial account 

of the several actions, and particularly that of the 8th; in doing 

which my chief motive will be to render justice to those brave 

men I have the honour to command, and who have so remarkably 

distinguished themselves. 

I have the honour to be, Sec. 

Andrew Jackson. 

P. S. A correct list of my killed and wounded will be for- 
warded you by the adjutant-general. 

Letter from A. P. Hayne, to major-geiieral Jacf:son, dated 

Head-quarters^ left bank of the Mississip/ii, 

five miles below J^'eiv Orleans, January 13, 1815. 

I have the honour to make the following report of the killed, 
wounded, and prisoners taken at the battle of Macrardie's plan- 
tation on the left bank of the Mississippi, on the morning of the 
8th January, 1815, and five miles below the city of New Orleans. 
Killed, 700 

Wounded, 1400 

Prisoners taken; one major, four captains, eleven 
lieutenants, one ensign, four hundred and eighty-three 
non-commissioned officers and privates, 500 

Making a grand total of 2600 

I have the honour to be. Sec. 

A. P. Haynk. 

Cofiy of a letter from major-general Jackson to the secretary of 

•war, dated 
Camji^four miles below JVew Orleans., January 19, 1815. 
Last night, at twelve o'clock, the enemy precipitately de- 
i^ped and returned to his boats, leaving behind liim, under medi- 


Gal attendance, eighty of his wounded including two officers, four- 
teen pieces of his heavy ai'tillery, and a quantity of shot, having 
destroyed much of his powder. Such was the situation of the 
ground which he abandoned, and of that through which he re- 
tired, protected by canals, redoubts, intrenchments, and swamps 
on his right, and the river on his left, that I could not without en- 
countering a risk, which true policy did not seem to require or to 
authorize, attempt to annoy him much on his retreat. We took 
only eight prisoners. 

Whether it is the purpose of the enemy to abandon the ex- 
pedition altogether, or renew his efforts at some other point, I do 
not pretend to determine with positiveness. In my own mind, 
however, there is but little doubt that his last exertions have been 
made in this quarter, at any rate for the present season, and by the 
next I hope we shall be fully prepared for him. In this belief I 
am strengthened not only by the prodigious loss he has sustained 
at the position he has just quitted, but by the failure of his fleet 
to pass fort St. Philip. 

His loss on this ground, since the debarkation of his troops, 
as stated by the last prisoners and deserters, and as confirmed 
by many additional circumstances, must have exceeded four thou- 
sand; and was greater in the action of the 8th than was estima- 
ted, from the most correct data then in his possession, by the in- 
spector-general, whose report has been forwarded to you. We 
succeeded, on the 8th, in getting from the enemy about one thou- 
sand stand of arms of various descriptions. 

Since the action of the 8th, the enemy have been allowed 
very little respite — my artillery from both sides of the river be- 
ing constantly employed till the night, and indeed until the hour 
of their retreat, in annoying them. No doubt they thought it quite 
time to quit a position in which so little rest could be found. 

I am advised by major Overton, who commands at fort St. 
Philip, in a letter of the 18th, that the enemy having bombarded 
his fort for eight or nine days, from thirteen-inch mortars without 
effect, had on the morning of that day retired. I have little doubt 
that he would have been able to have s\nik their vessels had they 
attempted to run by. 


^'iii APPENDIX. 

Giving the proper weight to all these considei'ations, I believe 
you will not think me too sanguine in the belief that Louisiana is 
now clear of its enemy. I hope, however, I need not assure yovi, 
that wherever I command, such a belief shall never occasion any 
relaxation in the measures for resistance. I am but too sensible 
that the moment Avhen the enemy is opposing us, is not the most 
proper to provide for them. 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 

Andrew Jacksok 

P. S. On the 18th our prisoners on shore were delivered to 
us, an exchange having been previously agreed to. Those who 
are on board the fleet will be delivered at Petit Coquille — after 
which I shall still have in my hands an excess of several hundred. 

20th — Mr. Shields, purser in the navy, has to-day taken fifty- 
four prisoners; among them are four officers. A. J. 

Letter from adjutant-general Robert Butler, to brigadier-general 

Parker, dated 

Head-quarters, 7th Military district, Adjutant-generaV s office^ 

Jackson's Lines, bdow Orleans, Jan, 16, 1815. 


I HAVE the honour herewith to enclose for the information of 
the war department, a report of the killed, wounded, and missing 
of the army under the command of major-general Jackson, in the 
different actions with the enemy since their landing. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Robert Butler. 

Mejiort of the killed, nvounded, and missijig, of the ar?mj under the 
comma?id of major-general Andrew Jackson, in the actio7is of 
the 23d and 28th of December 1814, and 1st and 8th of Janu- 
ary, 1815, with the enemy. 

ACTION of DECEMBER 28d, 1814. 

Killed — Artillerymen, 1 ; 7th United States' infantry, 1 lieu- 
tenant (M'Clellan), 1 sergeant, 1 corporal, 4 privates; 44th do. 7 
privates; general Coffee's brigade volunteer mounted gun-men, 1 
lieutenant-colonel (Lauderdale), 1 captain (Pace), 1 lieutenant 

(Samuel Brooks), 2 sergeants, 4 privates Total 24. 

Wounded — General staff, 1 colonel (col. Piatt) — 7th United 
States' infantry, 1 captain (A. A. White), 1 ensign, 1 sergeant, ? 


corporals, 23 privates; 44th do. 2 lieutenants, 3 sert^eants, 2 cor- 
porals, 19 privates; general Coffee's brigade, 1 colonel, 2 lieuten- 
ant-colonels, 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 quarter- master sergeant, 
3 sergeants, 2 corporals, 1 musician, 30 privates; New Orleans 
volunteer corps, 1 captain, 2 sergeants, 7 privates; volunteers of 
colour, 1 adjutant and 6 privates. — Total wounded, 115. 

Missing — General Coffee's brigade; 1 major, 2 captains, 3 
lieutenants, 1 quarter-master, 3 ensigns or cornets, 4 sergeants, 
1 corporal, 2 musicians, 57 privates. — Total missing 74. 

Total killed, wounded, and missing on the 23d — 213. 


Killed — General Coffee's brigade, 1 private; New Orleans 
volunteer company, 1 private; general Carroll's division of Ten- 
nessee militia, 1 colonel (Henderson), 1 sergeant, 5 privates — 
Total 9. 

Wounded — Marines, 1 major (Carmick); New Orleans vo- 
lunteer company, 3 privates; general Carroll's division, 1 lieuten- 
ant, 3 privates. — Total wounded, 8. 

Missing — None . 

Total killed, wounded, and missing on this day, 17. 


Killed — Artillery, navy, and volunteers at batteries, 8 privates; 
44th ditto, 1 private; general Coffee's brigade, 1 sergeant; gene- 
ral Carroll's division, 1 private. — Total 11. 

IVounded-^-^AYtWlcYy, navy, and volunteers at batteries, 8; 
7th United States' infantry, 1 private; 44th do. 3; general Coffee's 
brigade, 2; New Orleans volunteers, 3 privates; general Carroll's 
division, 1 sergeant, 2 privates; volunteers of colour, 1 lieutenant, 
1 sergeant, 1 private. — Total 23. 

Missing — N one . 

Total of killed, wounded, and missing this day, 34. 


Killed — Artillery, navy, and volunteers at batteries, 3 privates; 
7th United States' infantry, 1 sergeant, 1 corpoi'al; general Cof- 
fee's brigade, I private; Carroll's division, 1 sergeant^ 3 privates; 


Kentucky militia 1 private; majors Lacoste's and Dacquin's vo- 
lunteers of colour, 1 private; general Morgan's militia, 1 private. 
Total killed, 13. 

Wounded — Artillery, &c. one private; 7th United States' in- 
fantry, one private; general CarroU'sdivision, one ensign, one ser- 
geant, six privates; Kentucky militia, one adjutant, one corporal, 
and ten privates; volunteers of colour, one ensign, three sergeants, 
one corporal, eight privates; general Morgan's militia, two ser- 
geants, two privates.— Total wounded, thirty-nine. 

Missing. — Kentucky militia, four privates; Morgan's militia, 
fifteen privates— Total nineteen. 

Total killed, wounded and missing this day, seventy -one. 

Note — Of the killed, wounded and missing on this day, but 
six killed and seven wounded in the action on the east bank of the 
river, the residue in a sortie after the action, and in the action on 
the west bank. - 


Total killed, - - - - 55 

Total wounded, - - - 185 

Total missing, - - - - 93 

Grand Total . . - 333 

Truly reported from those on file in this office. 

Robert Butler. 

Letter from Commodore Patterson to the Secretary of the J\''avij. 

Afarine battery, fve miles beloiv jVew Orleans, l3tA January, 1815, 

I HAVE the honour to inform you, that during the 2d and 3d 
instant, I landed from the ship and mounted, as the former ones, 
'on the banks of the river, four more twelve-pounders, and erected" 
a furnace for heating shot, to destroy a number of buildings which 
intervened between general Jackson's lines and the camp of the 
enemy and occupied by him. On the evening of the 4th I suc- 
ceeded in firing a number of thcra, and some rice slacks by my 
hot shot, Avhich the enemy attempted to extinguish, notwithstand- 
ing tlie heavy fire I kept up, but which at length compelled them 
to desist. On the. 6th and . 7th I erected another furnace, and 
moxinted on the banks of the river two more twenty-four pound 


ers, which had been brought up from the English Turn, by the 
exertions of colonel Caldwell, of the drafted militia of this state, 
and brought within and mounted on the intrenchments on this 
side the river, one twelve-pounder; in addition to which, general 
Morgan, commanding the militia on this side, planted two brass 
six-pound field pieces in his lines, which were incomplete, having 
been commenced only on the 4th; these three pieces were the 
only cannon on the lines, all the others being mounted on the 
bank of the river, with a view to aid the right of general Jack- 
son's lines on the opposite shore, and to flank the enemy should 
they attempt to march up the road leading along the levee, or 
erect batteries on the same, of course could render no aid in 
defence of general Morgan's lines. My battery was manned in 
part from the crew of the ship, and in part by militia detailed for 
that service by general Morgan, as I had not seamen enough to 
fully man them. 

During greater part of the 7th, reconnoitred the enemy at 
Villere's plantation, whose canal, I was informed, they were 
deepening and opening to the river, for the purpose of getting 
their lanches in, which upon examination with my glass I found 
to be true, and informed general Jackson of my observations by 
letters, copies of which I enclose herewith; a re-enforcement to 
general Morgan's mMitia was made in consequence, consisting 
of about four hundred militia from Kentucky, very badly armed 
or equipped, the general not having arms to furnish them, who 
arrived on this side on the morning of the 8th much fatigued. 
At 1 A. M. finding that the enemy had succeeded in lanching 
their barges into the river, I despatched my aid-de-camp, Mr^ 
R. D. Shepherd, to inform general Jackson of the circumstance, 
and that a very uncommon stir was observed in the enemy's camp 
ajid batteries on the banks of the river, and stating again the ex- 
treme weakness of this side the river, and urging a re-enforce- 
ment. I would have immediately dropped down with the Louisiana 
upon their barges; but to do so I must have withdrawn all the men 
from the battery jon shore, which I deemed of the greatest impor- 
tance, and exposed the vessel to fire by hot shot from the enemy's 
batteries, mounting six long eighteen-pounders, which protected 
their barges; and at this time she had on board a large quantity of 


powder, for the supply of her own guns, and those on slv)re, most 
of which was above the surfiice of the water, consequently expos- 
ed to their hot shot. 

General Morgan despatched the Kentuckians immediately 
on their arrival, about 5 A. M. to re-enforce a party which had 
been sent out early on the night of the 7th, to watch and oppose 
the landing of the enemy, but who retreated after a fcAv shot from 
the enemy within the lines, where they were immediately posted 
in their station on the extreme right. At daylight, the enemy 
opened a heavy cannonade upon general Jackson's lines and my 
battery, leading their troops under cover of their cannon to the 
assault of the lines, which they attempted on the right and left, but 
principally on the latter wing; they were met by a most tremen- 
dous and incessant fire of artillery and mvisketry, which compel- 
led them to retreat with precipitation; leaving the ditch filled, and 
the field strewed with their dead and wounded. My battery was 
opened upon them simultaneously with those from our lines, 
flanking the enemy both in his advance and retreat with round, 
grape and canister, which must have proved extremely destruc- 
tive, as in their haste and confusion to retreat they crowded the 
top of the levee, affording us a most advantageous opportunity for 
the use of grape and canister, which I used to the greatest -advan- 
tage. While thus engaged with the enemy on the opposite shore, 
I was informed that they had effected their landing on this side, 
and were advancing to general Morgan's breastwork. I imme- 
diately ordered the officers in command of my guns to turn them 
in their embrazures, and point them to protect general Morgan's 
right wing, whose lines not extending to the swamp, and those 
weakly manned, I apprehended the enemy's outflanking him on 
that wing; which order was promptly executed by captain Hen- 
ley and the officers stationed at the battery, under a heavy and well 
directed fire of shot and shells from the enemy on the opposite 
bank of the river. At this time the enemy's force had approach- 
ed general Morgan's lines, under the cover of a shower of rock- 
ets, and charged in despite of the fire from the twelve-pounder 
and field-pieces mounted on the lines as before stated^ when in a 
few minutes I had the extreme mortification and chagrin to ob- 
serve general Morgan's right wing, composed as herein mentioned 


df the Kentucky militia, commanded by major Davis, abandon 
their breastwork and flying in a most shameful and dastardly 
manner, ahnost without a shot; which disgraceful example, after 
firing a few rounds, was soon followed by the whole of general 
Morgan's command, notwithstanding every exertion was made 
by him, his staff and several officers of the city militia, to keep 
them to their posts. By the great exertions of those officers a 
short stand was effected on the field, when a discharge of rockets 
from the enemy, caused them again to retreat in such a manner 
that no efforts could stop them. 

Finding inyself thus abandoned by the force I relied upon to 
protect my battery, I was most reluctantly and with inexpressible 
pain, after destroying my powder and spiking my cannon, com- 
pelled to abandon them, having only thirty officers and seamen 
with me. A part of the militia were rallied at a saw-mill canalj 
about two miles above the lines from Avhich they had fled, and 
there encamped. I ordered the I^ouisiana to be warped up for 
the purpose of procuring a supply of ammunition, and mounting 
other cannon, remaining myself to aid general Morgan. A large 
re-enforcement of militia having been immediately despatched by 
general Jackson to this side, every arrangement was made by ge- 
neral Morgan to dislodge the enemy from his position, when he 
precipitately retreated, carrying with him the two field pieces 
and a brass howitz, after having first set fire to the platforms and 
gun-carriages on my battery, two saw-mills, and all the bridges 
between him and general Morgan's troops, and recrossed the 
river, and secured his boats by hauling them into his canal. On 
the 9th we re-occupied our former ground, and recovered all the 
cannon in my battery, which I immediately commenced drilling 
and remounting; and on the evening of the 10th had two twen- 
ty-four-pounders mounted and ready for service, on the left flank 
of a new and more advantageous position. From the 10th to the 
present date I have been much engaged in mounting my twelve- 
pounders along the breastwork erected by general Morgan on 
this new position, having three twenty-four pounders (with a fur- 
nace) to front the river, and flank general Jackson's lines on the 
opposite bank, from which we fired upon the enemy wherever he 
appeared. Our present position is now so strong that there is no- 


thing to apprehend should the enemy make another attempt on 
this side. 

To captain Henley, who has been with me since the destruc- 
tion of his schooner, and who was wounded on the 8th, I am 
much indebted for his aid on every occasion, and to the officers 
commanding the different guns in my battery, for their great ex- 
ertions at all times, but particularly on the trying event of the 8th. 
The exertions of general Morgan, his staff, and several of the 
'officers of the city militia, excited my highest respect, and I deem 
it my duty to say that had the drafted and city militia been alone 
on that day, that I believe they would have done much better; 
but the flight of the Kentuckians paralized their exertions and 
produced a retreat, which could not be checked. The two brass 
field pieces, manned entirely by militia of the city, were admira- 
bly served, nor were they abandoned till desei'ted by their com- 
rades, one of which was commanded by Mr. Hosmer, of captain 
Simpson's company, the other by a Frenchman, whose name I 
know not. The twelve-pounder under the direction of acting 
midshipman Philibert, was served till the last moment, did great 
execution, and is highly extolled by general Morgan. The force 
of the enemy on this side amounted to one thousand men, and 
from the best authority I can obtain, their loss on this side, I have 
since learned, was ninety-seven killed and wounded; among the 
latter is colonel Thornton who commanded; of the former five or 
six have been discovered buried, and lying upon the field; our loss 
was one man killed and several wounded. 

I have the honour to be, See. 

Daniel T. Pattehson. 


jiddress of the major-general commanding the 7th military district, 
to the troojis stationed on the right bank of the Mississipfii. 

January 8, 1815. 

While by the blessing of Heaven directing the valour of the 

troops under my command, one of the most brilliant victories in 

the annals of the war, was obtained by my immediate command; 

no words can express the mortification I felt at witnessing the 


scene exhibited on the opposite bank. I will spare your feelings 
and my own by enterhig into no detail on the subject; to all who 
reflect, it must be a source of eternal regret, that a few moments 
exertion of that courage you certainly possess, was alone wanting to 
have rendered your success more complete than that of your fellow 
citizens in this camp, by the defeat of the detachment which was 
rash enough to cross the river to attack you. To what cause was the 
Eibandonment of your lines owing? To fear? No! You are the coun-'* 
trymen,the friends, the brothers of those who have secured to them- 
selves by their courage, the gratitude of their country; who have 
been prodigal of their blood in its defence, and who are strangers 
to any other fear than that of disgrace — to disaffection to our glo- 
rious cause? No, my countrymen, your general does justice to the 
pure sentiments by which you are inspired. How then could brave 
men, firm in the cause in which they were enrolled, neglect theiis 
first duty, and abandon the post committed to their care? The want 
of discipline, the want of order, a total disregard to obedience, and 
a spirit of insubordination, not less destructive than cowardice it- 
self, this appears to be the cause which led to the disaster, and 
the causes must be eradicated, or I must cease to command; and 
I desire to be distinctly understood, that every breach of orders, 
all want of discipline, every inattention of duty will be serious- 
ly and promptly punished, that the attentive officers, and good 
soldiers may not be mentioned in the disgrace and danger which 
the negligence of a few may produce. Soldiers! you want only 
the will, in order to emulate the glory of your fellow citizens on 
this bank of the river—you have the same motives for action; 
the same interest; the same country to protect, and you have an 
additional interest from past events, to wipe off the stain and shoVir, 
what, no dcubt, is the fact, that you will not be inferior in the day 
of trial to any of your countrymen. 

But remember, that without obedience, without order, with> 
out discipline, all your efforts are vain, and the brave man, inat- 
tentive to his duty, is worth little more to his country than the 
coward who deserts her in the hour of danger. Private opinions, 
as to the competency of officers, must not be indulged, and still 
less expressed; it is impossible that the measure of those who 
command should satisf;f all who are bound to obey, and one gf the 



most dangerous iaults in a soldier is a dispositioft to criticise and 
blame the orders and characters of his superiors. Soldiers! I 
know that many of you have done your duty; and I trust in my 
next address, I shall have no reason to make any exception. Offi- 
cers! I have the fullest confidence that you will enforce obedience 
to your commands, and above all, that by subordination in your 
different grades, you will set the example of it to your men; and 
that hereafter the army of the right will yield to none in the es- 
sential qualities which characterize good soldiers; and that they 
will earn their share of those honours and rewards, which their 

country will prepare for its deliverers. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Provisional articles agreed on beiween major Smith, authorized b)/ 
major-general Lambert, and Edward Livingston, an aid'de- 
camji to major-general Jackson, authorized by him for that 
purhose, subject to the ratification of the respective commaJi- 
ders of the two armies between the lines. January 17, 1815. 
Article 1st. It being understood that admiral sir Alexander 
Cochrane has sent, or will immediately send the American prison- 
ers, as well of the army as of the navy, now on board the British 
fleet, to the mouth of the Rigolets, it is agreed that a nominal and 
descriptive receipt shall be given for the same upon honour, and 
that on the receipt of the said prisoners a number of British pri- 
soners equal in rank and number to those so sent to the Rigolets, 
together with those confined in the British camp, shall be sent to 
the mouth of the river and be received by ships appointed for that 
purpose by the admiral. 

Art. 2d. At the same time all the prisoners now in the Bri- 
tish camp, shall be sent to the American lines, and receipted for 
as above, not to serve until an equal number of English prisoners 
shall be delivered. 

Art. 3rd. Officers of equal rank shall be exchanged for equal 
rank, and wounded for wounded, as far as circumstances will per- 

Edwahd Livingston. 

H. Smith, Major. 
T approve and ratify the above arrangement. 

Andrew Jackson. 



Letter from major-general Jackson to the secretary at war, dated 

H., four jiiHes belovj JV. Orleans, Jaiiuarij 19, 1815. 

Last night at twelve o'clock the enemy precipitately decamp- 
ed, leaving behind him, under medical attendance, eighty of his 
wounded, including two officers, fourteen pieces of artillery, and 
a considerable quantity of shot, having destroyed much of his 

Such was the situation of the ground which he abandoned, 
and that through which he retii'ed, protected by canals, redoubts, 
and intrenchments on his right, and the river on his left, that I 
could not, without encountering a risk which true policy did 
not seem to require or authorize, annoy him much on his retreat. 
We took only eight prisoners. 

Whether it is the purpose of the enemy to abandon the ex- 
pedition altogether, or renew his efforts at some other point, I 
shall not pretend to decide with positiveness; in my own mind, 
however, there is very little doubt but his last exertions have 
been made in this quarter, at any rate for the present season, and 
by the next, if he shall choose to I'evisit us, I hope we shall be ful- 
ly prepared for him. In this belief I am strengthened, not only by 
the prodigious loss he sustained at the position he has just quitted, 
but by the failure of his fleet to pass fort St. Philip. His loss 
since the debarkation of his troops, as stated by all the last prison- 
ers and deserters, and as confirmed by many additional circum- 
stances, exceed in the whole four thousand men, and was greater 
in the action of the 3th, than from the most correct data then in 
his power, was estimated by the inspector-general, whose report 
has been forwarded you. I am more and more satisfied in the 
belief, that had the arms reached us which was destined for us, 
the whole British army in this quarter would, before this time, have 
been captured or destroyed. We succeeded, however, on that 
day, in getting from the enemy about one thousand stand of arms 
of various descriptions. Since that action I have allowed the ene- 
my very little respite. My artillery from both sides of the river, 
being constantly employed till the night and the hour of their re- 


treat, in annoying thetn. It was time to quit a position in wliiclt 
so little rest could be enjoyed, f 

I am advised by major Overton, who commands fort St. Phi- 
lip, in a letter of the 1 S5th, that the enemy having bombarded his 
fort for eight or nine days, with some thirteen-inch shells, without 
producing any important effect, had on the morning of that day 
retired. Giving the proper weight to all these considerations, i 
believe you will not think me too sanguine in the belief that Lou- 
isiana is now clear of its enemy. 

I hope I need not assure you, however, that wherever I com- 
mand, such a belief shall not occasion any relaxation in the pre-» 
parations for resistance. I am but too sensible, that the moment 
■when the enemy is opposing us, is not the most proper for making 

jinj' preparation. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Andreav Jaokso^i 


Letter from major-general Jackson to the Rev. Abbe Dubourg. 
H. Q. seventh military district^ Jamiary 19, 181.5. 
Reverend Sir, 

The signal interposition of Heaven, in giving success to our 
arms against the enemy, who so lately landed on our shores; an 
enemy as powerful as inveterate in his hatred; Avhile it must ex- 
cite in every bosom attached to the happy government under which 
■we live, emotions of the liveliest gratitude, requires at the same 
tijprie some external manifestation of those feelings. 

Permit me, therefore, to entreat, that you wdll cause the ser- 
vice of public thanksgiving to be performed in the cathedral, in 
token of the great assistance we have received from the Rider of 
all events, and of >our humble sense of it. 

With the greatest respect, 

Andrew Jackson. 




Extract of a letter from major-general Andrew Jackson, to the 
secretary of war, dated Head Quarters, Seventh Military Dis- 
trict, JVew Orlea7is, \7th February, 1815. 

I have the honoui to enclose you major Overton's report of 
the attack of fort St. Philip, and of the manner in which it was 

The conduct of that officer and of those who acted under 
him, merits, I think, great praise. They nailed their own co- 
lours to the standard and placqd those of the enemy underneath 
them, determined never to surrender the fort. 

Cofiy of a letter from major Overton, commanding fort St. Philip, 
during the late bombardment of it, to major-general Jackson. 

Fort St. FMlifi, January 19 th, 1815^. 

On the 1st of the present month, I received information 
that the enemy intended passing this fort to co-operate with their 
land forces, in the subjugation of Louisiana, and the destruction 
of the city of New Orleans. To effect this with more facility, 
they were first with their heavy bomb-vessels to bombard this 
place into compliance. On the grounds of this information, I 
turned my attention to the security of my command: I erected 
small magazines in different parts of the garrison, that if one blow 
up 1 could resort to another; built covers for my men to secure 
them from the explosion of the shells, and removed the combus- 
tible matter without the work. Early in the day of the 8th in- 
stant, 1 was advised of their approach, and on the 9th at a quarter 
past ten A. M. hove in sight two bomb-vessels, one sloop, one 
brig, and one schooner; they anchored two and a quarter miles 
below. At half past eleven, and at half past twelve they advanced 
two barges, apparently for the purpose of sounding within one and 
a half mile of the fort; at this moment I ordered my water battery, 
under the command of lieutenant Cunningham, of the navy, to 
open upon them; its well directed shot caused a precipitate re- 


treat. At half past three o'clock, P. M. the enemy's bomb-ves- 
sels opened their fire from four sea-mortars, two of thirteen inches, 
two of ten, and to my great mortification I found they were with- 
out the effective range of my shot, as many subsequent experi- 
ments proved; they continued their fire with little intermission 
during the 10th, 11th, 12th, 13th, 14th, 1 5th, 16th, and 17th. I 
occasionally opened my batteries on them with great vivacity, 
particularly when they showed a disposition to change their po- 
sition. On the 17th in the evening, our heavy mortar was said to 
be in readiness. I ordered that excellent officer captain Wol- 
stonecraftof the artillerists, who previously had charge of it, to open 
a fire, which was done with great effect, as the enemy from that 
moment became disordered, and at daylight on the 18th com- 
menced their retreat, after having thrown upwards of a thousand 
heavy shells, besides small shells from howitzers, round shot and 
grape, which he discharged from boats under cover of the night. 

Our loss in this affair has been uncommonly small, owing en- 
tirely to the great pains that was taken by the different officers to 
keep their men under cover; as the enemy left scarcely ten feet of 
this garrison untouched. 

The officers and soldiers through this whole affair, although 
nine days and nights under arms in the different batteries, the con- 
sequent fatigue and loss of sleep, have manifested the greatest 
firmness and the most zealous warmth to be at the enemy. To 
distinguish individuals would be a delicate task as merit was con- 
spicuous every where. Lieutenant Cunningham of the navy, wh9 
commanded my water battery, with his brave crew, evinced the 
most detel-mined bravery and uncommon activity throughout; 
and in fact, sir, the only thing to be regretted is that the enemy 
was too timid to give us an opportunity of destroying him. 

I herewith enclose you a list of the killed and wounded. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 

W. H. Overton, 

A list of the killed and wounded during the bombardment of fort St. 
Philip, commencing on the 9 th and ending on the \8th of Janu- 
ary, 1815. 
Captain Wolstonecraft's artillery — Wounded 3. 
Captain Murry's artillery — Killed 2; wounded 1 


Captain Bronten's infantry — Wounded I . 
Captain Wade's infantry — Wounded 2. 
Total killed 2; wounded 7. 


.4n address delivered to the commander-in-chief of the seventh mi- 
litary district^ major-general Andrew Jackson^ at the ceremony 
of solemn thanksgiving, after his brilliant defence of JVew Or- 
leans. By the reverend W. Dubourg^ adyninistrator afiostolic 
of the diocese of Louisiana. 

Whilst the state of Louisiana, in the joyful transports of her 
gratitude, hails you as her deliverer, and the asserter of her mena- 
ced liberties — whilst grateful America, so lately wrapped up in 
anxious suspense, on the fate of this iimportant city, the emporium 
of the wealth of one half of her territory, and the true bulwark of 
its independence, is now re-echoing from shore to shore your 
splendid achievements, and preparing to inscribe your name on 
her immortal rolls, among those ef her Washingtons — whilst his- 
tory, poetry, and the monumental arts will vie in consigning to 
the admiration of the latest posterity, a triumph perhaps unpa- 
ralleled in their records — whilst thus raised by universal accla- 
mation to the very pinnacle of fame and ascending clouds of in- 
cense, how easy it had been for you, general, to forget the prime 
Mover of your wonderful successes, and to assume to yourself a 
praise which must essentially return to that exalted source whence 
every sort of merit is derived. But better acquainted with the 
nature of true glory, and justly placing the summit of your ambi- 
tion in approving yourself the worthy instrument of Heaven's 
merciful designs, the first impulse of your religious heart was 
to acknowledge the signal inter/iosition of Providence — your 
first step is a solemn display oi your humble sense of His favours. 
Still agitated at the remembrance of those dreadful agonies 
from which we have been so miraculously rescued, it is our 
pride also to acknowledge that the Alnnighty has truly had the 
principal hand in our deliverance, and to follow you, general, in 
attributing to his infinite goodness the homage of our unfeigned 


gratitude. Let the infatuated votary of a blind chance deride our 
credulous simplicity; let the cold-hearted atheist look up for th(? 
explanation of such innportant events to the mere concatenation 
of human causes; to us, the whole iniiverse is loud in proclaiming 
a supreme Ruler, who as he holds the hearts of man in his hands, 
holds also the thread of all contingent occurrences. " Whatever 
be His intermediate agents," says an illustrious prelate, " still on 
the secret orders of His all-ruling providence, depend the rise and 
prosperity, as well as the decline and downfall of empires. Froni 
His lofty throne above he moves every scene below, now curbing, 
now letting loose the passions of men; now infusing His own wis- 
dom into the leaders of nations; now confounding their boasted 
prudence, and spreading upon their councils a spirit of intoxica- 
tion, and thus executing his uncontrollable judgments on the sons 
of men, according to the dictates of His own unerring justice." 

To Hinif therefore, our most fervent thanks are due for our 
late unexpected rescue, and it is Him we chiefly intend to praise, 
when considering you, general, as the man of his right hand., whom 
he has taken pains to fit out for the important commission of our 
defence; we extol that fecundity of genius, by which, in an instant 
of the most discouraging distress, you created unforeseen resour- 
ces, raised as it were, from the ground, hosts of intrepid warriors, 
and pi'ovided every vulnerable point with ample means of defence. 
To Him we trace that instinctive superiority of your mind, which 
at once rallied around you universal confidence; impressed one 
irresistible movement to all the jarring elements of which this 
political machine is composed; aroused their slumbering spirits, 
and diffused through every rank that noble ardour which glowed 
in your own bosom. To Him in fine, we address our acknow- 
ledgments for that consummate prudence which defeated all the 
combinations of a sagacious enemy, entangled him in the very 
snares which he had spread before us, and succeeded in effect- 
mg his utter destruction, without once exposing the lives of our 
citizens. Immortal thanks be to His supreme majesty, for send- 
ing us such an instrument of his bountiful designs! A gift of that 
value is the best token of the continuance of his protection — the 
most solid encouragement to us to sue for new favours. The 
first which it emboldens us humbly to supplicate as it is the nearer 


to our throbbing hearts, is that you may long enjoy, general, 
the honour of your grateful country, of which you will permit us 
to present you a pledge in this wreath of laurel, the prize of vic- 
tory, the symbol of immortality. The next is a speedy and ho- 
nourable termination of the bloody contest in which we are engag- 
ed. No one has so efficaciously laboured as you, general, for the 
acceleration of that blissful period; may we soon reap that sweetest 
fruit of your splendid and uninterrupted victories. 


Reverend sir,— I receive with gratitude and pleasure the sym- 
bolical crown which piety has prepared. I receive it in the name 
of the brave men who have so effectually seconded my exertions 
for the preservation of their country — they well deserve the laurels 
which their country will bestow. 

For myself, to have been instrumental in the deliverance of 
such a country, is the greatest blessing that heaven could confer. 
That it has been effected with so little loss — that so few tears 
should cloud the smiles of our triumph, and not a cypress leaf be 
interwoven in the wreath which you present, is a source of the 
most exquisite enjoyment. 

I thank yo\i, reverend sir, most sincerely for the prayers 
which you offer up for my happiness. May those your patriotism 
dictates for our beloved country, be first heard. And may mine 
for your individual prosperity as well as that of the congregation 
committed to your care, be favourably received — the prosperity, 
the wealth, the happiness of this city, will then be commensurate 
with the courage and other qualities of its inhabitants. 


To JVicholas Girod, Esq. Mayor of the City of JVeiv Orleans. 

Head-quarters., 7th military district, January 27, 1815. 

Deeply impressed since my arrival with the unanimity and 
patriotic zeal displayed by the citizens over whom you so worthily 
preside, I should be inexcusable if any other occupation than that 



of providing for their defence Iiad prevented nty public acknow- 
ledgment of their merits. I pray you now, sir, to communicate to 
the inhabitants of your respectable city, the exalted sense I enter- 
tain of their patriotism, love of order, and attachment to the prin- 
ciples of our excellent constitution. The courage they have shown 
in a period of no common dang-er, and the fortitude with which 
they have rejected all the apprehensions which the vicinity of the 
enemy was calculated to produce, are not more to be admired than 
their humane attention to our own sick and wounded, as well as 
to those of that description among the prisoners. The liberality 
with which their representatives in the city council provided for 
the families of those who were in the field, evinced an enlightened 
humanity, and was productive of the most beneficial effects. Sel- 
dom in any community, has so much cause been given for de- 
served praise; while the young were in the field, and arrested the 
progress of the foe, the aged watched over the city, and main- 
tained its internal peace; and even the softer sex encouraged their 
husbands and brothers to remain at the post of danger and duty. 
Not content with exerting for the noblest purpose that powerful 
influence which is given them by nature (and which in your coun- 
trywomen is rendered irresistible by accomplishments and beauty) 
they showed themselves capable of higher efforts, and, actuated 
by humanity and patriotism, they clothed by their own labour, and 
protected from the inclemency of the season the men who had 
marched from a distant state to protect them from insults. In the 
name of those brave men, I beg you, sir, to convey to them the 
tribute of our admiration and thanks; assure them that the distant 
wives and daughters of those whom they have succoured will re- 
member them iu their prayers; and that for myself no circum- 
stance of this important campaign touches me with more exqui- 
site pleasure than that I have been enabled to lead back to them, 
with so few exceptions, the husbands, brothers, and other rela- 
tives of whom such women only are worthy. 

I anticipate, sir, Avith great satisfaction, the period when the 
final departure of the enemy will enable you to resume the ordi- 
nary functions of your office, and i-estore the citizens to their usual 
occupations — they have merited the blessings of peace by bravely 
facing the dangers of war. 


I should be ungrateful or insensible, if I did not acknowledge 
ihe marks of confidence and aficctionate attachment with which I 
have personally been honoured by your citizens; a confidence that 
has enabled me with greater success to direct the measures for 
their defence, an attachment which I sincerely reciprocate, and 
which I siiuil carry witii me to the grave. 

For yourself, Mr. Mayor, I pray you to accept my thanks tor 
the veiy great zeal, integrity, and diligence with which you have 
conducted the arduous dcpartiaent of the police committed to 
your care, and the promptitude with which every requisition for 
the public service has been carried into effect. 

Connected with the United States, your city must become the 
greatest emporium of commerce that the Avorld has known. In 
the hands of any other power it can be nothing but a wretched 
colony. May your citizens always be as sensible of this great 
truth as they have shown themselves at present: may they always 
make equal efforts to preserve the important connexion, and may 
you, sir, long live to witness the prosperity, wealth and happiness 
that will then inevitably characterize the great seaport of the 
western world. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) Andrew Jackso^-. 


Letter from governor Claiborne to major-general Thomas^ 

Metv Orleans, February 25th, 1815. 

I HAVE the honour to enclose you a resolution of the general 
assembly of Louisiana, from which you will perceive the grateful 
sense which is entertained of the services rendered to this state, 
" by our brave brother soldiers from Tennessee, Kentucky and the 
Mississippi Territory, and their gallant leaders." 

It is the pride of America to see her brave defenders guide 
the plough or front her enemies, as the national interest and safety 
shall advise. To such citizen soldiers do we chiefly commit the 
protection of our dearest rights — the defence of our beloved coun- 


try: and that we may continue to do so, and with confidence, the 
glorious termination of the campaign in which you have borne a 
distinguished part, affords a pleasing proof. From the prospect 
now before us, we may be permitted to hope, sir, that the calm of 
peace will soon authorize you to rest from the toils of war, and to 
lead back your patriotic division to their families and friends. 
The best wishes of the Louisianians will always accompany you 
and them. The spirit of union, of mutual affection and confidence, 
which now happily exists between the people of this state and theif 
brothers of the sister states, will, I trust, be forever cherished — it 
is the surest pledge of our national glory. 

I tender to you, sir. 

The assurances of my j-espectful attachment, 

(Signed) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

Camfi Dufire^ two miles below vA'ew Orleans^ Feb. 27^/i, 181-5. 

Through the politeness of colonel Fortier I had the honour 
of receiving yours of the 25th inst. enclosing the resolution of the 
general assembly of the state of Louisiana, which I have had pub- 
lished to the troops under my command. Next to the pleasure 
derived from a consciousness of having discharged our duty, must 
be that which arises from the testimonials of gratitude conferred 
upon us by our brothers in arms, who alike with us, shared the 
dangers of the field, and the toils and hardships of the camp; and 
for the protection of vv^hom we have left our homes and wives, our 
children, our friends, and every thing dear to us, and for whom we 
cherish that brotherly love and affection which is the cement of 
the union, and which alone endears man to man and state to state 
For myself and my division, permit me to tender you and the ho- 
nourable legislature of the state of Louisiana, an assurance of the 
grateful sensations we feel for the honour they have conferred 
upon us; and for myself accept, dear sir, the highest sentiments of 
esteem from 

Yours very respectfully, 

John Thomas, 
Com. Div. Ky. Militia. 


Letter from governor Claiborne to major-general Carrol. 

J^tew Orleans^ February 26///, 1815. 

I TAKE great pleasure in communicating to you a resolution 
of the general assembly of this state, expressive of gratitude and 
thanks to you and your gallant comrades, " for the brilliant share 
they have had in the defence of Louisiana, and the happy harmony 
they have maintained with the inhabitants and militia of this state." 

Under a leader, young in years, but old in deeds of valour, 
our brethren of Tennessee hastened to our relief; they arrived in 
time to participate in all the conflicts with the advancing foe, and 
greatly to contribute to his final overthrow. It must be pleasing 
to you, to contemplate the present comparative security of Loui- 
siana. It cost you and your brave associates some toilsome days 
and watchful nights. But it is not to the gratitude of this state 
only, that you have acquired a title. The whole union must feel 
indebted to those whose faithful services have conduced to the 
preservation of one of its important members. 
I tender to you, sir, Sec. 
(Signed) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

Camfi Henderson^ above JVew Orleans, March 2, 1815. 

I HAD the honour of receiving your letter of the 24th ult. 
covering the resolution of the legislature of the state of Louisiana, 
expressing in a very flattering manner their thanks to the troops 
of Tennessee, and to me individually, for the share we have taken 
in the defience of this country. 

I hope you will convey to the legislature the grateful senti- 
ments with which I am impressed for the honour done me and 
the troops whom I command. 

I cannot withhold the expressions of gi'atitude due to the 
people of New-Orleans for their benevolence in furnishing our 
suffering soldiers with warm clothing during the inclemency of 
winter, and at a time when the enemy were before our works. 

They have administered to our sick and wounded everj- 
friendly attention, and extended to them all the rights of hirmanity. 

Ixxviii APPENDIX. 

The bright beams of peace appear ready to burst around 
us, and I hope soon to offer to you and the people of this country 
my congratulations for this glorious event. 

If the report of peace be correct, the presence of the Ten- 
nessee arms will be no longer necessary, and our soldiers in re- 
turning home, will carry with them the impressions of friendship 
to the citizens of this coimtry, which I hope may be cherished as 
their intercourse becomes more frequent, and perpetuated as long 
jis the Mississippi continues to flow. 

I offer you the salutations of my friendly esteem, 

Wm. Carroll, 
Maj, Gen. Com. Div. Tenn. Militia. 

Letter from governor Claiborne to general Adair. 

»■ JVenv Orleans^ February 25t/i, 181 j. 


To a soldier Avho has done his duty in all the conflicts in 
which his country has been involved, from the war of independ- 
ence to the present moment, it must be matter of great exulta- 
tion to notice the valour and firmness of the children of his old 
friends — to be convinced that they are the true descendants of the 
original stock. That the young men of your brigade should have 
looked up to you in the hour of battle, as their guide and their 
shield, is only a continuation of that confidence which their fathers 
had in a chief whose arm had so often, and so successfully, been 
raised against the foe. The enclosed resolution of the general 
assembly of Louisiana, will show you the high sense which is en- 
tertained in this state of your services, and those of your brothers 
in ai'ms. Be towards them the vehicle of our sentiments, and re- 
ceive for yourself, the assurances of my respect, and best wishes 
for your health and happiness. 

(Signed) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

Cam/i Dujire^ February '26t/if 1815. 

I HAVE the honour of acknowledging the receipt of your ex- 
cellency's note of yesterday (politely handed by colonel Leblanc) 



inclosing a resolution of the legislature of the state of Louisiana, 
generously awarding the thanks of the state to the militia from 
her sister states, who aided in the late successful struggle to ex- 
pel a powerful invading enemy from her shores. 

To a proud American, citizen or soldier, the consciousness 
of having faithfully discharged his duty to his country, must ever 
be his highest and most lasting consolation. But when to this is 
added the approbation, the gratitude of the wisest, the most re- 
spectable part of the community, with whom and under whose eye 
It has been his fortune to act, it will ever be esteemed, not only 
the highest reward for his services, but the most powerful incen- 
tive to his future good conduct. 

Accept, sir, for the legislature, my warmest acknowledg- 
nient for the honourable mention they have made of the corps to 
which I belong; and for yourself the esteem and respect so justly 
due from me for your polite and highly interesting note of com- 
munications, and my best wishes for your health and happiness. 
(Signed) John Adair... 

Letter from governor Claiborne to general Coffee. 

J^'eit^ Orleans, February 25ths 1815- 

It affords me the greatest pleasure to enclose you a resolu- 
tion of the general assembly of Louisiana, acknowledging the 
faithful and useful services of our western brothers, and tendering 
their thanks to you among other distinguisJied officers. 

The love of country, which induced you to change the calm 
of domestic life for the privations incident to a camp, is no less ar- 
dent in the brave volunteers whom you lead, than the gratitude 
which the people of Louisiana bear towards you and them; a heroic 
band, whose firmness in the field has alike contributed to avert 
from our settlements the horrors of an Indian warfare, and to the 
entire defeat and discomfiture of the powerful foe, who so arro- 
gantly menaced the safety of this great and gi-owing city. 

Receive for yourself, and be towards your companions in 
arms, the organ of expressing my highest confidence and sincerest 
good will. 

(^^S'^'^^) Wm. C. C. Claieornf. 



Camp, Coffee^ near JVenu Orleans.^ Marth Ath^ 1815. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 25th ult. and the resolution it enclosed of the legislature of 
Louisiana, presenting the thanks of that honourable body, to their 
l>rother soldiers from the west, for " the share they have taken in 
the defence of this country, and the harmony they have maintained 
with the inhabitants and militia of the state." 

To know that we have contributed, in any degree, to the pre- 
servation of our common country, is to myself and the brave men 
under my immediate command the most pleasing reflection. To 
have received so flattering and distinguished a testimonial of our 
services adds to the pleasure which that consciousness alone 
would have afforded. 

While we indulge the pleasing emotions that arc thus pro- 
duced, we should be guilty of great injustice, as well to merit as 
to our own feelings, if we withheld from the commander-in-chief, 
to whose wisdom and exertions we are so much indebted for our 
successes, the expression of our highest admii-ation and applause. 
To his firmness, his skill, his gallantry — to that confidence and 
unanimity among all ranks produced by those qualities, we must 
chiefly ascribe the splendid victories in which we esteem it a hap- 
piness and an honour to have borne a part. 

We enter with sensibility into the feelings of the legislature, 
and of your excellency, on occasion of the harmony which has been 
so happily preserved with the inhabitants and militia of the state- 
May the same spirit of brotherhood always unite us when con- 
tending against a common enemy in defence of our best rights. 

I tender the assurances of my own and of my companions' 
thanks, for the distinguished manner in which you and the legis- 
lature have been pleased to notice and honour our exertions. 
I have the honour to be, sir, 8cc. 
(Signed) John Coffee, 

Bri^. Gen. T. F. M. G. Men. 

APPENDIX. ixxxi 

Letter from governor Claiborne to colonel Hinds. 

KexO Orleans^ February 2bth^ 1815. 

The enclosed vote of thanks of the general assembly of Lou- 
isiana, which I now have the honour to transmit you, brings to my 
recollection the satisfaction I experienced more than twelve years 
ago, on signing the commission which ushered your military ta- 
lents into light. At that early period of your life, the highest 
hopes of your future usefulness were entertained by your friends, 
and to them and to you it must be alike pleasing to know that 
these hopes have been fully realized. Your gallant conduct, and 
that of the corps under your command during the last campaign, 
was indeed " the astonishment of one army and the admiration of 
the other." It will be gratefully remembered by your countiy, 
and has afforded for me an occasion to renew to you the assurances 
of my respect and esteem, 

rSigned) Wm. C. C. Claiborne. 

Cavalry Camfi^ above J\''eiv Orleans, February 28t/i^ 1815. 


I HAVE have had the honour to receive your communication 
covering a vote of thanks from the general assembly of the state 
of Louisiana. The very handsome terms in which your excel- 
lency and the general assembly have thought proper to speak of 
the humble efforts of the corps which it has been my good fortune 
to command, cannot be otherwise than acceptable to their feelings 
and flattering to their pride, for which we are more indebted to 
your excellency's partiality than to any extraordinary merit of our 
own, and which v/e are well aware consists principally in a gi'eat 
share of zeal for our country's service, kindled into action by the 
presence of a base and brutal invader. That the same unity of 
sentiment which gave force to our arms may continue, and that 
the people of- Louisiana may long enjoy the substantial benefits 
vesuiting from the late most glorious conflict, in v/hich they so 
honourably shared, is confidently to be expected and devoutly to 
he wished. 


^xxxii APPENDIX. 

Accept, sir, for yourself, and through your excellency I ten- 
der the thanks of the corps I have the honour to command, for 
the honourable testimony borne of its services, and at the same 
time assurances of my individual respect and esteem. 

(Signed) Tho: Hinds, 

Lieut. Col. Com. Vol. Cavalry,, 


Letter from general John Lambert to major general Jackson, 

Februarij Zth, 1815, 

I am just favoured with your letter of the 4th. I can assure 

yow. that every American prisoner that was present when I em* 
barked on board the Tonnant has been sent into the Rigolets, and 
sir A. Cochrane has taken steps for the arrival of an equivalent 
number to the British prisoners now with you. 

Under any circumstances I positively promise that your libe- 
rality shall not be in any way but reciprocal on my part, and I will 
not lose sight for a moment of hastening, if it is possible, the arrival 
of American prisoners, especially those who were taken on the 
14th December last. 

I am obliged to you for the allowing of two British officess 
to return on parole, and what you intimate on the subject shall be 
assented to. 

What I said respecting the slaves regard those that I could 
not prevent coming to us when I was on shore. I am not at the 
anchorage where Mr. Livingston and Mr. White have been re- 
ceived; and indeed I have nothing to say to it. I did all I could 
to persuade them to return at the time, but not one was willingj 
as will be testified by Mr. Celestin, a proprietor whom I had de- 
tained until the British forces had evacuated their last position: 
this gentleman saw the slaves that were present, and did all he 
could to urge them to go back. 

I am, sir, yovir very obedient servant, 
(Signed) John L.\mbert. 


Letter from admiral Cochrane to general Jackson, 

H. B. M. ship Tonnant, oj^ Mobile Bay, I2th February, 1815. 

In consequence of the style which captain Patterson thouglit 
proper to adopt in a letter that he addressed to me on the 23d 
January (a copy of which I beg leave to inclose) with some remarks 
upon the margin, I find myself precluded from making him any 
reply thereto, or of holding with that officer any further corre^- 

But to prevent our respective prisoners suffering any unne.f 
cessary detention, I do myself the honour to communicate to you, 
that in order to fulfil the agreement for an exchange of prisoners, 
entered into by major Smith (aid-de-camp to major general Lam- 
bert) upon the 27th ultimo, I sent his majesty's ship Nymphe 
to the Havanna, to receive from his majesty's ship Ramilies one 
hundred of the American prisoners taken in the gun-vessels, 
which she had carried to sea. 

These, with five seamen, who, for the purpose of being exa- 
mined in the vice-admiralty court respecting the capture of the 
gun-vessels, I have been obliged to send to Bermuda, but who are 
to be returned the moment the legal forms have been complied 
with, will complete the number of American prisoners which have 
to be accounted for by the British forces under the agreement of 
the I7th ultimo, and they shall be forwarded to you without any 
delay so soon as they arrive in the squadron. 

As it has been found very inconvenient, the sending of ves- 
sels to the Rigolets (those last sent not having yet returned, and 
are reported to be on shore) colonel Livingston and myself have 
agreed that the prisoners expected in the Nymphe shall proceed 
to the mouth of the Mississippi, and be delivered to the officer* 
commanding at Plaquemines. 

Having by this arrangement fulfilled the stipulations of our 
before-mentioned treaty, in which we agreed to the restoration of 
all the prisoners that our forces had made before we received from 
you any British prisoners, it is but just that you should follow the 
same principle with respect to the prisoners who have fallen into 
our hands by the surrender of Fort Bowyer, all of whom major 
general Lambert and myself are ready to exchange as they stand 


upon ilie lists (copies of which are inclosed) for such British pri- 
soners as you may cause to be delivered at the month of the Mis- 
sissippi, after the first account has been finally settled. And on 
my part, I will engage to send to the same place an equivalent of 
American prisoners, so soon as I am informed of the number and 
qualities of the British prisoners received. 

I have the honour to l)e, sir, 8cc. 
(Signed) Alex. Cochrane. 

Letter from admiral Cochrane to general Jackson. 

H. B. M skill Tonnant^ off Mobile Bay, \Zth February, 1815. 

I HAVE exceeding satisfaction in sending to you a copy of a 
bulletin that I have this moment received from Jamaica, proclaiming 
that a treaty of peace was signed between our respective plenipo- 
tentiaries at Ghent, on the 24th December, 1814, upon which I 
beg leave to offer you my sincere congratulations. 
I have the honour to be, sir, Sec. 
(Signed) Alex. Cochrane. 

Letter from general John Lambert to general Jackson. 

Head- Quarters, British Army, February \9th, 1815. 

I AM just informed by admiral Malcolm that the American 

prisoners made on the 14th of December are arrived in the fleet, 

and, that they will sail immediately for the Mississippi, as it was 

settled with colonel Livingston, aid-de-camp. 

1 confidently trust there will be now no impediment to an 

equal number of British prisoners being immediately returned to us. 

, I beg leave to congratulate you on the prospect of peace, and 

hope I shall soon have to communicate to you the notice of the 

ratification being exchanged. 

I have the honour to be, sir. Sec. 

(Signed) John Lamber/f. 


Letter from general Jackson to 'admiral Cochrane, 

Head-Quarters.^ 7th Military District., J^ew Orleans^ 
Sir, February 20th, IS15. 

I AM honoured by your letter of the 12th mstant, by the return 
of my flap;, incloshig a copy of commodore Patterson's to you, 
with some marginal strictures on its contents. The navy and mi- 
litary departments in our service being totally independent, I am 
not permitted to defends still less to censure the conduct or cor- 
respondence of that officer at the head of the former; his distin- 
guished merit, and general correctness of conduct, make it pre- 
sumable that he will be able to justify his proceedings to the go- 
vernment, to whom alone he is accountable. 

On the subject of the exchange, your assurance that the one 
hundred men sent off in the Ramilies, as well as the five detained 
for the condemnation of the gun-boats, will be delivered on their 
return, is satisfactory to myself and to commodore Patterson; and 
I now despatch all the prisoners in a situation to be removed as 

by the enclosed list: the residue, to the amount of 

now at Natchez, are sent for, and will be forwarded to the Balize 
as soon as they shall arrive 

You will perceive by this, sir, that I perfectly acquiesce in 
the propriety of your remark, that justice requires me to follow 
the example of confidence given by yourself and general Lambert, 
in the delivery of the prisoners belonging to my army previous to 
the receipt of those taken from you, a confidence always mutually 
due from enemies who respect each other, and peculiarly proper 
between those who, in the probable course of events, may soon 
cease to be such. 

There is another subject, on which a passage in general Lam- 
bert's last letter renders it necessary for me to address you; I 
mean that of the negroe slaves belonging to several inhabitants 
on the Mississippi, now in your fleet. I had written to general 
Lambert on this head two successive letters, in consequence of 
his informing me that these persons would be delivered to their 
masters on their application. To the first I received no answer, 
to the last I am informed that general Lambert " has nothing to 
do with it." Mr. White, to whom an order was given to receive 
such as were ^villing to return to their masters, having reported 


to me that he found several who were ready to accompany hiffj^ 
but that he was not permitted to take them; 1 am now obliged, sir, 
explicitly to ask whether the properly thus taken is intended to be 
restored, and if it be, that a time and place may be appointed for 
its delivery. 

The prisoners from Natchez will arrive in less than ten days; 
they will immediately sail for the Balize, and it is hoped that the 
prisoners taken at fort Bowyer may meet them there, to be con- 
veyed back in the same vessels. 

I have the honour to be, sir, &c. » 

(^Signed) Andrew Jackson. 

Letter from general Jackson to admiral Cochrane. 

Head-Quarters^ 7th Military District^ J^ew Orleans^ 
Sir, 2\ St February^ \B\ 5, 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 
of the 13th instant. It came to hand only this day by the way of the 
Balize, though purporting to have been sent by my aid-de-camp, 
Mr. Livingston, who arrived two days since from your fleet, and 
who, from a conversation he had with you, was disappointed in not 
finding it inclosed in the despatch he brought. 

I sincerely reciprocate your congratulations on the important 
event you announced to me, that a treaty of peace has been signed 
between our two countries. This communication, connected with 
an expression in the bulletin you inclose, that captain Stirling of 
his majesty's ship Brazen was charged with despatches announ- 
cing the termination of hostilities between Great Britain and Atne- 
rica, naturally leads to an inquiry, how far you consider this event 
as authorizing and requiring a cessation of hostilities between the 
military &nd naval forces of Great Britain and those of the United 
States in this district. 

The prisoners in my possession at this place will sail for the 
Balize at eight o'clock on the morning of to-morrow. Those at 
Natchez, upwards of a hundred in number, will be forwarded to 
the same pla.ce as soon as they arrive hei'e. They have been or- 
dered down, and are expected shortly. 

I have the honour to be, Sec, 
(Signed) Andrew Jacksok- 

. APPENDIX. Ixxxvii 


Letter from brigadier general Winchester to the secretary at War. 

Mobile^ February \7th, 1815, 

It becomes my duty to communicate to you the unpleasant 
news of the loss of Fort Bowyer. It was closely invested by land, 
as well as water, on the 8th inst. On the 10th and llth, passed 
a detachment over the bay with a view to divert the enemy from 
his object: but it arrived about twenty-four hours too late, though 
time enough to capture one of the enemy's barges with seventeen 
seamen, who say the garrison capitulated on the 1 2th; that the be- 
siegers had advanced their works on the land side to within certain 
musket shot of the fort; that the loss on either side in killed is in- 
coiisiderable. I am in possession of no other account but that 
which comes from the prisoners. About thirty of the enemy's 
vessels, besides boats and barges, are lying within the bar, and 
above Mobile Point, and several ships of the line on the south and 
west of Dauphin island. The wind is fair, and I expect the ho- 
nour of seeing them here every night; if I do, I have great confi- 
dence my next will be on a pleasanter subject. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 

J. Winchester, 
Brig. Gen. Com. E. Sec. 7th Mil. Dis. 

P. S. The garrison consisted of about three huncfred and 
sixty men, including officers. Three small schooners, in which 
the detachment was transported over the bay, were captured by 
the enemy's barges after the troops had landed. 

Letter from lieutenant colonel Lawrence tg general Jackson. 

Fort Bowyer, February I2th, 1815. 

Imperious necessity has compelled me to enter into articles 

of capitulation with major general John Lambert, commanding 

tus Britannic majesty's forces in front of Fort Bowyer, a copy of 

which I forward you for the purpose of effecting an immediate 

exchange of prisoners. Nothing but the want of provisions, and 

finding myself completely surrounded by thousands— batteries 

Ixxxviii APPENDIX. 

erected on the sand-mounds which completely commanded the 
fort — and the enemy having advanced, by regular approaches, 
within thirty yards of the ditches, and the utter impossibility of 
getting any assistance or supplies, would have induced me to 
adopt this measure. Feeling confident, and it behig the unani- 
mous opinion of the officers, that we could not retain the post, and 
that the lives of many valuable officers and soldiers would have 
been uselessly sacrificed, I thought it most desirable to adopt this 
plan. A full and correct statement will be furnished you as early 
as possible. 

Captain Chamberlin, who bears this to E. Livingston, Esq. 
will relate to him every particular, which will, I hope, be satisfac- 

I am, with respect, Sec. 
(Signed) W. Lawrence, 

Lieut. Col. Com'g 


Agreed ufion between lieutenant colonel Lawrence and major ge- 
neral Lambert for the surrender of Fort Bowijer, on the Mq- 
bile Point, 1 Ith February, 1815. 

1. That the fort shall be surrendered to the arms of his Bri- 
tannic majesty in its existing state as to the works, ordnance, am- 
munition, and every species of military stores. 

2. That the garrison shall be considered as prisoners of wai> 
the troops marching out with tlieir colours flying and drums beat- 
ing, and ground their arms on the glacis — the officers retaining 
their swords, and the whole to be embarked in such ships as the 
British naval commander in chief shall appoint. 

3. Air private property to be respected. 

4. That a communication shall be made immediately of the 
same to the commanding officer of the 7th military district of the 
United States, and every endeavour made to effect an early ex- 
change of prisoners. 

5. That the garrison of the United States remain in the fort 
until twelve o'clock to-morrow, a British guard being put in pos- 
session of the hmer gate at three o'clock to-day, the body of the 
guard reniaining on the glacis, and that the British flag be hoisted 


at the same time — an officer of each service remaining at the head- 
quarters of each commander until the fulfilment of these articles. 
H. C. Smith, major and military secretary. 
Agreed on the part of the royal navy, 

T. H. BicKETTs, Cafit. H. M. ship. Vengeant. 
R. Chamberlain, "id Regt. U. S. Infantry. 
Wm. Lawrence, Lt. Col. 2d Inf'y. Com'g. 

A. Cochrane, Com. in Chief H. M. Shi/i/wig. 
John Lambert, major general commanding, 
A true copy — Test, 

John Reid, Aid-de-Camfi. 

NO. XL. 

general orders. 

Head'-QiiarterSf Western Section^ 7th Military Districts 
Assistant Adjutant-General's Office, JVenv Orleans^ 
Afiril Ith^ 1815. 

At the request of lieutenant-colonel William Lawrence, of 
the 2d regiment United States' infantry, a court of inquiry was 
ordered on the 25th ultimo to assemble in this city, to inquire into 
the conduct of the lieutenant-colonel touching the defence and 
surrender of fort Bovvyer, and to give an opinion thereon. The 
court, whereof lieutenant colonel Arbuckle was president, major 
Peyre atid captain Humphrey members, commenced its proceed- 
ings on the 28th March last, and continued by adjournment from 
day to day up to the 5th instant, when it delivered the following 

" The court of inquiry, after mature deliberation, are of opi- 
nion that fort Bowyer was defended in the best manner that the 
circumstances of the siege admitted of — that the conduct of colo- 
nel Lawrence on that occasion was honourable and becoming a 
good officer — that the fort, when it was surrendered, was in a situ- 
ation which rendered a longer defence impracticable, and that 
no blame ought to attach, either to colonel Lawrence or to the. 
garrison, for having surrendered fort Bowyer at the time they did''. 



Tlie major-general feels much pleasure in observing, that 
the whole of the testimony in this case, and particularly that of 
major Woodruff of the 3d infantry, lieutenant Alexis of the navy, 
and major Chamberlain and captain Brownlow of the 2d infantry, 
(the two former as to the fiodtion and strength of fort Bowyer, and 
the two latter as to the apfiroaches of the enemy and the defence of 
the fort) fully support the opinion of the court of inquiry in favour 
of lieutenant-colonel Lawrence. 

The court of inquiry, whereof lieutenant-colonel Arbuckle is 
president, is dissolved. 

E. P. Gaines, major-general coimnanding. 


Address of general Jackson to the Soldiers and Citizens at 

JVew Orleans, 

Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, Meiv Orleans, 

19 th February, 1815. 
Fellow-citizens and soldiers, 

The flag-vessel which was sent to the enemy's fleet has re- 
turned, and brings with it intelligence, extracted from a London 
paper, that on the 24th of December articles of peace were signed 
at Ghent, by the American commissioners and those of his Bri- 
tannic majesty. 

We must not be thrown into false security by hopes that may 
be delusive. It is by holding out such that an artful and insidious 
enemy too often seeks to accomplish what the utmost exertions 
of his strength will not enable him to effect. To place you off 
your guard and attack you by surprise, is the natural expedient 
of one who, having experienced the superiority of your arms, siill 
hopes to overcome you by stratagem — Though young in the 
" trade" of war, it is not by such artifices that he will deceive us. 
Peace, whenever it shall be re-established on fair and honour- 
able terms, is an event in which both nations ought to rejoice; but 
whether the articles which are said to have been signed for its 
restoration will be approved by those whose province it is to give 
to them their final confirmation, is yet uncertain. Until they shall 
be ratified by the prince regent and the president of the United 


States, peace, though so much desired, may be still distant. 
When that shall be dAie, the happy intelligence will be publicly 
and speedily announced. In the mean time, every motive that 
can operate on men who love their countiy, and are determined 
not to lose it, calls upon us for inci'eased vigilance and exei'tion. 

If peace be near at hand, the days of our watchfulness, of our 
toils, and our privations, will be proportionably few; if it be distant, 
we shall at any rate hasten its arrival, by being constantly and 
every where prepared for war. 

Whatever be the designs of the enemy, we must be ready to 
meet them. Should they have the temerity to assail us again, we 
will once more drive him ignominiously from our shore; if he 
places his hopes of success on stratagem, our watchfulness will 
disappoint him; if on an exertion of his strength, we have proved 
how successfully that can be resisted. 

It is true fort Bowyer has fallen, but it must and will be 

speedily regained. We will expel the invader from eveiy spot 

on our soil, and teach him, if he hopes for conquest, how vain it 

is to seek it in a land of freedom. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Letter from general Keane to general Jackson, 

H. B. M. ship To7inantf off Mobile^ February 8th, 1815. 

Major-general Keane presents his best respects to gene- 
ral Jackson, and feels particularly thankful for the kindness he 
has experienced from him thi'ough the medium of colonel Li- 
vingston — He is still further obliged for general Jackson's kind 
wishes for his recovery. 


I.etter from general Jackson to the secretary at luar. 

Head-Quarters,7 th Military District, Afew Orleans, 
Sir, I7th February, 1815. 

1 have the honour to inclose you a copy of major Overton's 
report of the attack on fort St. Philip, and of the manner irj which 
it was defended- 


The conduct of this ofTiccr, and of those who acted under 
him, merits, I think, great praise. They nailed their own colours 
to the standard, and placed those of the enemy underneath them, 
determined never to surrender the post. 

The flag-vessel which I sent to the enemy's fleet a fortnight 
ago, for the purpose of ascertaining the causes that had prevented 
the delivery of a hundred of our seamen (taken on board the gun- 
boats) in violation of the articles entered into for the exchange of 
prisoners, has not yet returned, and I am apprehensive is detained 
by the enemy to prevent the discovery of some designs he may 
still hope to execute. Whatever their views may be, I am per- 
suaded they will be disappointed in them. 

A copy of the articles agreed upon for the exchange I here- 
with send you, and I beg leave to accompany it with the assurance 
of ray determination, to restore no more of the British prisoners 
until those articles are complied with by the British commanders. 

Major-general Keane, having lost his sword in the action of 
the 8th January, and having expressed a great desire to regain it, 
valuing it as the present of an esteemed friend, I thought proper to 
have it restored to him; thinking it more honourable to the Ame- 
rican character to return it, after the expression of those wishes, 
than to retain it as a trophy of victory. I believe, however, it is 
a singular instance of a British general soliciting the restoi'ation 
of his sword fairly lost in battle. 

Some entire Congreve-rockets have been found, and a rest 
from Avhich they are fired, which it is my intention to forward to 
the seat of government whenever a proper opportunity shall offer, 
as also the instruments of the British band of music, and their 
quarter flag. 

General Keane's trumpet, as well as that which was used on 

the right column of the enemy, were taken in the action of the 8th 

January. Those instruments are in the possession of general 

Coffee's brigade, where I hope they will be permitted to remain. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

('Signed) Andrfw JA^KSO^. 

APPENDIX. xciii 


Letter from general Lambert to general Jackson. 

Head-Quart ersy Isle Daufihine, February 27th.) 1815. 

I HAVE this moment received your letter, dated the 20th inst. 
I have taken every step to biing the exchange to a speedy conclu- 

On the subject of the concluding paragraph, I have only to 
remark, that honourable and feeling conduct which has character- 
ized every transaction in which I have had the honour to be con- 
cerned in with you. 

You may rely upon it, I shall take no retrospective view of 
the conduct of any of the men returned, and shall find reasons in 
discountenancing an inquiry, should it be brought before me, or 
come to my knowledge through any other channel. 

With regard to the negroes that have left their masters and 
are with this force, any proprietor or person deputed, that chooses 
to present himself to me will be received, and every facility af- 
forded him to communicate with those people; and I shall be very 
happy if they can be persuaded all to return, but to compel them 
is what I cannot do. 

With respect (which I inclose) to an address from major- 
general Villere to the commandant of this force, I am at a loss to 
undei'stand the purport. The commissary-general's orders are 
to purchase cattle wherever he can meet with them. Amongst re- 
ceipts in that neighbourhood for beasts procui'ed, is that for those 
belonging to the major-generaK I should have been glad to have 
known the major-general's sentiments pi-evious, as I certainly 
should not have troubled myself about his concerns, or endeavour- 
ed to render as little painful as I was able, not living in his house, 
the unavoidable circumstances attending the immediate theatre of 
war towards his son whom he had left unprotected. 
I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) John" Lamukrt. 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert. 

Head-Quarters, 7th Military Disirict^JVeiv Orleans, 
Sir, March A,th, 1816. 

I AM gratified to find by the letter with which you have ho- 
noured me, that my confidence in your humanity and delicacy ot" 
conduct with respect to the prisoners was not misplaced. My re- 
quest was merely dictated by the plainest principles of justice. 
It is your ready, frank, and obliging compliance, that merits the 
flattering epithet you have been pleased to bestow on my conduct. 

I am extremely sorry that the very high winds, which have 
prevailed ever since I sent for the British prisoners to Natchez, 
have prevented their arrival at this place. Vessels are ready to 
receive and carry them to the Balize the instant they shall arrive. 

Having been just informed that Mr. Shields, who command- 
ed a lanch on Lake Borgne, has been made prisoner, I hope he 
may be sent in on parole for exchange. 

The prisoners taken from your advanced post at Mobile 
Point are directed to be sent down to fort Bowyer, to be delivered 
to you, and included in the general exchange. 

I am sorry that I cannot advise you, sir, of the ratification of 
the treaty signed at Ghent. At the date of my last advices it had 
not arrived at the seat of government. 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 
(Signed) Andrew Jackson. 

Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert. 

Head-Quarters, 6th March, 1815. 

I HAVE just received intelligence from Washington which 
leaves little doubt in my mind that the treaty signed at Ghent be- 
tween the United States and Great Britain has been ratified by the 
president and senate of the United States, but by some unaccount- 
able accident a despatch on another subject has been substituted 
ifiv the one intended to give me an official notice of this event. 
The one I have received however, is accompanied by an order 
from the postmaster- general directing his deputies to forward the 
express carrying intelligence of the recent peace. Of this order 
I enclose a copy. And from otlier sources, to which I give credit, 


I learn that the same express brought official notice of the treaty 
to the governor of Tennessee. I have deemed it a duty, without 
loss of time, to communicate the exact state of those circumstances, 
that you might determine whether they would not justify you in 
ag'reeing, by a cessation of all hostilities, to anticipate the happy 
return of peace betvi'^een our two nations, which the first direct 
intelligence must bring to us in an official form. The prisoners 
from Natchez, after having been long detained by adverse winds, 
are now within a short distance of the city, and will certainly 
proceed to-moiTow morning to the Balize, to be delivered to your 
officer according to my promise. 

I pi'ay you, with the assurance of high respect, to receive that 
of the satisfaction I feel in reflecting that our correspondence, be- 
gun as commanders of hostile armies, should terminate as officers 
of nations in amity. 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 
(Signed) Andrew Jackspr. 

Letter from major Woodruff t9 admiral Cochrane. 

Daufihine Island^ March \7th, 1815. 

I AM instructed by his excellency major-general Andrew 
Jackson, commanding the United States 7th military district, to 
inform you of his having received notification of a treaty of peace 
between the United States of America and the government of 
Great Britain having been signed and exchanged at the city of 
Washington on the 17th February, 1815. By the first article of 
that treaty, " all territory, places and possessions whatsoever, 
taken by either party from the other during the war, or which 
may be taken after the signing of this treaty, excepting only the 
islands herein after mentioned shall be restored without delay, and 
■without carrying any distinction, or carrying away any of the artil- 
lery, or other public property, originally captured in the said 
forts or places, and which shall remain therein upon the exchange 
of the ratifications of this treaty, or any slaves or other private pro- 
perty." I am also commanded by his excellency, major-general 
Andrew Jackson, to receive such forts, garrisons, artillery, muni- 
tions of war, or other property, as may be embraced by said first 


article. You will please therefore to make such arrangements a» 
may be most convenient for carrying into effect the said first arti- 
cle of said treaty. 

Such slaves as may be within your control, belonging to 
any inhabitant or citizen of the United States, I am also instructed 
to receive, to the end that their owners may again obtain posses- 
sion of them. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Letter from general Lambert to major Woodruff. 

Daufihine Island^ March 1 7th^ 1815. 

In answer to yours of this day's date, communicating to me 
that his excellency major-general Jackson had received notifica- 
tion of a treaty of peace between the United States of America and 
the government of Great Britain having been signed and exchan- 
ged at the city of Washington on the 17th February, 1815, and re- 
quiring you to carry into execution, on the part of the American 
government, the fulfilment of the first article of the treaty, I 
have to request that you will inform his excellency that immedi- 
ately I receive the same from the person charged by the British 
government to transmit it to all its naval and military command- 
ers serving in America, I shall give him immediate notice of it and. 
be prepared to fulfil the treaty in every respect. 
I have the honour to be. Sec. 
(Signed) ' John Lambert. 

Letter from general Lambert to ge7ieral Jackson. 

Lde Dauplmie^ March 19 th, 1815- 

Since I had the pleasure of writing to you yesterday, I am 
informed that every thing will be embarked (weather permitting) 
by the 25th. I have, in consequence, written to major-general 
M'Intosh, to inform him that the commandant of fort Bowyer 
has orders to deliver it up agreeable to the first article of the 
treaty of peace on that day. 

APPENDIX. xcvii 

The time of and preparations for a long voyage may detain 
the troops here a few days longer, but no exertion will be wanting 
to embark the whole as soon as possible. 

As I may not have another opportunity of addressing you, 

permit me to avail myself of the present to wish you health and 

happiness, and to express my regret that circumstances will not 

allow me to assure you personally of the same. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) John Lambekt. 

I^etter from general Lambert to major Woodruff. 

Isle Dauphine^ March 20t/i, 1815. 

I ANSWER to that part of your letter which touches upon the 

negroes who have come into the British force previous to the ra- 
tification of the peace, that is, on the lytii February last, I do not 
feel myself authorized to deliver them up under the treaty, with- 
©ut their consent. 

I have the honour to be, Sec. 
(Signed) John Lambert. 


Letter Jrom general Jackson to James Monroe^ secretary of 'mar. 
Head-Quarters, 7th military district, 

J^i'env Orleans, 24:th February, 1815. 

The flag-vessel which I sent to the enemy's fleet returned a 

few days ago, with assurances from admiral Cochrane, that the 
American prisoners taken in the gun-boats and sent to Jamai- 
ca, shall be returned as soon as practicable. The Nymphe has 
been despatched for them. 

Through the same channel 1 received the sad intelligence of 
the surrender effort Bowyer: this is an event which I little expect- 
ed to happen, but after the most gallant resistance; that it should 
have taken place, without even a fire from the enemy's batteries 
is as astonishing as it is mortifying. 

In consequence of this unfortunate afi'air, an addition of three 
hundred and sixty-six has been made to the list of American 
prisoners; to redeem these and the seamen, I have, in conformity 


xcviii APPENDIX. 

with propositions held out by admiral Cochrane, forwarded to the 
mouth of the Mississippi upwards of four hundred British prison- 
ers; others will be sent, to complete the exchange, as soon as they" 
arrive from Natchez, to which place 1 had found it expedient to 
ordtr them. 

Major Blue, who had been ordered by general Winchester to 
the relief of fort Bowyer, succeeded in carrying one of the enemy's 
picquets, consisting of seventeen, but was too late to effect the 
whole purpose for which he had been detached— the fort having 
capitulated twenty-four hours before his arrival. I learn from the 
bearer of my last despatches to the enemy's fleet, Avho was detain- 
ed during the operations against fort Bowyer, that his loss on that 
occasion, by the fire from the garrison was between twenty and 

I have the honour to be, Scc^' 

A. J. 


Letter Jrom general Jackson to major-general Lambert'. 

Head-Quartersy 7th military district^ 

A''c'iv Orleans, 26/A February, 1815. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter 

of the 19th inst. 

In conformity with arrangements entered into with admiral 
Cochrane by my aid-de-camp, Mr. Livingston, I despatched from 
this place on the 22nd inst. four hundred British prisoners to be 
delivered at the mouth of the Mississippi, to the officer appointed 
on the part of his B. M. to receive them. Others will be sent to 
complete the exchange, as soon as they ai;rive from Natchez. 

It is expected that the Americaniprisoners made at fort Bow- 
yer will be forwarded to the same point, as soon as practicable, and 
in time to return by the vessels that will convey the British prison- 
ers now on their way from Natchez. 

I take the liberty to enclose you copies of two letters, which 
I did myself the iionour to address to admiral Cochrane on the 
20th and 21st inst. in doing which you will perceive both my mo- 
tive and n)y object. I have the honour to be, Sec, 

A. J 



Letter from generalJackson to major-general Lambert. 

He ad' Quarters^ tth military district^ March 7?/z, 1815. 


In consequence of the intimation contained in your formal 

letters, that every facility will be given to the proprietors of slaves 
now with your forces, to induce them to return, I have ^iven per- 
mission to M. M. Jumonville, Lanergue, Lacoste, Forstall, Phi- 
lipan, Dolphin, Velez and Quarron to pass under a flag in the 
schooner Louisa, captain Pierre Etienne, to the fleet, for the pur- 
pose of seeing and reclaiming their slaves, to whom I pray thSt 
they (the slaves) may be delivered. 

I have the honour to be, Sec. 

A. J. 



JHead-Quarters, Tth military district, adjutant-gener'al's office, 

ATew Orleans, 8th March, 1815. 

•Although the commanding general has not received ofli- 
oial advice that the state of war has ceased by the ratification of 
the treaty of peace between the United States and Great Britain, 
fee has persuasive evidence of the fact, and credits it, at the risk 
of being misguided by his wishes. Under this impression, his 
first act is to release from actual service the body of the miiitiaof 
tfiis state, who have taken the field in obedience to the orders for 
a levy en masse. In discharging them from the noble duty which 
they were called to perform, the general does justice to the ala- 
crity with which they have in general obeyed the call — to the en- 
thusiasm which animated thern on the first invasion of the eriemy, 
and the unanimity and patriotism which disappointed his insolent 
hopes. He thanks them, in the name of their common countiy, 
for the noble defence they have made, and he congratulates them 
in his own, on the consequences it has produced. Louisiana^ 
though not called on for any exertion in assuming her independ- 
ence, has shown, by her courage in its support, that she knows 
how to prize the inestimable blessing; her sons have not only 


ensured safely, but have acquired even a greater good — national 
reputation. Preserve this as the best reward of your exertions, 
and hand it down untarnished, together with your example, to 
your posterity. Let no designing men induce you to destroy it, 
by exciting jealousies of your best friends, or divisions among 
yourselves — by preaching party spirit in peace, insubordination 
in war, injustice to your brave companions in arms, blindness to 
your own interests and to the true character of those enemies of 
your peace. Guard against these evils as you hope to enjoy the 
blessings you have so bravely won; and before you yield to such 
perfidious counsels, examine scrupulously whether those from 
whom they proceed, deserve your confidence, by any exertion 
they have made in your defence. A zealous wish for the pros- 
perity of the interesting country, in whose defence he has been, 
by the blessing of heaven, instrumental, has induced the command- 
ing general to give this admonitory caution, which those who 
court popularity, may tell you is unnecessary. He, however, va- 
lues no popularity but that which arises from a faithful discharge 
of duty. In performing it, his object has been to secure your hap- 
]iiness; and he will always consider it as one of the most fortunate 
incidents in his life, to have contributed, by his exertions, to the 
prosperity of your country. 

By command, Robert Butler. 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert. 

Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, 

JSTew Orleans, March loth, 1815. 

It is with great satisfaction that I inform you of my having 
received this day official advice of the ratification and interchange 
of the treaty of peace between the United States and Great Bri- 

A copy of the treaty and of the ratification will be presented 
to you by major Woodruff, of the 3d infantry, who will express 
you more fully than I can in the compass of a letter, tnose senti- 
ments which the new state of things between the two nations 


I have, by special direction of the secretary of war, ordered 
an immediate cessation of hostilities, and by the like order make 
this communication to you. 

Mr. Livingston is empowered to make such arrangements 
for the restoration required by the first article of the treaty, and to 
receive all places, now in your possession, as well as the slaves 
mentioned in your former letters, and all public property, confor- 
mably to the provisions of the said treaty. 

Any facility or accommodation that may be required for your 
supplies, or the comforts of your sick or wounded in my power, 
will be given with the greatest pleasure. 

, I have the honour to be, Sec. 

Andrew Jackson. 

Letter from general Jackson to major Woodruff. 

J^ew Orleans, March 12th, 1815. 

Major Woodruff will inform captain Newman at Petites Co- 
quilles of the restoration of peace, and direct him to permit the 
British flag, now waiting at that place, to come up to the city. He 
will also instruct captain Newman that all vessels are, in future, 
to be permitted to pass and repass freely. '• 

He will then proceed to the British fleet and deliver the des- 
patches with which he is charged to the commander-in-chief. 
He will receive the surrender of the posts and public property 
agreeable to the treaty, and require the delivery of slaves taken 
from hence. 

General M'Intosh will furnish the troops necessary for the 
©ccupation of the fort on his requisition. 

A. Jackson. 

NO. L. 


Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, Adjutant-general's Office, 

JSfew Orleans, March 13, 1815. 
The commanding general, with the most lively emotions of 
joy, and of gratitude to Heaven, announces to the troops under his 
command, that a treaty of peace between the United States and 
Great Britain was ratified and exchanged at Washington, on the 
17lh of February last. 


In consequence whereof, he loses not an instant in revoking 
and annulling the general order issued on the 15th day of Decem- 
bar last, proclaiming martial law, which is hereby revoked, an- 
nulled, and countermanded; and he orders all hostilities imme- 
diately to cease against the troops and subjects of the united 
kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. 

And in order that the general joy attending this event may 
extend to all manner of persons, the commanding general pro- 
claims and orders a pardon tor all military offences heretofore 
committed in this district, and orders that all persons in confine- 
ment, under such charges, be immediately discharged. 

By order, Robert Butler, Adjutant-General. 

Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, Adjutant-GeneraVs Office, 

.Yei\) Orleans, March 13, 1815. 

The commanding general communicates with great satis- 
faction to the troops under command, the following testimo- 
nial of the just sense wKkh the president of the United States 
entertains of their patriotism, valour, and good conduct. He 
congratulates them particularly on their being able to receive his 
applause with a consciousness of having deserved it; and takes a 
singular pleasure in conveying tp the brave citizens of this state, 
who took up arms in its defence, the assurance that their exertions 
are appreciated as they deserve by the executive of the United 

" The president requests that you will express to the troops, 
who have acted under you, the very favourable sentiments which he 
entertains of their conduct. The alacrity with which they repair- 
ed to the standard of their country, exposed, in many instances, to 
distressing privations; the patience with which they have borne the 
fatigues of the campaign, and their bravery in action, have been 
seen by him with great satisfaction. To our newly adopted fel- 
low citizens of Louisiana, you will give assurance of his great 
sensibility to the decided and honourable proof which they have 
given of their attachment and devotion to the union, and of the 
manly support of the rights of their country. 

(Signed) " James Monroe, Secretary of State.''' 

By command, Robert Butler, Adj. Gen. 


NO. LI. 


Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, Adjutant-generaVs Office, 

JVfw Orleans, March lith, 1815. 
The major-general is at length enabled to perfoi-m the pleas- 
ing task of restoring to Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana and the 
territory of the Mississippi, the brave troops who have acted such 
a distinguished part in the war which has just terminated. In re- 
storing these brave men to their homes, much exertion is expect- 
ed of, and great responsibility held on the commanding officers of 
the different corps. It is required of major-generals Carroll and 
Thomas, and brigadier-general Coflfee, to march their commands 
■without unnecessary delay to their respective states, and have 
them mustered for payment and discharged. The troops from the 
Mississippi territory and state of Louisiana, both militia and volun- 
teers, will be immediately mustered out of service by major Da- 
vis, assistant-inspector-general, paid and discharged. Every ar- 
rangement will be made through the department of war, to have 
the troops of Tennessee and Kentucky paid off the soonest possi- 
ble after their i^eturn. All public arms, accoutrements, camp 
equipage, and military stores of every description, now in the 
possession of the different troops herein directed to be discharged, 
will be immediately deposited with the deputy-commissary of ord- 
nance and quarter-master-general, except such camp equipage as 
is absolutely necessary for the troops on their return march, which 
must be delivered to some public agent on their dismissal. The 
quarter-master-general is hereby ordered to furnish transportation 
for all invalids belonging to the different corps. Those who can- 
not be moved without imminent danger of their lives, mugt be 
well accommodated, and supplied with hospital stores, and a suf- 
ficient number of sure>'eons retained to attend them. The con- 
tractor will furnish provisions for the troops herein named, on their 
return march, on the requisition of the respective commanding 
officers; who, it is expected, will use every care and attention that 
no depredations are committed on private property; and are held 
personally responsible to remunerate, agreeably to the regulations 
of the war department, all damages on property injured or destroy- 
ed by their commands? 


The major-general has again the satisfaction of announcing 
the approbation of the president of the United States to the con- 
duct of the troops under his command, expressed in flattering 
terms through the honourable the secretary at war. 

In parting with those brave men, whose destinies have been 
30 long united with his own, and in whose labours and glories it is 
his happiness and his boast to have participated, the commanding 
general can neither suppress his feelings nor give utterance to 
them as he ought. In what terms can he bestow suitable praise 
on merit so extraordinary, so unparailelledl Let him in one burst 
of joy, gratitude and exultation exclaim — " these are the saviours 
of their country — these the patriot soldiers who triumphed over 
the invincibles of Wellington, and conquered the conquerors of 
Europe!" With what patience did you submit' to privations— 
with what fortitude did you endure fatigue— what valour did you 
display in the day of battle! You have secured to America a proud 
name among the nations of the earth — a glory which will never 

Possessing those dispositions, which equally adorn the citizen 
and the soldier, the expectations of your country will be met in 
peace as her wishes have been gratified in war. Go then, my 
brave companions, to your homes; to those tender connexions and 
those blissful scenes which render life so deai* — full of honour, and 
crowned with laurels which will never fade. With what happi- 
ness will you not, when participating in the bosoms of your families 
the enjoyment of peaceful life, look back to the toils you have 
borne — to the dangers you have encountered? How will all your 
past exposures be converted into sources of inexpressible delight? 
Who, that never experienced your sufferings, will be able to ap- 
preciate your joys? The man who slumbered ingloriously at 
home, during your painful marches, your nights of watchfulness 
and your days of toil, will envy you the happiness which these re- 
collections will afford — still more will he envy the gratitude of 
that country which you have so eminently contributed to save. 

Continue, fellow soldiers, on your passage to your several 
destinations, to preserve that subordination, that dignified and 
manly deportment which have so ennobled your character. 


While the commanding- general is thus giving indulgence to 
his feeling towards those brave companions who accompanied him 
through difficulties and danger, he cannot permit the names of 
Blount, and Shelby, and Holmes, to pass unnoticed. With what 
a generous ardour of patriotism have these distinguished govern- 
ors contributed all their exertions to provide the means of victory! 
The memory of these exertions, and of the success with which 
they were attained, will be to them a reward more grateful than 
any which the pomp of title or the splendour of wealth can bestow. 

What a happiness it is to the commanding-general that, while 
danger was before us, he was, on no occasion, compelled to use, 
towards his companions in arms, either severity or rebuke. If, 
after the enemy had retired, improper pasbions began to show 
their empire in a few unworthy bosoms, and rendered a resort to 
energetic measures necessary for their suppression, the com- 
manding-general has not confounded the innocent with the guilty, 
— the seduced with the seducers. Towards you, fellow-soldiers, 
the most cneering recollections exist, blended, alas! with regret, 
that disease and war should have ravished from us so many wor- 
thy companions. But the memory of the cause in which they 
pei'ished, and of the virtues which animated them while living, 
must occupy the place where sorrow would claim to dwell. 

Farewell, fellov; -soldiers. The expression of your general's 
thanks is feeble; but the gratitude of a country of freemen is 
yours — yours the applause of an admiring world. 

Andrew Jackson. 



To all and singular to whom these /iresenta shall co?7ie, greeting: 

Whereas a treaty of peace and amity between the United 
States of America and his Britannic majesty was signed at Ghent, 
on the twenty-fourth day of December, one thousand eight hun- 
dred and fourteen, by plenipotentiaries respectively appointed for 
that purpose; and the said treaty having been, by and with the ad- 
vice and consent of the senate of the United States, duly accepted, 



ratified and confirmed, on the seventeenth day of February, one 
thousand eight hundred and fifteen; and ratified copies thereof 
having been exchanged agreeably to the tenor of the said treaty^ 
which is in the words following, to wit: 


His Britannic majesty and the United States of America, de- 
sirous of terminating the war which has unhappily subsisted be- 
tween the two countries, and of restoring, upon principles of per- 
fect reciprocity, peace, friendship, and good understanding be- 
tween them, have, for that purpose, appointed their respective 
plenipotentiaries, that is to say: his Britannic majesty, on his part, 
has appointed the right honourable James lord Gambler, late ad- 
miral of the white, now admiral of the red squadron of his majes- 
ty's fleet, Henry Goulbourn, esq. member of the imperial parlia- 
ment, and under secretary of state, and William Adams, esq. doc- 
tor of civil laws: — and the president of the United States, by and 
with the advice and consent of the senate thereof, has appointed 
John Quincy Adams, James A. Bayard, Henry Clay, Jonathan 
Russel, and Albei-t Gallatin, citizens of the United States, who, af- 
ter a reciprocal communication of their respective full powers, 
have agreed upon the following articles: 

Art. I. — There shall be a firm and universal peace between 
his Britannic majesty and the United States, and between their 
respective countries, territories, cities, towns and people, of everjr 
degree, without exception of places or persons. All hostilities, 
both by sea and land, shall cease as soon as this treaty has been 
ratified by both parties, as hereinafter mentioned. All territories, 
places, and possessions whatsoever, taken from either party by the 
other, during the war, or which may be taken after the signing of 
this treaty, excepting only the islands hereinafter mentioned, shall 
be' restored without delay, and without causing any destruction, or 
carrying away any of the artillery or other public property origi- 
nally captured in the said forts or places, and wliich shall remain 
therein, upon the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty, or any 
slaves or other private property, and all archives, records, deeds, 
and papers, either of a public nature, or belonging to private per- 
sons, which, in the course of the war, may have fallen into the 


hands of the officers of either party, shall be, as far as may be prac- 
ticable, forthwith restored and delivered to the proper authorities 
and persons to whom they respectively belong. Such of the islands 
in the bay of Passamaquoddy as are claimed by both parties, shall 
remam in the possession of the party in whose occupation they 
maybe at the time of the exchange of the ratifications of this trea- 
ty, until the decision respecting the title to the said islands shall 
have been made, in conformity with the fourth article of this 
treaty. No disposition made by this treaty, as to such possession 
of the islands and territories claimed by both parties, shall, in any 
manner whatever, be construed to affect the right of either. 

Art. II.— Immediately after the ratification of this treaty by 
both parties, as hereinafter mentioned, orders shall be sent to the 
armies, squadrons, officers, subjects ^nd citizens of the two pow- 
ers to cease from all hostilities: and to prevent all causes of com- 
plaint which might arise on account of the prizes which may be 
taken at sea after the ratifications of this treaty, it is reciprocally 
agreed, that all vessels and effects which may be taken after the 
space of twelve days from the said ratifications, upon all parts of 
the coast of North America, from the latitude of twenty -three de- 
grees north, to the latitude of fifty degrees north, as far eastward 
in the Atlantic ocean, as the thirty-sixth degree of west longitude 
from the meridian of Greenwich, shall be restored on each side: 
That the time shall be thirty days in all other parts of the Atlan- 
tic ocean, north of the equinoxial line or equator, and the same 
time for the British and Irish channels, for the gulf of Mexico, and 
all parts of the West Indies: forty days for the North Seas, for the 
Baltic, and for all parts of the Mediterranean, Sixty days for the 
Atlantic ocean south of the equator as far as the latitude of the 
Cape of Good Hope: ninety days for every part of the world south 
of the equator: and one hundred and twenty days for all other parts 
of the world, without exception. 

Art. III. — All prisoners of war taken on either side, as well 
by land as by sea, shall be restored as soon as practicable after the 
ratification of this treaty, as hereinafter mentioned, on their paying 
the debts which they may have contracted during their captivity. 
The two contracting parties respectively engage to discharge, in 
specie, the advances which may have been made by the other, for 
the sustenance and maintenance of such prisoners. 

oviii APPENDIX. 

Art. IV. — Whereas it was stipulated by the secon<^ article in 
the treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred anA.eighty- 
three, between his Britannic majesty aafd the United States of 
America, that the boundary of the United States should compre- 
hend all islands within twenty leagues of any part of the shores of 
the United States, and lying between lines to be drawn due east 
from the points where the aforesaid boundaries between Nova- 
Scotia, on the one part, and East Florida on the other, shall re- 
spectively touch the Bay of Fundy, and the Atlantic ocean, ex- 
cepting such islands as now are, or heretofore have been within 
the limits of Nova-Scotia: and wliereas the several islands in the 
Bay of Passamaq noddy, which is part of the Bay of Fundy, and the 
island of Grand Menan, in the said Bay of Fundy, are claimed by 
the United Stales as being comprehended within their aforesaid 
boundaries, which said islands are claimed as belonging to his 
Britannic majesty^ as having been at the time of, and previous to, 
the aforesaid treaty of one thousand seven hundred and eighty- 
three, within the limits of the province of Nova Scotia: in order, 
therefore, finally to decide upon these claims, it is tigreed that they 
shall be referred to two commissioners, to be appointed in the fol- 
lowing manner, viz. One commissioner shall be appointed by his 
Britannic majesty, and one by the president of the United States, 
by and with the advice and consent of the senate thereof, and the 
said two commissioners so appointed shall be sworn impartially to 
examine and decide upon the said claims according to such evi- 
dence as shall be laid before them on the part of his Britannic ma- 
jesty and of the United States i espectively. The said commis- 
sioners shall meet at St. Andrews, in the province of New Bruns- 
wick, and shall have power to adjourn to such other place or pla- 
ces as they shall think fit. The said commissioners shall, by a de- 
claration or report under their hands and seals, decide to which 
of tlie two contracting parties the several islands aforesaid do re- 
spectively belong, in conformity with the true intent of the said 
treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three. 
And if the said commissioners shall agree in their decision, both 
parties shall consider such decision as final and conclusive. It is 
further agreed, that in the event of the two commissioners differ- 
ing upon all or any of the matters so referred to them, or in the 
event of both or either of the siud commissioners refusing or d^-. 


dining, or vrilfully omitting, to act as such, they shall make jointly 
or separately, a report or reports, as well to the government of 
his Britannic majesty, as to that of the United States, stating in 
detail the points on which they cUffer, and the grounds upon which 
their respectiv-e opinions have been formed, or the grounds upon 
which they, or either of them, have so refused, declined, or omit- 
ted to act. And his Britannic majesty, and the government of the 
United States, hereby agree to refer tiie report or re^TOrts of the 
said commissioners, to some friendly sovereign or state, to be then 
named for that purpose, and who shall be requested to decide on 
the differences which may be stated in the said report or report?, 
or upon the report of one commissioner, together with the grounds 
tipon wliich the other commissioner shall have refused, declined, 
or omitted to act, as the case may be. And if the commissioner 
so refusing, declining, or omitting to act, shall also wilfully omit 
to state the grounds upon which he has so done, in such manner 
that the said statement may be referred to such friendly sovereign 
or state, together with the report of such other commissioner, then 
such sovereign or state, shall decide exparte upon the said report 
alone. And his Britannic majesty and the government of the Uni- 
ted States engage to consider the decision of some friendly sove- 
reign or state to be final and conclusive, on all the matters so re- 

Art. v. — Whereas neither that point of the high lands lying 
due north from the source of the river St. Croix, and designated 
in the former treaty of peace between the two powers as the north- 
west angle of Nova Scotia, now the northwesternmost head of 
Connecticut river, has yet been ascertained; and whereas that part 
of the boundary line between the dominion of the two powers 
which extends from the source of the river St. Croix directly 
north to the above mentioned northwest angle of Nova Scotia, 
thence along the said high L.nds which divide those rivers that 
empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence from those which 
fall into the Atlantic ocean, to the northwesternmost head of Con- 
necticut river, thence down along the middle of that river to the 
forty-fifth degree of north latitude: thence by a line due west on 
said latitude until it strikes the river Iroquois or Cataraguy, has 
not yet been surveyed: it is agreed, that for these several purpo- 


ses, two commissioners shall be appointed, sworn, and authorize^) 
to act exactly in the manner directed with respect to those men- 
tioned in the next preceding article, unless otherwise specified in 
the present article. The said commissioners shall meet at St 
Andrews, in the province of New Brunswick, and shall have pow- 
er to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. 
The said commissioners shall have power to aacertain and deter- 
mine the points above mentioned, in conformity with the provi- 
sions of the said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty-three, and shall cause the boundary aforesaid, from the 
source of the river St. Croix, to the river Iroquois or Cataraguy, 
to be surveyed and marked according to the said provisions. Tne 
said commissioners shall make a map of^ie said boundary, and 
annex it to a declaration under their hands and seals, certifying it 
to be the true map of the said boundary, and particularizing the 
latitude and longitude of the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, of 
the northwesternmost head of Connecticut river, and of such other 
points of the said boundary as they may deem proper. And both 
parties agree to consider such map and declaration as finally and 
conclusively fixing the said boundary. And in the event of the 
said two commissioners differing, or both, or either of them, re- 
fusing or declining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, de- 
clarations, or statements, shall be made by them, or either of them, 
and such reference to a friendly sovereign or state, shall be made, 
in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth article is contained, 
and in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated. 

Art. VI. — Whereas by the former treaty of peace, that por- 
tion of the boundary of the United States from the point where 
the forty-fifth degree of north latitude strikes the river Iroquois or 
Cataraguy to the lake Superior, was declared to be " along the 
middle of said river into lake Ontario, through the middle of said 
lake until it strikes the communication by water between that lake 
and lake Erie, thence along the middle of said communication in- 
to lake Erie, through the middle of said lake until it arrives at the 
water communication into the lake Huron, thence through the 
middle of said lake to the water communication between that lake 
and lake Superior." And whereas doubts have arisen what was 
the middle of said river, lakes, and water communications, ^d 


whether certain islands lying in the same were within the domi- 
nions of his Britannic majesty or of the United States: in order, 
therefore, finally to decide these doubts, they shall be referred to two 
commissioners, to be appointed, sworn, and authorized to act ex- 
actly in the manner directed with respect to those mentioned in 
the next preceding article, unless otherwise speciiied in this pre- 
sent article. The said commissioners shall meet, in the first in- 
stance at Albany, in the state of New York, and shall have power 
to adjourn to such other place or places as they shall think fit. 
The said commissioners shall, by a report or declaration, under 
their hands and seals, designate the boundary through the said 
river, lakes, or water communications, and decide to which of the 
two contracting parties the several islands lying within the said 
river, lakes, and water communications, do respectively belong, 
in conformity with the true intent of the said treaty of one thou- 
sand seven hundred and eighty-three. And both parties agree to 
consider such designation and decision as final and conclusive. 
And in the event of the said two commissioners differing, or both, 
or citiier of them, refusing, declining, or wilfully omitting to act, 
such reports, declarations, or statements, shall be made by them, 
or either of them; and such reference to a friendly sovereign or 
state shall be made in all respects as in the latter part of the fourth 
article is contained, and in as full a manner as if the sa^jtie was 
herein repeated. 

Art. VII. — It is further agreed that the said two last men- 
tioned commissioners, after they shall have executed the duties 
assigned to them in the preceding article, shall be, and they are 
hereby authorized, upon their oaths, impartially to fix and de- 
termine, according to the true intent of the said treaty of peace of 
one thousand seven hundred and eighty-three, that part of the 
boundary between the dominions of the two powers, which ex- 
tends from the water coummunication between lake Huron and 
lake Superior, to the most northwestern point of the lake of the 
Woods, to decide to which of the two parties the* several islands 
lying in the lakes, water communications and rivers, forming the 
said boundary, do respectively belong, in conformity with the true 
intent of the said treaty of peace of one thousand seven hundred 
and eighty -three; and to cause ^uch parts of the said boundary, as 


require it, to be surveyed and marked. The said commissionei-fi 
shall, by a report or declaration under their hands and seals, de- 
signate the boundary line aforesaid, state their decisions on the 
points thus referred to them, and particularize the latitude and 
longitude of the most northwestern point of the lake of the Woods, 
and of such other parts of the said boundary, as they may deem 
proper. And both parties agree to consider such designation and 
decision as final and conclusive. And in the event of the said two 
commissioners differing, or both, or either of them, refusing, de- 
clining, or wilfully omitting to act, such reports, declarations, or 
statements, shall be made by them, or either of them, and such 
reference to a friendly sovereign or state, shall be made in all re- 
spects, as in the latter part of the fourth article is contained, and 
in as full a manner as if the same was herein repeated. 

Art. VIII.— The several boards of two commissioners men- 
tioned in the four preceding articles, shall respectively have pow- 
er to appoint a secretary, and to employ such surveyors or other 
persons as they shall judge necessary. Duplicates of all their re- 
spective reports, declarations, statements and decisions, and of 
their accounts and of the journal of their proceedings, shall be de- 
livered by them to the agents of his Britannic majesty, and to the 
agents of the United States, who may be respectively appointed 
and authorized to manage the business on behalf of their respec- 
tive governments. The said commissioners shall be respectively 
paid in such manner as shall be agreed between the two con- 
tracyng parties, such agreement being to be settled at the time of 
the exchange of the ratifications of this treaty; and all other ex- 
penses attending said commissioners shall be defrayed equally by 
the two parties. And in case of death, sickness, resignation, or 
necessary absence, the place of every such commissioner respec- 
tively shall be supplied in the same manner as such commissioner 
was first appointed, and the new commissioner shall take the same 
oath or affirmation, and do the same duties. It is further agreed 
between the two contracting parties, that in case any of the islands 
m&ntioned in any of the preceding articles, which were in the pos- 
session of one of the parties prior to the commencement of the 
present war between the countries, shquld, by the decision of any 
of tlje boards of commissioners aforesaid, or of the sovereign or 


State so referred to, as ia the four next preceding articles con- 
tained, fall within the dominions of the other party, all grants of 
land made previous to the commencement of the war, by the party 
having had such possession, shall be as valid as if such island or 
islands, had by such decision or decisions, been adjudged to be 
within the dominions of the party having such possession. 

Art. IX. — The United States of America engage to put an 
end, immediately after the ratification of the present treaty, to hos- 
tilities with all the tribes or nations of Indians, with whom they 
may be at war at the time of such ratification; and forthwith to 
restore to such tribes or nations, respectively, all the possessions, 
rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed or been entitled 
to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven, previous to such 
hostilities: Provided always, that such tribes or nations shall agree 
to desist from all hostilities against the United States of America^ 
their citizens and subjects, upon the ratification of the present 
treaty being notified to such tribes or nations, and sliall so desist 
accordingly. And his Britannic majesty, engages, on his part, to 
put an end immediately after the ratification of the present.treaty, 
to hostilities with all the tribes or nations of Indians with whom 
he may be at war at the time of such ratification, and forthwith to 
restore to such tribes or nations respectively, all the possessions, 
rights, and privileges, which they may have enjoyed, or been en- 
titled to in one thousand eight hundred and eleven, previous to 
such hostilities: Provided altuai/s, that such tribes or nations shall 
agree to desist from all hostilities against his Britannic majesty, 
and his subjects, upon the ratification of the present treaty being 
notified to such tribes or nations, and shall so desist accordingly. 

Art. X. — Whereas the traffic in slaves is irreconcilable with 
the principles of humanity and justice, and whereas both his Bri- 
tannic majesty and the United States are desirous of continuing 
their efforts to promote its entire abolition, it is hereby agreed that 
both the contracting parties shall use their best endeavours to ac- 
complish so desirable an object. 

Art. XI. — This treaty, when the same shall have been rati- 
fied on both sides, without alteration by either of the contracting 
parties and the ratifications mutually exchanged, shall be binding 
on both parties, and the ratifications shall be exchanged at Wash- 


cxiv APPENDIX. - 

ington, in tlie space of four months from this day, or sooner if 

In faith whereof, we the respective plenipotentiaries, have sign- 
ed this treaty, and have thereunto affixed our seals. 

Done, in triplicate, at Ghent, the twenty-fourth day of Decem- 
ber, one thousand eight hundred and fourteen. 

(l. s.) Gamrier, 

(l. s.) Henry Goulbourn, 

(l. s.) William Adams, 

(l. s.) John Quincy Adams, 

(l. s.) J. A. Bayard, 

(Li s.) H. Clay, 

(l. s.) Jonathan Russell, 

(l. s.) Albert Gallatin. 

Now, therefore, to the end that the said treaty of peace and 
amity may be obs :rved with good faith, on the part of the United 
States, I, James Madison, president as aforesaid, have caused the 
premises to be made public: and I do hereby enjoin all persons 
bearing office, civil or military, within the United States, and all 
others, citizens or inhabitants thereof, or being within the same, 
faithfully to observe and fulfil the said treaty and every clause and 
article thereof. 

In testimony whereof I have caused the seal of the United States 
to be affixed to these presents, and signed the same with my hand. 
Done at the city of Washington, this eighteenth day of Februa- 
ry, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and 
fifteen, and of the sovereignty and independence of the 

United States the thirty-ninth. 

James Madison. 
Jiy the President y James Monroe. 



From the city battalion of uniform comJia)iies to major-general 

General, JVem-Orlcans, I6th March, 1815. 

We have, delayed until this moment the expression of our 

feelings towards you, lest the honest emotions of our hearts should 

be ascribed to a desire of propitiating the favour of our command- 


er. At this moment, when neither hope nor fear ea» be supposed 
to have infliienced us, we pray j'ou to receive the sincere tribute 
of our thanks — as soldiers, for the confidence you have reposed in 
us; for the paternal care with which you have watched over our 
comforts, and above all, for that justice you have done to our zeal 
in assigning us on every occasion a post of rfang-er and of honour — 
as citizens, for the wisdom of the measures you devised to protect 
«ur country; for the skill and bravery with which they were exe- 
cuted; and for that indispensable energy to which we owe bur 
safety. Leaving to others the task of declaiming about privileges 
and constitutional rights, we are content with having fought in 
support of them — we have understanding enough to know when 
they are wantonly violated: and no false reasoning shall make us 
ungrateful to the man whose wisdom and valour have secured 
them to us and to our posterity! We do not deal in professions; 
we pray you, general, to be assured, that in the officers and men of 
this battalion you have soldiers who have been and are always 
ready to affront every danger under your command— :/V//o7^-cz7f- 
zens^ grateful for your services— -/nV/zrfs, personally attached to 
your fortunes, and ready to promote your happiness at the risk of 
their own. You have allowed us the endearing title of your 
brothers in arms — it was given to us on this field, strewed then 
with the bodies of our enemies; and Ave feel a noble pride in the 
consciousness that allows us to accept it. That fraternity, cemented 
in hostile blood, shall be the pride of our lives; and in aftertimes 
will secure to our children the respect of posterity. General, 
common phrases cannot express the emotions which agitate us at 
the moment of our separation — but we pray heaven to watch over 
your safety; and we trust tQ a grateful country for the honours 
and advancement which your services have merited. 

J. B. Plauche, major. N. Thompson, lieutenant. 

Ste. Geme, cafitain. C. Fremont, lieutenant. 

M. White, cafitain. Duhulquod, lieutenant. 

A. Guibert, cafitain. L. Pilie, lieutenant. 

HuDRT, cafitain. Benetaud. 

P. Roche, cafitain. Bertel, lieutenant. 

John St. Jean, lieutenant. Huet, lieutenant. 

Coeur de Roy. Le Mounier, serjeant-major 

De St. Romes, lieutenant. 

cxv.i APPENDIX. 

general's answer. 

Although born and bred in a land of freedom, popular fe- 
vour has always been with me a secondary object. My first wish, 
in political life, has been to be useful to my country. Yet, 1 am 
not insensible to the good opinion of my fellow-citizens; I would 
do much to obtain it; but I cannot, for this purpose, sacrifice my 
own conscience or what I conceive to be the interests of my 

These principles have prepared me to receive, with just sa- 
tisfaction, the address you have pi'esented. The first wish of my 
heart, the safety of your country, has been accomplished; and it 
affords me the greatest happiness to know that the means taken 
to secure this object have met the approbation of those who have 
had the best opportunities of judging of their propriety, and who, 
from their various relations, might be supposed the most ready to 
censure any which had been improperly resorted to. The dis- 
tinction you draw, gentlemen, between those who only declaim 
about civil rights and those who fight to maintain them, shows 
how just and practical a knowledge you have of the true princi- 
ples of liberty — without such knowledge all theory is useless or 

Whenever the invaluable rights which we enjoy under our 
happy constitution are threatened by invasion, privileges the most 
dear, and which, in ordinary times, ought to be regarded as the most 
sacred, may be required to be infringed for their security. At 
such a crisis, we have only to determine whether we will suspend, 
for a time, the exercise of the latter, that we may secure the per- 
manent enjoyment of the formei\ Is it wise, in such a moment, 
to sacrifice the spirit of the laws to the letter, and by adhering too 
strictly to the letter, lose the substance forever, in order that we 
may, for an instant, preserve the shadoiv? It is not to be imagined 
that the express provisions of any written law can fully embrace 
emergencies which suppose and occasion the suspension of all 
law, but the highest and the* last, that of self-preservation. No 
right is more precious to a freeman than that of suffrage; but had 
your election taken place on the Sth of January, would your de- 
claimers have advised you to abandon the defence of you.r country 

APPENDIX. cxvii 

in order to exercise this inestimable privilege at the polls? Is it 
to be supposed that your general, if he regarded the important 
trust committed to his charge, would have permitted you to pre- 
serve the constitution by an act which would have involved con- 
stitution, country and honour in one undistinguished ruin? 

What is more justly important than personal liberty; yet how 
can the civil enjoyment of this privilege be made to consist with 
the order, subordination and discipline of a camp? Let the senti- 
nel be removed by subfioena from his post, let writs of habeas 
corpus carry away the officers from the lines, and the enemy may 
conquer your country by only employing lawyers to defend your 

Private property is held sacred in all good governments, and 
particularly in our own, yet, shall the fear of invading it prevent a 
general from marching his army over a corn-field, or burning a 
house which protects the enemy? 

These and a thousand other instances might be cited to show 
that laws must sometimes be silent when necessity speaks. The 
only question with the friend of his country will be, have these 
laws been made to be silent wantonly and unnecessarily? If neces- 
sity dictated the measure, if a resort to it was important for the 
preservation of those rights which we esteem so dear, and in de- 
fence of which we had so willingly taken up arms, surely it would 
not have been becoming in the commander-in-chief to have shrunk 
from the responsibility which it involved. He did not shrink from 
it. In declaring martial law, his object, and his only object, was 
to embody the whole resources of the country, for its defence. 
That law, while it existed, necessarily suspended all rights and 
privileges inconsistent with its provisions. It is matter of sur- 
prise that they who boast themselves the champions of those 
rights and privileges should not, when they were first put in dan- 
ger by the proclamation of martial law, have manifested that lively 
sensibility of which they have since made so ostentatious a dis- 
play. So far, however, was this from being the case, that this 
measure not only met, then, the open support of those who when 
their country was invaded thought resistance a virtue, and the si- 
lent approbation of alii but even received the particular recom- 
mendation and encouragement of many who now inveigh the most 
bitterly against it. It was nqt until a victory, secured by that very 

cxviii APPENDIX. 

measure, had lessened the dange^ wliich occasioned a resort to it, 
that the pre sent ./ef/m^* guardians of our rights discovered that the 
commanding-general ought to have suffered his posts to be aban- 
doned through the interference of a foreign agent — his ranks to be 
thinned by desertion, and his whole army to be broken to pieces 
by mutiny; while yet a powerful force of the enemy remained on 
your coast, and within a few hours sail of your city. 

I thought and acted differently.. It was not until I discovered 
that the civil power stood no longer in need of the military for its 
Support, that I restored to it its usual functions; and the restora- 
tion was not delayed a moment after that period had arrived. 

Under these circumstances, fellow-soldiers, your resolution 
to let others declaim about privileges and constitutional rights^ will 
never draw upon you the charge of being indifferent to those in- 
estimable blessings; your attachment to them has been proved by 
a stronger title — that of having nobly fought to preserve them. — 
You who liave thus supported them against the open pi-etensions 
of a powerful enemy, will never, I trust, surrender them to the un- 
derhand machinations of men who stand aloof in the hour of peril, 
and who, when the danger is gone, claim to be the " defenders of 
your constitution." 

An honourable peace has dissolved our military connexion; 
and, in a few days, I shall quit a country endeared to me by the 
most pleasing recollections. Among the most prominent of these, 
gentlemen, are those I shall ever entertain of the distinguished 
bravery, the exact discipline, the ardent zeal, and the important 
services of your corps. The offered friendship of each individual 
composing it, I receive with pleasure, and with sincerity recipro- 
cate. I shall always pride myself on a fraternity with such men, 
created in such a cause. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Letter from general Jackson to the secretary of war. 
" Hefid-yuarters, 7th jnilitary district, 

JVew Orleans, March 16, 1815. 
Sir — I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your 
..letter of the 16th ult. advising me of the ratification of the treat}' 
of peace between Great Britain and the United States. 


In conformity with your directions, I have forwarded to the 
officer commanding his Britannic majesty's forces, in this quarter, 
information of that event. 

The Tennessee and Kentucky militia will be immediately 
marched to their respective states, and discharged without receiv- 
ing any pay beforehand. The Louisiana and Mississippi militia 
will be discharged and paid here. It is hoped that funds will be 
provided for the payment of the former in suitable time. 

Difficulties are experienced from the want of means to pro- 
cure forage, and transportation on the return march, colonel 
Knight having not yet arrived. On this account I have offered 
my bills on the governor of Tennessee, payable in treasury notes 
at Nashville. 

I have received no intelligence of colonel Knight, except by 
your letter of the 7th ult. 

The greater portion of the regulars in this quarter having en- 
listed to serve during the war, expect to be immediately dis- 
charged. As you have not mentioned them in your instructions, 
I shall be glad to hear from you on the subject as soon as possible. 

It is my intention, so soon as I get the troops mustered out of 
service here, to remove my head-quarters to Nashville, where I 
shall expect to receive the orders of the government. 

Major-general Gaines is placed in the immediate command 
of this section of the district, and I am happy to commit it to one 
in whom the government has such high and deserved confidence. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

A. Jackson. 

NO. LV. 

Letter from major Woodruff to general Jackson. 

JVeiv Orleans, March 23rf, 1815. 

Siu — In compliance with your orders of the 1 4th inst. I left 

the bayou St. Johns at twelve o'clock of the same day, and arrived 

at Dauphine island on the night of the 1 6th, the head-quarters of 

the British army. 

I immediately informed major-general Lambert of your ha- 
ving received official notice of a treaty of peace having been sign- 
ed and exchanged at the city of Washington, on the 1 7th of Fe- 


bruary, 1815, between the United States of America and the ge- 
vernment of Great Britain; (a copy of which I handed him) — and 
that I was ordered by you to receive all forts, places, artillery, mu- 
nitions of war, or other public or private property captured during 
the war, embraced by the first article of said treaty; and that I 
was particularly instructed to receive all slaves^ belonging to any 
inhabitant or citizen of the United States, captured or protected 
by the British army. 

General Lambert informed me that he could not give up 
fort Bowyer until he received official information, from an au- 
thorized agent of his government, that the treaty had been con- 
firmed by ours; — that then he would be prepared to execute, on 
the part of his government, every article of said treaty, except 
that part relating to slaves, as it was totally incompatible with the 
spirit and constitution of his governfnent to recognize slavery at 
all — that he would use his influence, in persuading them to return 
to their masters, by every argument in his power; but that he would 
not use force in compelling their obedience, or permit it to be 
used within the British lines. That I might stand acquitted of 
having discharged my duty, I addressed a note to the British com- 
mander on the 1 6th instant, marked No. 1 . His note in return, 
No. 2, you will perceive is evasive, and by no means a satisfactory 
answer to mine. I again requested a categorical answer, particu- 
larly to that part of my note relating to sdaves. His answer you 
will find marked No. 3. 

I flatter myself, sir, I have done all in my power to eff'ect 
your wishes, and regret my exertions were not attended with more 

I have the honour to be, &c. , 
J. Woodruff 


JLetter from general Lambert to general Jackson, 

Head-Quarters., Isle Dauphine, March 18, 1815. 

Sir — I received with great pleasure, by the hands of major 

Woodruff", on the evening of the 16th, about nine o'clock, yours 

of the 13th instant. I communicated tlie contents immediately to 

APPENDIX. exiei 

ijeav admiral Malcolm, and orders were issued for the cessation of 
hostilities, and to all detached posts and ships to be withdrawn in 
our respective commands. I daily expect an official communi- 
cation (similar to what you have received) from Mr. Baker. In 
the meantime every preparation is making for the embarkation 
of this force, and ships are now sent away, when we are able to 
put sufficient provisions on board to take them to Bermuda. 
Victuallers from Jamaica must be here in a very few days, when 
every thing will be put on board as quickly as possible; and 
should I by that time not have received any intelligence, the ad- 
miral and myself will have no hesitation in putting to sea directly. 
I have requested major Woodruff, who went up to Mobile yes- 
terday, to acquaint the conimanding officer that I would let him 
know the moment we were prepared to give up the fort, which 
would be when the transports could get out of the bay. The fort 
would be restored in every I'espect as when it fell into our pos- 
session, with the exception only of a brass mortar, cast in George 
the becond's reign, which had been sent away the day after. 

In the fulfilling the first article of tlie treaty, I cannot consi- 
der the meaning of " not causing any destruction, or cai'rying away 
any artillery, or other public property, originally captured in the 
said forts or places, and ivhich shall remain therein upon the ex- 
change of the ratification of this treaty, or any slave, or other pro- 
perty," having reference to any antecedent period to the 18th of 
February, the day of the exchange of ratifications; because it is 
only from that time that the article could be fulfilled in a long 
war. If those negroes (the matter now in question) belonged 
to the territory or city we were actually in occupation of, I 
should conceive we had no right to take them away; but by 
their coming away, they are virtually tlie same as deserters 
or property taken away at any time of the war. I am obliged to 
say so much in justification of the right; but I have from the first 
done all I could to prevent, and subsequently, together with ad- 
r^iral Malcolm, have given every facility, and used every persua- 
sion that they should return to tlieir masters, and many have done 
so; but I could not reconcile it to myself to abandon any, who, from 
false reasoning perhaps, joined us during the period of hostilities^ 


cxxii APPENDIX. 

and have thus acted in violation of the law^s of their country, and 
besi'Jes become obnoxious to their masters. 

Had it been an object to take the negroes away, they could 
have been embarked in the first instance; but they have been per- 
mitted to remain in the hopes that they miglit return. 

I am much dbliged to you lor your offer of supplies, and com- 
forts for the sick and wounded. I send a commissary, to make a 
few purchases, and have directed him to call on Mr, Livingston 
with this letter. 

I have the honour to be, Stc. 

John Lambert, il/o;. Gen. Com'g. 



The following resolutions, expressive of the high sense en- 
tertained by congress of the patriotism and good conduct of the 
people of Louisiana and of New Orleans, were unanimously 
adopt d: 

Resolvedf by the seJiate and house of refiresentatives of the 
United States of America in congress assembled, That congress 
entertain a high sense of the patriotism, fidelity, zeal and courage 
with which the people of the state of Louisiana promptly and una- 
nimously stopped forth, under circumstances of imminent danger 
from a powerful invading army, in defence of all the individual, 
social, and political rights held dear by man. Congress declare 
and proclaim, that the brave Louisianians deserve well of the 
whole people of the Uniled States. 

liesolved, That congress entertain a high sense of the gene- 
rosity, benevolence, and humanity, displayed by the people of New 
Orleans, in voluntarily offering the best accommodations in their 
power, and giving the kindest attention to the wounded, not only 
of our own army, but also to the wounded prisoners of a van- 
quished foe. 

Resolved, That the president of the United States be re- 
quested to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communi- 
cated to his excellency the governor of Louisiana, accompanied 
with a request that he cause the greatest possible publicity to be 
given to them, for the information of the whole people of Louisi- 

APPENDIX. oxxtti 

Resolutions expressive of the thanks of conpjress to major- 
general Jackson, and the troops under his command, for their 
gallantry and good conduct in the defence of New Orleans: 

Re-ioived^ by the senate and house of refiresevtatives of the 
United States of jimerica in congress assembled.^ That the th-^nks 
of congress be, and they are hereby given to major-general Jack- 
son, and through him to the officers and soldiers of the regular 
army, of the militia, and of tiie volunteers, under his immediate 
command, and the officers and soldiers charged with the defence 
of fort St. Philip, for their uniform gallantry and good conduct, 
conspicuously displayed against the enemy from the time of his 
landing before New Orleans until his final expulsion from the 
state of Louisiana: and particularly for their valour, skill and good 
conduct on the 8th of January last, in repulsing, with great slaugh- 
ter, a numerous British army of chosen veteran troops, when at- 
tempting by a bold and daring attack to storm and carry the 
works hastily thrown up for the defence of New Orleans, and 
thereby obtaining a most signal and complete victory over the 
enemy, with a disparity of loss on his part unexampled in military 

Resolvedy That the president of the United States be request- 
ed to cause to be struck a gold medal, with devices emblematical 
of this splendid achievement, and presented to major-general 
Jackson, as a testimony of the high sense entertained by congress 
of his judicious and distinguished conduct on that memorable oc- 

Resolved, That the president of the United States be re- 
quested to cause the foregoing resolutions to be communicated to 
major-general Jackson, in such terms as he may deem best cal- 
culated to give effect to the objects thereof. 

Resolved, That congress entertain a high sense of the valour 
and good conduct of commodore D. T. Patterson, of the officers, 
petty officers, and seamen attached to his command, for their 
prompt and efficient co-operation with general Jackson, in the 
late gallant and successful defence of the city of New Orleans, 
when assailed by a powerful British force. • 

Resolved, That congress entertain a high sense of the valour 
and gopd conduct of major Daniel Carmick, of the officer.s, non- 

c;xxiv APPENDIX. 

commissioned-officers and marines, under his commaind, in the 
defence of said city, on the late memorable occasion. 


Letter from general Jackson to general Lambert, 

Head-Quarters, 7th Military District, 

Sir, J^env Orleans, "iOth February, 1815; 

By my letter of this date, addressed to sir Alexaoder Coch- 
rane, you will perceive that I have fully acquiesced in your ideas 
relative to the delivery and exchange of prisoners, and you will 
herewith receive all those now here in a state to be removed. 

As you intimate that you do not consider the slaves as under 
your control, I have addressed the only further demand I shall 
make on that subject to sir Alexander Cochrane. 

Some of my officers, under a mistaken idea that deserters 
were confined with the prisoners, have, as I have understood, 
made improper applications to some of the latter to quit your 
service. It is possible they may have in some instances succeed- 
ed in procuring either a feigned or a real consent to this effect; 
the whole of the transaction, however, met my marked reprehen- 
sion, and all the prisoners are now restored to you. But as im- 
proper allurements may have been held out to these men, it will 
be highly gratifying to my feelings to learn that no investigation 
Avill be made, or punishment inflicted, in consequence of the con- 
duct of those who may, under such circumstances, have swerved 
from their duty. As the transaction might not have been other- 
wise disclosed to you, the notice I now take of it shows the confi- 
dence I feel that you will not make use of any implied presump- 
tion to be drawn from it. 

Andrew Jackson. 


Be it resolved by the senate and house of rcfiresentatives of 
the stale of Louisiana in general assembly convened, That the le- 
gislature of the state of Louisiana deem it their duty to proclaim 
the facts herein after stated, as bearing testimony to the zeal and 
patriotism that were displayed by the citizens in every part of this 
State, during the late invasion of the British. 


At the first news of our danger, the militia, together with a 
vast number of volunteers, flocked into New Orleans from every 
county in this state. The planters on both sides of the river, 
within a space of several leagues, either above or below town, fur- 
nished thousands of their slaves, and sent them to every particular 
place where their labour was thought necessary; it was through 
the means which were voluntarily granted by the planters, that 
most of the artilleiy, ammunition and provisions were transported; 
and whenever detachments occasionally stopped at their planta- 
tions, the latter met them with the most cordial reception, and 
were supplied with both food and forage as the same was wanting 
or could possibly be procured. 

It should be remarked, that even those planters, whose es- 
atates had already been destroyed by the enemy, or had fallen into 
his possession, far from being dismayed by the sad prospect before 
them, had only been brought to that pitch of misfortune that their 
love of their country might appear with a greater lustre. Thus 
at the same time that MM. Villere's, Delaronde's, Lacoste's and 
Bienvenu's sugar estates were laid waste, and made a prey to con- 
flagration, M. Villere, senior, major-general of our gallant mi- 
litia, went on a survey of the upper counties for the purpose of 
hastening re -enforcements, which, at the first call, presented 
themselves in readiness to march; and when, after his return to 
camp, he had once taken charge at the second line of the post 
that had been assigned him, he was seen there invariably to fulfil 
his duties with that wonderful tranquillity of mind which a man, 
having nothing to lose, would have hardly been capable of: yet 
this gentleman, the head of a numerous family, could not but 
know, that one hundred slaves of his own were on his plantation 
at the mercy of the British, and that all his moveable property had 
already been either plundered or destroyed. 

His son, M. Villere, jun. major of the 3d regiment, after ha- 
ving, at the peril of his life, eifected his escape from the British 
army, who had surprised him at his house, joined tlie forces that 
marched to repel the enemy on the 23d of December, and has 
ever since performed an active duty. 

The important position of Chcf-Menteur was protected by 
major Lacoste at the head of his corps, consisting of free men of 


colour, whilst his sugar estate was set to ruin and devastation.. 
M. Lacoste, jun, his son, though deprived of the use of one arm, 
nevertheless shared constantly with his brother soldiers the toils 
and dangers of war. 

Mr. Delaronde, colonel of the third regiment, though he ab- 
stained from claiming tiiat part of the service which his rank en- 
titled him to, did not disdain to serve as a guide, and with immi- 
nent peril continued scouting in woods almost impracticable, both 
in the flank and rear of the British, for the purpose of reconnoi- 
tring and making known their position. 

In town, colonel Fortier, sen. contributed in a great measure 
to the more prompt departure for Ghef-Menteur of the free 
men of colour, already embodied, by furnishing them, at his own 
cost, with such articles as they stood in need of. To him also the 
country owes the forming and organizing a second corps of free 
men of colour, to whom the brave Savary was appointed a cap- 
tain. At his call, both captain and soldiers repaired to his house 
to be enlisted. He personally attended to the arming and equip- 
ping of them; and through his exertions that company under the 
command of major Daquin, was enabled to take the field and to 
face the enemy a few hours after its formation. M. Fortier 
caused also several hundred of muskets unfit for use to be re- 

No sooner was it reported that a British squadron had arri- 
ved on our coast, than the uniform companies of the militia of 
New Orleans, under the command of major Plauche,and captains 
P. Roche, St. Geme, Hudiy, White and Guibert, and the rifle 
corps under the command of captain Bcale, who had some time 
before tendered their services, were placed at the bayou St. John, 
to which point it was expected the enemy would attempt to pe- 
netrate. It was from that position those gallant companies march- 
ed, with the rapidity of lightning, to the plains of Viilere, on the 
23d of December, at the first appeerance of the British. They 
travelled nearly twelve miles with wonderful rapidity, and fought 
with a bravery and resolution that would have done credit even to 
experienced soldiers. The first and second regiments of the mi- 
litia of New Orleans, under the command of colonel Dejan and 
Zenon Cavelier, have conducted themselves in the several posts 

APPENDIX. cxxvii 

they were called upon to defend, with zeal and courage. They 
have borne with patience the fatigue of painful marches, occasion- 
ed by their being successively sent from one position to another. 
The fourth regiment, commanded by Mr. G. W. Morgan, their 
colonel, was entrusted with the defence of Chef-Menteur, upon 
major Lacoste's corps being withdrawn therefrom: they discharg- 
ed their duty in a manner that bade defiance to all possible at- 
tempt, on the part of the enemy, to force that important pass. 
Three volunteer troops of horse, the one of them from the Atta- 
kapas, under the command of captain Dubuclay, and the other 
from Feliciana, commanded by captain Smith, and the last from 
Bayou Sarah, under command of captain Griffith, had already ar- 
rived in town, prior to the landing of the British. Two more 
troops of horse were immediately formed at New Orleans, headed 
by captains Chaveau and Ogden. The conduct of those several 
corps, upon every occasion where their services have been called 
for, deserves particular notice: and they were extremely useful. 
Captain Dubuclay was wounded in the head by a musket-ball, 
while in the act of rallying some men in an engagement on the 
right bank of the river. 

General Thomas, general Hopkins and general M'Causland, 
at the head of the gallant militia under their command, hastened 
by forced marches from their respective counties in order to assist 
in defending the country. 

General Garrigues Flaujac, by his patriotism and the talents 
he displayed, whilst the capital was threatened by the enemy, has 
earned the honour of being ranked among those who deserved 
well of their country. 

Whilst our gallant militia were employed in the defence of 
the country at the several posts which had been assigned them, 
the citizens more advanced in years, having voluntarily form- 
ed themselves into companies of veterans, attended to the 
preservation of police and civil order in town. They greatly 
contributed by their good countenance, to dissipate the alarm 
created by the approach of the enemy; and by their unwearied 
exertions they insured the speedy and faithful conveyance to the 
camp of such articles as were to be sent there. They were also 
usefully employed in overseeing that the many donations made by 

cxxviii APPENDIX. 

our fellow-citizens, should be both applied properly and without 
confusion. At the head of these respectable veterans appeared 
Mr. Dcbuys, sen. their captain. 

General Labatut had the command of the town. He perform- 
ed his task with a zeal and activity that have done him infinite 

The mayor and city council of New Orleans, by the adop- 
tion of measures that indicate their foresight and humanity, have 
maintained our internal peace, and so far prevented a scarcity of 
provisions to be felt in town, as to make it doubtful whether the 
presence of the enemy in our neighbourhood had diminished our 

The attention of Mr. Nicholas Girod, the mayor of New 
Orleans, in the meanwhile, was extended, with great benefit, to 
each part of the service. All the means placed at his disposal 
were applied in a manner that told a skilful administrator. Such 
families as were in actual distress, were relieved, and furnished 
with provisions agreeably to a decree of the city council appro- 
priating a sum fully adequate to this purpose of benevolence. 

The fair of New Orleans, without exception, eagerly under- 
took a variety of needle-work, for the use of the army. Many of 
them, who till then had been accustomed to do none but the nicest 
work, did not disdain sewing cloaks of the coarsest woollens. 
They gave both lint and linen for the use of the sick and wounded. 

The Ursuline nuns are also entitled to a particular notice. 
They gave admittance within the wah:. of their monastery to as 
many of the sick as could be conveniently lodged therein, and af- 
forded them every aid, conformably to the dictates of true charity. 

All the practising surgeons and physicians in the town have 
acted so as to do tne highest honour to their profession. Their 
readiness in bestowing assistance to the military wno wanted it, 
was such as did not permit them to wait till an application should 
be made for their services. A sy.npathetic feeling led them se- 
veral miles below town to meet tae wounded on the way and give 
them immediate attendance. 

A committee named by the same veterans above mentioned, 
whose patriotism was not merely confined to the performance of 
the military duties they had willingly submitted to,- — on which 

APPENDIX. cxxix 

committee they had appointed namely, Messrs. Fortier, sen. Jh. 
Soulie, and Mr. Louaillier, a member of the house of representa- 
tives, — was affording relief to the sick and wounded with an inde- 
fatigable zeal; procuring subscriptions for the purchase of cloth- 
ing, intended for our fellow-soldiers, who had left their homes, 
unprovided for a winter campaign. A sum exceeding fourteen 
thousand dollars was actually laid out for that laudable object, in- 
cluding in it the appropriation of six thousand dollars made by the 

Every member on that committee deserves the highest praise 
for their perseverance and assiduity in fulfilling their task. 

The enumeration of the corps and individuals who have given 
so many proofs of patriotism and devotion to their country, ought 
not to be closed without mentioning the governor of this state, 
whose efforts have constantly been directed towards cherishing 
the happy dispositions of the inhabitants, and whose authority to 
its utmost extent has been employed in securing the success of 
the measures adopted for the defence of this country. 

Be it further resolved by the authority aforesaid, That each 
and every person and collection of persons mentioned in the fore- 
going statement are justly entitled to the gratitude of their country. 

Be it further resolved by the authority aforesaid^ That it 
shall be the duty of the governor of the state of Louisiana, in the 
name of the said state, to present the corps of veterans of New 
Orleans with a stand of colours bearing the following inscription, 
" Our sons were refielling the foe., ive attended to the safety of their 
mothers and ivives" and on the other side thereof will be seen a 
river, with an eagle hovering over the same, and this inscription 
on the river's bank '■'•for common use, and the benefit of all." 
Magloire Guichard, 

Sfieaker of the House of Representatives. 
FuLWAR Skipwith, President of the Senate. 

NO. LX. 

By the President of the United States of America. 
Among the many evils produced by the wars, v hich, with 
little intermission, have afflicted Europe, and extended their ra- 
vages into other quarters of the globe, for a period exceeding- 
twenty years, the dispersion of a considerable portion of the inha- 



bitarrts of different countries, in sorrow alul in want, has not been 
the least injurious to human happiness, nor the least severe in the 
trial of human virtue. 

It had been long ascertained that many foreigners, flying from 
the dangers of their own home, and that some citizens, forgetful 
of their duty, had co-operated in forming an establishment on the 
island of Barataria, near the mouth of the river Mississippi, for 
the purpose of a clandestine and lawless trade. The goveniment 
of the United States caused the establishment to be broken up and 
destroyed; and, having obtained the means of designating the 
offenders of every description, it only remained to answer the de- 
mands of justice by inflicting an exemplary punishment. 

But it has since been represented that the offenders have ma- 
nifested a sincere penitence; that they have abandoned the prose- 
cution of the worst cause for the support of the best, and, particu- 
larly, that they have exhibited, in the defence of New Orleans, 
unequivocal traits of courage and fidelity. Offenders, who have 
refused to become the associates of the enemy in the war, upon 
the most seducing terms of invitation; and who have aided to re- 
pel his hostile invasion of the territory of the United States, can 
no longer be considered as objects of punishment, but as objects 
of a generous forgiveness. 

It has therefore been seen, with great satisfaction, that the 
general assembly of the state of Louisiana earnestly recommend 
those offenders to the benefit of a full pardon: And in compliance 
with that recommendation, as well as in consideration of all the 
other extraordinary circumstances of the case, I James Madiso?i, 
president of the United States of America, do issue this procla- 
mation, hereby granting, publishing and declaring, a free and full 
pardon of all offences committed in violation of any act or acts of 
the congress of the said United States, touching the revenue, 
trade and navigation thereof, or touching the intercourse and com- 
merce of the United States with foreign nations, at any time be- 
fore the eighth day of January, in the present year one thousand 
eight hundred and fifteen, by any person or persons whatsoever, 
being inhabitants of New Orleans and the adjacent country, or 
being inhabitants of the said island of Barataria, and the places ad- 
jacent: Providedf that every person, claiming the benefit of this 
full pardon, \h order to entitle himself thereto, shall produce a cer- 

APPENDIX. cxxxi 

tificatc in writing from the governor of the state of Louisiana, 
stating that such person has aided in the defence of New Orleans 
and the adjacent country, during the invasion thereof as aforesaid^ 
And I do hereby further authorize and direct all suits, indict- 
ments, and prosecutions, for fines, penalties, and forfeitures, against 
any person or persons, who shall be entitled to the benefit of this 
full pardcm, forthwith to be stayed, discontinued and released: And 
all civil officers are hereby required, according to the duties of 
their respective stations, to carry this proclamation into immediate 
and faithful execution. 

Done at the city of Washington, the sixth day of Fe- 
bruary, in the year one thousand eight hundred and 
fifteen, and of the independence of the United States 
the thirty-ninth. James Madison. 

By the president, James Monroe, 

Acting Secretary of State. 


decision of the court martial in the case of major vil- 

Head-Quarters, Adjutant-General's Office, 

Aew Orleans, March 15, 1815. 

After a full examination of all the testimony for and against 
\\[C prosecution, the court find the said major Villere " not guilty" 
of the charges and specifications exhibited against him, and do ac- 
quit him of all and every one of them. — And the court consider it 
due to the accused, further to declare, that " major Villere appears 
to have performed his duty, from the moment he was left in com- 
mand under the orders of major-general Villere, with zeal and 
fidelity; and that the circumstance of his surprise and capture by 
the enemy, though much to be regretted, might have occurred to 
the most vigilant officer, and must be attributed to the loss of the 
whole of his picquet or advanced gu?4rd, and the extraordinary ra- 
pidity with which the enemy moved from that point." 

The major-general command'ing approved the foregoing sen- 
tence of the general court martl'.d, and ordered major Villere to 
resume his sword without delay. 

By order, Robert Bltlkr, ^^r^y. Ge?j. 

Note. — Major Villere d';d not introduce any testimony in his 

cxxxii APPENDIX. 



Extracts of the Proceedings of a Court of Inquiry relative to the 

Retreat on the Right Bank of the Mississippi^ on the 8th of 

January y 1815. 

The court, on mature deliberation, are of opinion that the 
conduct of colonel Davis, Dijan and Cavallier, in the action and 
retreat on the 8th of January, on the western bank of the Missis- 
sippi, is not reprehensible, nor do they know of any misconduct, as 
officers, in either since that time. 

The causes of the retreat are attributed to the shameful flight 
of the command of major Arnaud, sent to oppose the landing of 
the enemy; — the retreat of the Kentucky militia, which, consider- 
ing their position, the deficiency of their arms, and other causes, 
may be excusable; — and the panic and confusion introduced in 
every part of the line, thereby occasioning the retreat and confu- 
sion of the Orleans and Louisiana drafted militia. 

Whilst the court find much to applaud in the zeal and gal- 
lantry of the officer immediately commanding, they believe that 
a farther reason for the retreat may be found in the manner in 
which the force was posted on the line, which they consider ex- 
ceptionable. The commands of colonels Dijan, Cavallier and 
Declauett, composing five hundred men, supported by three pieces 
of artillery, having in front a strong breastwork, occupying only a 
space of two hundred yards, whilst the Kentucky militia, only one 
hundred and seventy men strong, without artillery, occupied more 
than three hundred yards, covered by a small ditch only. 

Wm. Carholl, Maj. Gen. President of the Court. 


.it a Court of Inquiry assembled in the JVa-ual arse}ial,at jYew Or- 
leans, by order of commodore Daniel T. Patterson, command- 
ing the naval forces of the United States, on the .A'Vw Orleans 
station,and continued by adjournment from day to day, — from 
MondaiJ the \5th, until Friday the I9th of May, 1815 — 
Present — Master commandant, Louis Alexis, president — 
Lieiitenant commandant Charles C. B. Thompson, and lieutenant 
Charles E. Crawley, members — for the p^irposc of investigating 

APPENDIX. cxxxiii 

the conduct of the officers and men of the late division of Uni- 
ted States' gun vessels, under the command of lieutenant com- 
mandant Thomas Ap C. Jones, captured by a flotilla of British 
barges and lanches, on the 14th of December, 1814. The court 
being organized, agreeably to form, commenced with the exami- 
nation of the testimony in relation to the conduct of the commanding 
officer of the division; and after hearing attentively all the evi- 
dence that could be produced on that subject, proceeded to a mi- 
nute investigation of the whole affair. 

It appears to the court, that on the 12th of December last, 
the British fleet first made its appearance off Cat Jind Ship 
islands — that lieutenant commandant Jones, after having recon- 
noitred with his division of gun-vessels, five in number, and ascer- 
tained the state of the enemy's force, on the 13th, a flotilla of the 
enemy's barges appearing to advance, attempted to reach the fort 
at the Petty Coquilles, but that in consequence of the current 
being ahead, and the wind failing, he was prevented from getting 
any further than the Malheureux islands, where he anchored his 
gun-vessels between twelve and two at night. 

It appears to the court, that on the morning of the 14th, the 
enemy's flotilla being perceived to be still advancing, he placed 
his division in the best position to receive them, and to oppose 
their passage — that the enemy advanced to the attack in the 
course of the forenoon, and that the number of the barges and 
lanches to which the gun-vessels were opposed was between for- 
ty-fivff and fifty. 

It appears to the court, that about one-third of this number 
attacked the flag-vessel No. 15G, while the others surrounded 
chiefly No. 162 and 163, and that after lieutenant commandant 
Jones had been very severely wounded, Mr. George Parker, his 
master's mate, conthiued the action until overpowered by num- 
bers, to which no effectual resistance could be made; during which 
time several of the enemy's barges were sunk alongside, and great 
slaughter done in others 

It appears to the court, that gun-vessel No. 163 was the se-' 
cond vessel carried, after a gallant opposition, having previously 
kept off the enemy for some time, and being entirely surrounded. 

It appears to tlic court, that gun-vessel No. 142, was the 
vessel next carried; that this was not effected, however, until hpv 

cxxxiv APPENDIX. 

commander, lieutenant Shedden, had been most severely wound- 
ed (who, nevertheless, remained on deck and continued to give 
orders to the last,) nor until she was completely surrounded by 
the enemy, who suffered greatly in the contest. 

It appears to the court, that No. 5, sailing-master Ferris, was 
the next vessel that fell into the hands of the enemy — that the 
enemy succeeded in boarding her at a time, when further resist- 
ance was rendered ineffectual by the dismounting of her twenty- 
four pounder, and when the fire from the other gun-vessels had 
been turned upon her, after their capture. 

It appears to the court, that No. 23, lieutenant M'Keever, was 
the last vessel captured, and that this was effected at about half 
past twelve o'clock, after the enemy had succeeded in turning the 
fire of the other gun-vessels, previously captured, upon her. 

It also appears to the court, that the barges and lanches of 
the enemy were all mounted with cannon, and had from a thou- 
sand to twelve hundred men on board, armed in the best possible 

And, lastly, it further apj>ears to the court, that after gun- 
Tcssel No. 156 had been captured by the enemy, her fire was 
turned upon the other gun vessels, and continued for a considera- 
ble time under the American colours. 

The result of this inquiry is, a unanimous opinion, that lieu- 
tenant commandant Jones evinced by his movements, previous to 
the action, a judgment highly creditable to his character — that 
when an attack had become certain, he availed himself of every 
means to gain the best position for his squadron; and that, during 
the subse(}uent engagement, when opposed to a force of at least 
nine times his number, in large, well-appointed boats, formidably 
armed, he evinced a firmness and intrepidity worthy the emula- 
tion of his countrymen, and reflecting the highest honour on the 
service to which he belongs. 

The court likewise conceive, that midshipman Parker, who 
acted as master's-mate during the action, on board the flag-ves- 
sel, displayed, in his determined resistance to the enemy, after thr 
fall of his commander, the most signal bravery; and that he merits, 
in an especial degree, the notice of his government. 

The court feels gratified in expressing the opinion, that the 
brave crew of gun- vessel No. 155 forcibly ftlt the example of 

APPENDIX. cxxxv 

their officers; and that, under its influence, they maintained a most 
unequal conflict, with unparalleled destruction to the enemy, un- 
til they were borne down by numbers to which no opposition 
could be made. — Nor did the fall of this vessel, by which the ene- 
my's force was not only increased, but, by her position, in a great 
measure covered, check the ardour of the gallant defenders of 
the rest of the squadron; for we find them contending as long as 
the least prospect of annoying the enemy lasted; their exertions 
unimpaired by their loss, and yielding at last, in succession only, 
to the concentrated force of the enemy, brought to act against 
each vessel. 

With the clearest evidence for their guide, the court expe- 
rience the most heartfelt gratification in declaring the opinion, 
that lieutenant commandant Jones, and his gallant supporters, 
lieutenants Spcdden and M'Keever, sailing-masters Ulrich and 
Ferris, their officers and men, performed their duty on this occa- 
sion in the most able and gallant manner, and that the action has 
added another and distinguished honour to the naval character of 

our country. 

Louis Alexis, 
Master Cojmnandant U. S. J\i'avii. 
G. Davis, 
Officiating Judge Advocate. 

In approving the proceedings and opinion of the court of in- 
quiry, I avail myself with pleasure of the favourable occasion thus 
afforded mc to express my admiration of the gallantry and skill 
displayed by lieutenant Jones, and his brave companions, in the 
defence made by them against so overwhelming a force as not to 
afford a prospect of success, to which the enemy were astonished 
to find a resistance off"ered. In this unequal contest I trust it will 
be found, that the national arid naval character has been nobly sus- 
tained — that the resistance of the attack of so very superior a 
force has contributed, in no small degree, to the eventual safety 
of this city. 

The proceedings and opinion of the court of inquiry, of which 
master commandant Louis Alfexis is president, are approved. 

Daniel T. Patteuson, 
Cujxtain U. S. .Yavy, com'g. Al O. Station. 

cxxxvi APPENDIX. 


A list of the several cor/is comfiosing the British army at the time 
of its landing on the shores of the Mississi/ifii, ivith an estimate 
of their resiiective force. 
4th regiment, king's own, lieutenant-colonel Fran- 
cis Brooke 750 strong 

7th do. Royal Fusiliers, lieutenant-colonel E. 

Blakeney 850 

1 4th do. Duchess of York's own (light dragoons) 

lieutenant-colonel C'. M. Baker - - - ZSO 

2 1st* do. Royal North Britain fusiliers, lieutenant- 
colonel W. Patterson ... - 900 

40th do. Sommersetshire, lieutenant-colonel H. 

Thornton 1000 

43d do. Monmouth (light infantry) lieutenant- 
colonel Patrickson 850 

44th do. East Essex, lieutenant-colonel honour- 
able Thomas Mullen - . - . 750 

85th do. Buck volunteers (light infantry) lieuten- 
ant-colonel William Thornton - - - 650 

93d do. Highland, lieutenant-colonel Robert Dale 1100 

95tht do. Rifle corps, major Samuel Mitchell - 500 
1st do. West India, lieutenant-colonel C. W. 

Whitby 700 

5th do. West India, lieutenant-colonel A. M. K. 

Hamilton 700 

A detachment from the 62d regiment - - 350 

Rocket l^rigade, artillery, drivers, engineers, sap- 
pers and miners - - - - - 1500 

Royal marines 1500 

Sailors taken from the fleet - - - - , 2000 

Total 14,450 

* Of this regiment we have seen two returns signed by D. Dervan, adju- 
tant, of the l7th December and 5th January, each of which justify the amount 
here given — its establishment was one thousand two hundred and eight. 

J This regiment consists of three battalions, of one thousand men each, 
of which only a demi-battalion was sent to Louisiana. 

APPENDIX. cxxxvii 

Staff of the British ^4rTmi. 

Sir Edward M. Packenham, colonel of the 7th regiment of foot, 
lieutenant-general commarider-ir.-chief of the expedition. 

Major-general Samuel Gibbs, colonel of the 59th regiment of foot, 
commanding the first division. 

Major-general John Lambert, colonel 1 at regiment foot-guards-, 
commanding the second division. 

Major-general John Kcane, colonel 60th regiment of fjoot, com- 
manding the third division. 

Lieutenant-colonel John Dixon of the royal artiileiy, commanding 
the artillery. 

Lieutenant-colonel Burgoyne, of the royal engineers, commanding 
the engineer department. 

Lieutenant-colonel Steven, adjutant-general. 

Lieutenant-colonel Bell, quarter-master-general. 

Lieutenant-colonel Bradford and major Smith, military^ secretaries. 

Mr. Soane, purveyor-general. 

Mr. Hunter, paymaster-general. 

Mr. Moody, commissary-general. 

Doctor John Robb, inspector-general of hospitals. 

Doctor Thomson, inspector of hospitals. 

In addition to the above, I give the following letter as cor- 
roborating the above statement. 

Letter from Robert Morrell, M. D. to major Latoiir. 

J^cw Orleans^ April 8, 1&15. 

During my detention in the British fleet, the officers, both 

naval and military, with whom I had an opportunity to converse, 
always estimated their force here on the 8th January, at ten thou- 
sand regular troops at least. An incident occurred relating to this 
subject on the evening of the 7th January, which you may think 
worth communicating; This day I had accidentally omitted to wear 
uniform: while at supper with the ward-room ofliceis. of the Gor- 
gon frigate, a military officer, (whose name I disremember) was 
introduced as coming directly from camp; he took a scat at table, 
and began to talk freely about the situation of the army, his busi- 
ness in the fleet, and addressing himself principally to me, he hav- 
ing taken up the idea I was first lieutenant of the ship. After 
various inquiries about the two lines, I asked the number of Crl- 

cxxxvili APPENDIX. 

tish he supposed might be on shore, he replied, when the last re- 
enforcements would be landed (which he had met three days be- 
fore near Villere's canal) there would be, marines and sailoi's in- 
clusive, from thirteen to fifteen thousand men; he was certain of 
this, for he had seen some returns previous to his departure; this 
was an intelligent officer, having the grade of captain, who had 
l)een sent by the commander-in-chief to ascertain the quantity of 
provisions in the fleet. 

1 am, he. 

Robert Morrell, M. D. 

United States A'avj/. 


No. 1. 

London, Admiralty Office, March 9, 1815. 
Despatches addressed by Vice-Admiral the honourable Sir Alexaii' 

dcr Cochrane, G. C. B. ifc. to John Wilson Croker, Esq. 

Armide, offi Isle au Chat, Dec. 16, 1814. 

Sir — Having arrived at the anchorage,offChandeleur islands, 
on the 8th inst. captain Gordon, of the Seahorse, (which ship, with 
the Armide and Sophie, I had sent on from off Pensacola to the an- 
chorage within Isle au Vaisseau) reported to me that two gun- 
vessels of the enemy, apparently large sized sloops, of very light 
draught of water, had fired at the Armide, upon her way down 
from within the chain of small islands that run parallel to the 
coast from Mobile towards Lac Borgne, and having afterwards 
joined three others, cruising in the lake, were then visible from 
his mast head. 

The Bayone Catalan, (or des Pecheurs) at the head of Lac 
Borgne, being the contemplated point of disembarkation, the dis- 
tance from the inner anchorage of the frigates and troop-ships 
to the Bayone full sixty miles, and our principal means of trans- 
port open boats, it became impossible that any movement of the 
troops could take place till this formidable flotilla was either cap- 
tured or destroyed. 

Rear-admiral Malcolm joined me with the fleet upon the 
1 1th instant, and upon the 12th I placed the lanches, barges, and 
pinnaces of the squadron, with captain Montressor, of the Manly, 

APPENDIX. cxxxix 

and captain Roberts, of the Meteor, under the command of cap- 
tain Lockyer, of the Sophie, and sent them into Lac Borgne, in 
pursuit of the enemy, while the frigates, troop-ships, and smaller 
vessels, moved into the inmost anchorage, each vessel proceeding 
on until she took the ground. 

After an arduous row of thirty-six hours, captain Lockyer 
had the good fortune to close with the flotilla, which he attacked 
with such judgment and determined bravery, that, notwithstanding 
their formidable force, their advantage of a chosen position, and 
their studied and deliberate preparation, he succeeded in cap- 
turing the whole of the vessels, in so serviceable a state as to 
afford at once the most essential aid to the expedition. 

For the particulars of this brilliant affair, I refer their lord- 
sliips to the accompanying copy of captain Lockyer's letter, detail- 
ing his proceedings, which, I am fully aware, their lordships will 
duly appreciate. 

Captain Lockyer's conduct on this occasion, in which he has 
been severely wounded, and his long and actual services as a com- 
mander, justly entitling him to their lordship's protection, and 
finding it expedient to place this flotilla collectively upon the es- 
tablishment of a thirty-six gun frigate, I have appointed him to 
the command thereof. 

Captain Montressor, whom I have placed in the command of 
the gun-vessels until captain Lockyer's wounds will admit of his 
serving, and captain Roberts, whom I have before had occasion 
to mention to their lordships, together with lieutenants Tatnell and 
Roberts, and the officers mentioned by captain Lockyer, 1 trust 
Avill not fail to meet their lordship's notice. 

Our loss has been severe, particularly in officers: but, consi- 
derhig that this successful enterprise has given us the command 
of Lac Borgne, and considerably reduced our deficiency of trans- 
ports, the effort has answered my fullest expectations. 

I have the honour to be, 8cc. 

Alexander Cochrane, 
Vice-admiral and Comviander-in-chicf. 


Letter from A'icholas I^ockycr to admiral Cochrane. 

H. M. slooji So/i/iir, Cat Inland JRoads, December 17, 1814. 

Sir— I bejj leave to inform you, that in pursuance of your 
orders tiie boats of the squadron, which you did me the honour to 
place under my command, were formed into three divisions, (the 
first headed by myself, the second by captain Montressor, of the 
Manly, and the third by captain Roberts, of the Meteor) and pro- 
ceeded, on the night of the 12th instant, from the frigate's anchor- 
age in quest of the enemy's flotilla. 

After a very tedious row of thirty-six hours, during which 
the enemy attempted to escape from us, the wind fortunately 
obliged hina to anchor off St. Joseph's island, and nearing him, on 
the mornhig of the 14th, I discovered his force to consist of five 
gun vessels of the largest dimensions, which were moored in a. 
line abreast, with springs on their cables, and boarding nettings 
triced up, evidently prepared for our reception. 

Observing also, as we approached the flotilla, an armed 
sloop* endeavouring to join them, captain Roberts, who volun- 
teered to take her with part of his division, succeeded in cutting 
her ofi' and capturing her, without much opposition. 

About ten o'clock, having closed to, within long gun-shot, I 
directed the boats to come to a grapnel, and the people to get 
their breakfasts; and as soon as they had finished we again took 
to our oars, and pulling up to the enemy against a strong current, 
running at the rate of nearly three miles an hour, exposed to a 
heavy and destructive fire of round and grape, about noon I had 
the satisfaction of closing with the commodore in the Seahorse's 

After several minutes' obstinate resistance, in vrhich the 
greater part of the officers and crew of this boat were either kill- 
ed or wounded, myself among the latter, severely, we succeeded 
in boarding, and being seconded by the Seahorse's first barge, 
commanded by Mr. White, midshipman, and aided by the boats 
of the Tonnant, commanded by lieutenant Tatnell, we soon car- 
ried her, and turned her guns with good efi'ect upon the remain- 
ibg four. 

♦ This • armed sloop,' which required a division of barges to capttire 
qtoonted one fcitr-poundei-, and coFi-ied eiglit mea. 


During this time captain Montressor's division was making 
every possible exertion to close with the enemy, and, with the as- 
sistance of the other boats, then joined by captain Roberts, in 
about five minutes we had possession of the whole of the flotilla. 

I have to lament the loss of many of my brave and gallant 
companions, who gloriously fell in this attack; but considering 
the great strength of the enemy's vessels, (whose force under- 
neath described) and their state of preparation, we have by no 
means suffered so severely as might have been expected. 

I am under the greatest obligations to the officers, seamen 
and marines, I had the honour to command on this occasion, to 
whose gallantry and exertions the service is indebted for the capture 
of these vessels; any comments of mine would fall short of the 
praise due to them. I am especially indebted to captains Mon- 
tressor and Roberts, for their advice and assistance. They are 
entitled to more than I can say of them, and have my best thanks 
for the admirable style in which they pushed on with their divi- 
sions to the capture of the remainder of the enemy's flotilla. 

In an expedition of this kind, vvhere so many were concerned, 
and so much personal exertion and bravery was displayed, I find 
it impossible to particularize every individual who distuiguished 
himself, and deserves to be well-spoken of; but I feel it my duty 
to mention those whose behaviour fell immediately under my own 

Lieutenant George Pratt, second of the Seahorse, who com- 
n^jinded that ship's boats, and was in the same boat with me, con- 
ducted himself to that admiration which I cannot sufficiently ex- 
press. In his attempt to board the enemy he was several timej» 
severely wounded, and at last so dangerously, that I fear the ser- 
vice will be deprived of this gallant and promising young officer. 

I cannot omit to mention also the conduct of lieutenants Tat- 
nell and Roberts, of the Tonnant, particularly the former, who, 
after having his boat sunk alongside, got into another, and gallant- 
ly pushed on to the attack of the remainder of the flotilla. Lieu- 
tenant Roberts was wounded in closing with the enemy, 

I have the honour to be, &c. 
Nicholas Locxyeb, CafitaxQ. 

cxlii APPENDIX. 

No. 1 — Gun-vessel, I long twenty-four-pounder, 4 twelve-pound 
carronadcs, and 4 swivels, with a complement of 45 men; 
captain Jones, commodore. 

No. 2 — Gun-vessel, 1 long thirty-two-pounder, 6 long six -pound- 
ers, 2 five-inch howitzers, and 4 swivels, with a complement 
of 45 men; lieutenant M'lves [M'Keever.] 

No. 3 — Gun-vessel, 1 long twenty-four-pounder, 4 long six-pound- 
ers, and 4 swivels, with a complement of 45 men. 

No. 4 — Gun-vessel, 1 long twenty-four- pounder, 4 twelve-pound 
carronades, with a complement of 45 men. 

No. 5 — Gun-vessel, 1 long twenty-four-pounder, 4 twelve-pound 
carronades, with a complement of 45 men. 

No, 6 — Armed sloop, 1 long six pounder, 2 twelve-pound car- 
ronades, with a complement of 20 men. 

Nicholas Lockyer, Captai7i, 

J list of killed and nvounded in the boats of his majesty's ships, at 
the cafitiire of the American gun vessels, near JVeit> Orleans. 

Tonnant — 1 able seaman, 2 ordinary seamen, killed; 1 lieutenant, 
4 midshipmen, 4 able seamen, 4 ordinary seamen, 2 lands- 
men, 3 private marines, wounded. 

No^.ge — 1 quarter-master, killed; 1 master's-mate, 4 able seamen, 
3 ordinary seamen, 1 private marine, wounded. 

Bedford — 1 seamen, killed; 2 lieutenants, 1 master's-mate, 2 sea- 
men, wounded. 

Uoyal Oak — 1 seaman, wounded. 

Ramilies — 4 seamen, killed; 9 seamen, wounded. 

Armide — 1 seaman, killed. 

Cydnus — 1 midshipman, 1 seaman, 2 private marines, wounded. 

Seahorse — 1 midshipman, 1 volunteer of the first class, 1 able sea- 
man, 1 ordinary seaman, 1 landman, 4 private marines, killed; 
- 1 lieutenant of marines, 7 able seamen, 7 ordinary seamen, 
1 landman, 4 private marines, wounded. 

Traave — 1 volunteer of the first class, 1 captain of the foretop; 
killed; 1 private marine, wounded. 

Sophie — 1 captain, wounded. 

Meteor — 3 seamen, wounded. 

Belle Poulc — 2 seamen, wounded. 

Gorgon — I master's mate, wounded. 

APPENDIX. cxliii 

Total — 3 midshipmen, 13 seamen, 1 private marine, killed; 1 cap- 
tain, 4 lieutenants, 1 lieutenant of marines, 3 master's-mates, 
7 midshipmen, 50 seamen, 1 1 marines, wounded. 

No. 2. 

Letter from major-general Keane to major-general Packenham. 

Camp on the left bank of the Mississippi, nine miles from JVeiv Orleans, 

December 26, 1814-. 

I HAVE the honour to inform you, that between the 17th and 
22d inst. the troops destined for the attack of Ncav Orleans, were 
collected at Isle aux Poix, which is at the entrance of the Pearl 

Having learnt that it was possible to effect a landing at the 
head of the bayou Catalan, which runs into lake Borgne, I direct- 
ed major Forrest, assistant quarter-master-general, to have it re« 
connoitered. Lieutenant Peddie, of that department, accompanied 
by the hon. captain Spenser, of the navy, ascertained on the night 
of the 18th, that boats could reach the head of the bayou, from 
which a communication might be made to the high road on the 
left bank of the Mississippi, leading to New Orleans. 

On the morning of the 23d, every arrangement being made 
by vice-admiral the hon. sir Alexander Cochrane, I determined 
to attempt it. The light brigade, composed of the 85th and 95th 
regiments, captain Lane's rocketeers, one hundred sappers and 
miners, and the 4th regiment as a support, the whole under the 
command of colonel Thornton, were placed in the boats, and the 
21st, 44th, and 93d regiments, under colonel Brooke, and a large 
proportion of artillery, under major Munro, were embarlied in 
small vessels. 

At ten A. M. on the 22d, we sailed from Pearl river, and 
i-eached the head of the bayou at day-light next morning. A land- 
ing was immediately effected without any other opposition than 
the country presented. Captain Blanchard, of the royal engineers, 
an the course of tM'o hours opened a communication through seve- 
ral fields of reeds, intersected by deep muddy ditches, bordered 
by a low swampy wood. Colonel Thoriiton then advanced and 
gained the high road, taking up a position with the right resting 

cxliv APPENDIX. 

on the road, and the left on the Mississippi. In this situation I in- 
tended to remain until the boats returned for the rest of the troops 
to the vessels, some of which grounded at a great distance. 

At about eight o'clock in the evening, when the men, much 
fatigued by the length of time they had been in the boats, were 
asleep in their bivouac, a heavy flanking fire of round and grape 
shot was opened upon them, by a large schooner and two gun-ves- 
sels, which had dropped down the river from the town, and an- 
chored abreast of our fires; — immediate steps were necessary te 
cover the men, and colonel Thornton in the most prompt and ju- 
dicious manner, placed his brigade under the inward slope of the 
bank of the river, as did also lieutenant-colonel Brooke, of the 4th 
regiment, behind some buildings which were near that corps. 
This movement was so rapid that the troops suffered no more than 
a single casualty. 

The three-pounders, being the only guns up, the success of 
a few twelve-pound rockets, directed by captain Lane, was tried 
against these vessels; but the ground on which it was necessary to 
lay them not being even, they were found not to answer, and their 
firing was ceased. 

A most vigorous attack was then made on the advanced 
front and right flank picquets, the former of the 95th under cap- 
.ain Hallan, the latter the 85th under captain Schaw; these ofiicers 
».nd their respective picquets, conducted themselves with firm- 
less, and checked the enemy for a considerable time; byt renew- 
ng their attack with a large force, and pressing at these points, 
colonel Thornton judged it necessary to move up the remainder 
of both corps. The 85th regiment was commanded by brevet ma- 
jor Gubbins, whose conduct cannot be too much commended; on the 
approach of his regiment to the point of attack, the enemy, favour- 
ed by the darkness of the night, concealed themselves under a high 
fence which separated the fields, and calling to the men as friends, 
under pretence of being part of their own force, offered to assist 
them in getting over, which was no sooner accomplished, than the 
85th found itself in the midst of very superior numbers, who, dis- 
covering themselves, called on the regiment immediately to sur- 
render — the answer was an instantaneous attack; a more extraor- 
dinary conflict has perhaps never occurred, absolutely hand te 
hand both officers and men. It terminated in the repulse of the 


gnerny, with 'the capture of thirty prisoners. A similar finesse was 
attempted with the ysth regiment, which met the same treatment 

The enemy finding his reiterated attacks were repulsed by 
colonel Thornton, at half past ten o'clock advanced a large column 
against our centre; perceiving his intention, I directed colonel 
Stovin to order lieutenant-colonel Dale, with one hundred and 
thirty men of the 93d regiment, who had just reached the camp, 
to^Bove forward and uie the bayonet, holding the 4th regiment in 
hand, formed in line, as my last reserve. Colonel Dale endea- 
voured to execute the orders, but the crafty enemy would not meet 
him, seeing the steadiness of his small body, gave it a heavy fire, 
and quickly retired. Colonel Brooke, with four companies of the 
21st regiment, fortunately appeared at that moment on our right 
flank, and sufficiently secured it from further attack. 

The enemy now determined on making a last effort, and col^ 
lecting the whole of his force, formed an extensive line, and moved 
directly against the light brigade. At first this line drove in all 
the advanced posts, but colonel Thornton, whose noble exertions 
had guaranteed all former success, was at hand: he rallied his 
brave comrades round him, and moving forward with a firm de- 
termination of charging, appalled the enemy, who, from the les- 
son he had received on the same ground in the early part of the 
evening, thought it prudent to retire, and did not again dare to ad- 
vance. It was now twelve o'clock, and the firing ceased on both sides. 

From the best information I can obtain, the enemy's force 
amoynted to five thousand men, and was commanded by major- 
general Jackson; judging from the number left on the field, his 
loss must have been severe. I now beg leave to enclose a list of 
our casualties on that night, and have only to hope it will appear 
to you that every officer and soldier on shore did his duty. 

To sir Alexander Cochrane I feel particularly obliged for 
his very friendly counsel and ready compliance with every wish I 
expressed respecting the service or welfare of the troops. 

To rear-admiral Malcom, and the several captains employed 
in the landing) &c. I confess the greatest obligation. I must leave 
it to the vice-admiral to do them the justice they so much deserve 
for I cannot find words to express the exertions made by every 
branch of the navy, since the period of our arrival on this f:oasi/ 


during the day, but with little effect. In the evening the trpopa 
were retired beyond reach of" the enemy's guns, and directed to 
hut themselves. Ground was also marked out for a redoubt on 
Dur flank, and the guns on our left covered them from the enemy's 

From the 28th to the 31st every exertion was made to get 
lip from the ships ten eighteen-pound and four twenty-four-pound 
carronades, with the ammunition and stores. These were brought 
up the canal in boats to within a quarter of a mile of the main 
road, and thence transported on carriages of the country or our 
own limbers, by the seamen, wath incredible labour. The wea- 
ther was fortunately fair, and the road consequently good. 

The enemy, during this period, established two batteries of 
one gun each on the opposite bank of the river, and occasionally 
threw shot into our camp with some effect. 

Four eighteen-pounders were placed in a battery formed 
with hogsheads of sugar, on the main road, to fire upon the ship 
if she dropped down the river. 

Preparations were also made to establish batteries, one of 
six eighteen-pounders to break the enemy's line, and the four 
twenty-four-pound carronades, and the field-gun and howitzers 
were to keep the fire of the enemy under, whilst the troops were 
to be moved forward to storm the works so soon as a practicable 
breach was effected. 

On the night of the 31st December working parties were 
employed in throwing up the batteries and getting in the guns. 
In this they were most materially assisted by the seamen under 
captain sir Thomas Troubridge: before daylight the whole was 
completed, and the batteries ready to open. 

The morning of the 1st January was foggy, and objects could 
not be discerned at any distance until nine o'clock, when our bat- 
teries opened. The enemy soon returned our fire, and a mutual 
cannonade took place: — Our batteries made little impression upon 
the enemy's parapet. The order for the assault was therefore 
not carried into effect. The troops remained in this advanced 
position, and orders were given to retire the guns in the night. 
The evening changed to wet, and the ground became in conse- 
quence so deep, thac it required the exertions of the whole army 

APPENDIX. cxlix 

J.S a working party, aided by the seamen, to retire the guns a 
-hort distance before daylight. The army then fell back to the 
!|Josition it occupied on the 31st. 

C. R. Forrest, A. Q. R.. M. G. 

No. 4. 


Camp in front of the enemy's line before JVeiu Orleans, 

January 10, 1815. 
My Lord, ^ 

It becomes my duty to lay before your lordship the proceed- 
ings of the force lately employed on the coast of Louisiana, un- 
der the command of major-general sir E. M. Pakenham, K. B. 
and acting in concert with vice-admiral the honourable sir A. 
Cochrane, K. B. 

The report which I enclose from major-general Keane will 
put your lordship in possession of the occuri-ences which took 
place until the arrival of major-general the hon. sir E. M. Paken- 
ham, to assume the command: from that period I send an extract 
of the journal of major Forrest, assistant-quarter-master-general, 
xip to the time of joining the troops (which sailed on the 26th 
October last under my command) and which was on the 6th Ja- 
nuary; and from that period I shall detail, as well as I am able, 
the subsequent events. 

I found the army in position, in a flat country, Avith the 
Mississippi on its left, and a thick extensive wood on its right, 
and open to its front, from which the enemy's line was quite dis- 

It seems sir E. Pakenham had waited for the arrival of the 
fusileers and the 43d regiment, in order to make a general attack 
upon the enemy's line; and on the 8th the hrmy was formed for 
that object. 

In order to give your lordship as clear a view as I can, I 
shall state the position of the enemy. On the left bank of the ri- 
ver it was simply a straight line of a front of about one thousand 
yards, with a parapet, the right resting on the river and the left 
on a wood, which had been rendered impracticable for any body 


of troops to pass. This line was strengthened by flank works, 
and had a canal of four feet deep, but not always of an equal 
width; it was supposed to narrow towards their left. About eight 
heavy guns were in position on this line. The Mississippi is here 
about eight hundred yards wide, and they had on the right bank a 
heavy battery of twelve guns, which enfiladed the whole front of 
the position on the left bank. 

Preparations were made on oxir side with very considerable 
labour, to clear out and widen a canal that communicated with a 
stream by which the boats had passed up to the place of disem- 
barkation, to open it into the Mississippi, by which means troops 
could be got- over to the right bank, and the co-operation of arm- 
ed boats would be secured. 

The disposition for the attack was as follows: a corps con- 
sisting of the 85th light infantry, two hundred seamen, and four 
hundred marines, the 5th West-India regiment, and four pieces 
of artillery, under the command of colonel Thornton of the 85th, 
was to pass over during the night, and move along the right bank 
towai'ds New Orleans, clearing its front, until it reached the flank- 
ing battery of the enemy on that side, which it had orders to cany. 

The assailing of the enemy's works in front of us was to be 
made by the brigade composed of the 4th, 21st and 44th, under 
major-general Gibbs, and the 3d brigade, consisting of the 93d, 
two companies of the 95th, and two companies of the fusileers, 
and the 43d, imder major-general Keane. Some black troops 
were destined to skirmish in the wood on the right; — the princi- 
pal attack to be made by major-general Gibbs; — the first brigade 
and the 43d formed the reserve; — the attacking columns were to be 
provided with scaling-ladders and rafts; — the w^hole to be at their 
stations by daylight. An advanced battery in our front of six 
eighteen- pounders was thrown up during the night, about eight 
hundred yards fropi the enemy's line. The attack was to be made 
at the earliest hour, ynlooked for difficulties, increased by the 
falling of the river, occasioned considerable delay in the entrance 
of the armed boats; and tliose destined to land colonel Thornton's 
corps, by which four or five hours were lost, and it was not until 
half past five in the morning that the first division, consisting of 
five hundred men, were over. The ensemble of the general move- 


ment was lost, and in a point which was of the last importance to 
the attack of the left bank of the river, although colonel Thoi-n- 
ton, as your lordship will sec by his report, which I enclose, ably 
executed in every particular his instructions, and fully justified 
the confidence the commander of the forces placed in his abilities. 
The delay attending that corps occasioned some on the left bank, 
and the attack did not take place till the columns were discerni- 
ble from the enemy's line at more than two hundred yards dis- 
tance. As they advanced a continued and most galling fire was 
opened from'every part of their line, and from the battery on the 
right bank. 

The brave commander of the forces, who never in his life 
could refrain from being at the post of honour, and sharing the 
danger to which the troops were exposed, as soon as from his 
station he had made the signal for the troops to advance, gallop- 
ed on to the front to animate them by his presence, and he was 
seen with his hat off encouraging them on the crest of the glacis; 
it was there (almost at the same time) that he received two 
wounds, one in his knee, and another, which was almost instantly 
fatal, in his body: he fell in the arms of major M'Dougall, aid-de- 
camp. The eff'ect of this in the sight of the troops, together with 
major-general Gibbs and major-general Keane being both borne 
off wounded at the same time, with many other commanding offi- 
cers, and further, the preparations made to aid in crossing the 
ditch not being so forward as they ought to have been, from, per- 
haps, the men being wounded who were carrying them, caused a 
wavering in the column, which in such a situation became irrepa- 
rable; and as I advanced with the reserve, at about two hundred 
and fifty yards from the line, I had the mortification to observe the 
whole falling back upon me in the greatest confusion. 

In this situation, finding that there had been no impression 
made, — that though many men had reached tlie ditch, and were 
either drowned or obliged to surrender, and that it was impossible 
to restore order in the regiments where they were, — I placed thc- 
rcserve in position,* until I could obtain such information as to de- 

* This position was a supine one. The reserve, and all those of the 
advanced coliunns, who escaped slaughter, were ordered to crouch down in 
the stubble, where they lay flat upon their faces till night. 'I'his new evolu- 
tion was executed in order to avoid the fire of our artillerv., 


termine me how to act to the best ot. my judgment, and whether 
or not I should resume the attack, and if so, I felt it could be donfe 
only by the reserve. The confidence I have in the corps compo- 
sinjj it would have encouraged me greatly, though not without 
loss, which might have made the attempt of serious consequence, 
as I know it was the opinion of the late distinguished commander 
of the forces, that the carrying of the first line would not be the 
least arduous service. After making the best reflections I Avas 
capable of, I kept the ground the troops then held, and went to 
meet vice-admiral sir A. Cochrane, and to tell him that under all 
the circumstances, I did not think it proper to renew the attack 
on that day. At about ten o'clock I learnt of the success of colo- 
nel Thornton's corps on the right bank. I sent the commanding 
officer of the artillery, colonel Dickson, to examine the situation 
of the battery, and report if it was tenable; but informing me that 
he did not think it could be held with security by a smaller corps 
than two thousand men, I consequently ordered lieutenant-colonel 
Gubbins, on whom the command had devolved (colonel Thornton 
being wounded) to retire. 

The army remained in position until night, in order to gain 
time to destroy the eighteen-pounder battery we had constructed 
the preceding night in advance, I then gave orders for the troops 
to resume the ground they had occvipied previous to the attack. 

Our loss has been very severe, but I trust it will not be con- 
sidered, notwithstanding the failure, that this army has suffered the 
military character to be tarnished. I am satisfied, had I thought 
it right to renew the attack, that the troops would have advanced 
with cheerfulness. The services of both army and navy, since 
their landing on this coast, have been arduous beyond any thing I 
have ever witnessed, and difficulties have been got over with an 
assiduity and perseverance beyond all example by all ranks, and 
the most hearty co-operation has existed between the two services. 

It is not necessary for me to expatiate to you upon the loss 
the army has sustained in major-general the hon. sir E. Paken- 
ham, commander-in-chief of this force, nor could I in adequate 
terms. His services and merits are so well known, that I have 
only, in common with the whole army, to express my sincere re- 
gret, and which may be supposed at present to come peculiarly 
home to me. 

APPENDIX. cliii 

Major-general Gibbs, who died of his wounds the following 
day, and major-general Keane, who wei-e both carried off the field 
within twenty yards of the glacis, at the head of their brigade^ 
sufficiently speak at such a moment how they were conducting 
themselves. I am happy to say major-general Keane is doing 

Captain Wylly, of the fusileers, military secretary of the 
late commander of the forces, will have the honour of delivering 
to your lordship these despatches. Knowing how much he en- 
joyed his esteem, and was in his confidence from a long experi- 
ence of his talents, I feel I cannot do less than pay this tribute to 
what I conceive would be the wishes of his late general, and to 
recornmend him strongly to your lordship's protection. 
I am, Sec. 
(Signed) John Lambert. 

Return of casualties on the 8t/i Januarij, 1815. 

General staff — 1 captain, 1 lieutenant; wounded one major-general. 

Royal artillery — 3 rank and file killed; 10 rank and file wounded. 

Royal engineers, sappers and miners — 3 rank and file wounded. 

4th foot — 1 ensign, 2 serjeants, 39 rank and file killed; 1 lieute« 
nant-colonel, 1 major, 5 captains, 1 1 lieutenants, 4 ensigns, 1 
staff, 9 Serjeants, 222 rank and file wounded; I lieutenant, I 
Serjeant, 53 rank and file missing. 

7th foot — I major, 1 captain, I serjeant, 38 rank and file killed; 2 
captains, 2 lieutenants, 2 serjeants, 47 rank and file wounded. 

21st foot — 1 major, 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 2 serjeants, 65 rank 
and file killed; 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 lieutenants, 6 
serjeants, 1 drummer, 144 rank and file wounded; 2 captains, 
7 lieutenants, 8 serjeants, 2 drummecs, 2 1 7 rank and file missing. 

43d foot — 2 serjeants, 1 drummer, 8 rank and file killed; 2 lieute- 
nants, 3 serjeants, 3 di'ummers, 34 rank and file wounded; 1 
captain, 5 rank and file missing. 

44th foot — 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 1 serjeant, 32 rank and file kil- 
led; 1 captain, 5 lieutenants, 3 ensigns, 5 serjeants, 149 rank 
and file wounded; 1 lieutenant, 2 serjeants, l drummer, 76 rank 
and file missing. 



85th foot— 2 rank and file killed; I lieutenant-colonel, 1 Ueutenanl, 
3 Serjeants, 3 drummers, 34 rank and file wounded; 1 rank and 
file missins^. 

93d foot — 1 lieutenant-colonel, 2 captains, 2 serjeants, 58 rank 
and file killed; 4 captains, 5 lieutenants, 17 serjeants, 3 
drummers, 348 rank and file wounded; 3 lieutenants, 2 ser- 
jeants, 1 drummer, 99 rank and file missing. 

95th foot— 1 Serjeant, 10 rank and file killed; 2 captains, 5 lieute- 
nants, 5 serjeants, 89 rank and file wounded. 

Royal marines~2 rank and file killed; 1 captain, 2 lieutenants, 1 
Serjeant, 12 rank and file wounded. 

Royal navy — 2 seamen killed; 1 captain, 1 8 seamen wounded. 

1st West-India regiment — 5 rank and file killed; 1 captain, 2 lieu- 
tenants, 2 ensigns, 2 serjfeants, 1 6 rank and file wounded; 1 rank 
and file missing. 

5th West-India regiment — 1 serjeant wounded. 

Total loss — 1 major-general, 1 lieutenant-colonel, 2 majors, 5 cap- 
tains, 2 lieutenants, 2 ensigns, 1 1 serjeants, 1 drummer, 266 
rank and file killed; 2 major-generals, 3 lieutenant-colonels, 2 
majors, 18 captains, 38 lieutenants, U ensigns, 1 staff, 54 ser- 
jeants, 9 drummers, 1,126 rank and file wounded; 3 captains, 
12 lieutenants, 13 serjeants, 4 drummers, 452 rank and file 

A'ames of officers killed, wounded and missing. 


General staff — Major-general the honourable sir Edward Paken- 
ham, K. B. commander of the forces; captain Thomas Wilkin- 
son, 85th regiment, major of brigade. 

4th foot — Ensign William CroAve. 

7lh foot — Major George King, captain George Henry. 

21st foot— Major John Anthony Whittaker, captain Robert Ren- 
ny (lieutenant colonel,) and lieutenant Donald M'Donald. 

44th foot — Lieutenant Rowland Davies, ensign M. M'Loskey, 

93d foot— Lieutenant-colonel Robert Dale, captain Thomas Hick- 
ins, and captain Alexander Mairhead, 


General staff. — Major-general Gibbs, severely (since dead;) ma- 
jor-general Keane, severely; captain Henry Thomas Shaw, 4th 
foot (brigade-major) slightly; lieutenant Delacy Evans (3d dra- 
goons, deputy-assistant-quarter-master-general) severely. 
4th foot — lieutenant-colonel Francis Brooke, slightly; major A. D. 
Faunce (lieutenant-colonel) severely; captain J. Williamson 
(major) severely; captain T. Jones (lieutenant-colonel) severely, 
(since dead;) captain J. W. Fletcher, severely; captain R. Er- 
skine severely; captain D. S. Craig> slightly; lieutenants Ellis> 
Parnal, Hopkins, and J. Salvin, slightly; lieutenants W. H. 
Brook, B. Martin, and G. Richardson, severely; lieutenant P. 
Boulby and G. H. Hearn, slightly; lieutenants W. Squire, C. 
H. Fai'rington, J. Marshall, and H. Andrews, severely; ensign 
Alexander Gerard, slightly; ensign Thomas Benwell, severely; 
ensigns J. S. Fernandaz, and E. Newton, slightly; lieutenant 
and adjutant W. Richardson, slightly. 

7th foot — captain J. J. A. Mullins, slightly; captain W. E. Page, 
severely; lieutenant M. Higgins, severely; lieutenant C.Lorentz, 

21st foot— Lieutenant-colonel W. Patterson (colonel) severely 
(not dangerously;) major A. J. Ross, severely; lieutenant J. 
Waters, severely; second-lieutenant A. Geddes, severely. 

43d foot — lieutenant J. Meyricke, severely (left leg amputated;) 
lieutenant D. Campbell, severely. 

44th foot — Captain H. Debbieg (lieutenant-colonel) slightly; lieu- 
tenant W. Maclean, slightly; lieutenants R. Smith, H. Brush, 
R. Phelan, and W. Jones, severely; ensigns J. White, B. L. 
Haydcn, and J. Donaldson, severely. 

85th foot — Lieutenant-colonel W. Thornton (colonel) severely, 
(not dangerously;) lieutenant B. C. Urquhart, severely (not 

93d foot — captains R. Ryan, P. O. K. Boulger, A. M'Kenzie, and 
H. Ellis, severely; lieutenants H. H. McLean, R. Spark, and 1). 
Macpherson, slightly; C. Gordon, and J. Hay, severely. 

95th foot — Captain J. Travers, severely; captain N. Travers^ 
slightly; lieutenants J. Reynolds, sir J. Ribton, J. Gosset, W. 
Blackhouse, and Barker, severely. 

clvi APPtlN^DIX. 

Royal marines — Captain G. Elliott, slightly; lieutenants H. Elliott, 
and C. Morgan, slightly. 

1st West-India regiment — Captain Isles, severely; lieutenants 
M'Donald and Morgan, severely; ensign Millar, slightly; ensign 
Pilkington, severely. 

Royal navy — Captain Money, of H. M. ship Trave, severely; mid- 
shipman M. Woolcombe, Tonnant, severely. 

93d foot — Volunteer John Wilson, slightly. 


4th foot — Lieutenant E. Field, severely wounded and taken prisoner, 

•21st foot — Captain J. M'Haffie (major;) captain A. Kidd; lieute- 
nants J. Stewart and A. Armstrong, taken prisoners; lieute- 
nants J. Brady, wounded and taken prisoner; lieutenant J. Lea- 
vock, taken prisoner; lieutenant R. Carr, wounded and taken 
prisoner; lieutenant J. S. M. Fonhlangue, taken prisoner; second- 
lieutenant P. Quin, wounded and taken pi-isoner. 

43d foot — Captain U. Simpson, severely wounded and taken pri- 

44th foot — Lieutenant W. Knight. 

93d foot — Lieutenants G. Munro, J. M'Donald and Graves, se- 
verely wbunded; volunteer B. Johnson. 

Fred. Stoven, Lieut. Col. Dep. Adjt. Gen. 



43d foot — 1 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, (E. D'Arcy, severe- 
ly, both legs amputated,) 1 serjeant, 2 rank and file wounded. 
85th foot — 1 rank and file wounded. 
Total — 1 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 1 serjeant, 3 I'ank and 

file wounded. 

Fred. Stovei*, Lieut. Col. Deji. Adjt. Gent 


Taken from the enemy by a detachment of the army acting on 
the right bank of the Mississippi, under the command of colonel 


Redoubt, Right Bank of the Mississippi, Jan. 8th, 1815. 

1 brass ten-inch howitzer, 2 brass four-pounder field-pieces, 
3 twenty-four-pounders, 3 twelve-pounders, 6 nine-pounders, I 
twelve-pounder carronade, not mounted. 


On the howitzer is inscribed, " Taken at the surrender of 

York-Town, 1781." 

J. Mitchell, Major., Ca^it. Roijal Jrt, 

No. 5. 

Letter from lieutenant -colonel Thornton to major-general Paken- 


liedotibt on the right bank of the Mississippi, January 8, 1815. 

I LOSE no time in reporting to you the success of the troops 
which you were yesterday pleased to place under my orders, with 
the view of attacking the enemy's redoubt and position on this 
side of the river. 

It is within your own knowledge, that the difficulty had been 
found so extremely great of dragging the boats through the canal, 
which had been lately cut with so much labour, to the Mississippi, 
that, notwithstanding every possible exertion for the purpose, we 
were unable to proceed across the river until eight hours after the 
time appointed, and even then, with only a third part of the force 
which you had allotted for the service. 

The current was so strong, and the difficulty, in consequence 
of keeping the boats together, so great, that we only reached this 
side of the river at day-break, and by the time the troops were 
disembarked, which was effected without any molestation from the 
enemy, I perceived by the flashes of the guns that your attack had 
already commenced. 

This circumstance made me extremely anxious to move for- 
ward, to prevent the destructive enfilading fire, which would, of 
course, be opened on your columns from the enemy's batteries on 
this side; and I proceeded with the greatest possible expedition, 
strengthened and secured on my right flank by three gun-boats, 
under captain Roberts of the navy, whose zeal and exertions on 
this occasion were as unremitted as his arrangements in embark- 
ing the troops, and in keeping the boats together in crossing the 
river, were excellent. 

The enemy made no opposition to our advance, until we 
reached a piquet, posted behind a bridge, at about five hundred 
paces from the house in the Orange Grove, and secured by a small 
work, apparently just thrown up. 

clviii APPENDIX. 


This picquet was very soon forced and driven in by a division 
of the 85th regiment, under captain Schaw, of that regiment, form- 
ing the advanced-guard, and whose mode of attack for the purpose 
was prompt and judicious to a degree. 

Upon my arrival at the Orange Grove, I had an opportunity 
of reconnoitring, at about seven hundred yards, the enemy's po- 
sition, which I found to be a very formidable redoubt on the bank 
of the river, with the right flank secured by an iutrenchment ex- 
tending back to a thick wood, and its line protected by an inces- 
sant fire of grape. Under such circumstances it seemed to me to 
afford the best prospect of success, to endeavour to turn his right 
at the wood; and I accordingly detached two divisions of the 85th 
regiment, under brevet lieutenant-colonel Gubbins, to effect that 
object; which he accomplished with his usual zeal and judgment; 
whilst one hundred sailors, under captain Money, of the royal navy, 
who, I am sorry to say, was severely wounded, but whose conduct 
was particularly distinguished on the occasion, threatened the ene- 
my's left, supported by the division of the 85th regiment, under 
captain Schaw. 

When these divisions had gained their proper position, I de- 
ployed the column composed of two divisions of the 85th regi- 
ment, under major Deshon, whose conduct I cannot sufficiently 
recommend, and about one hundred men of the royal marines, un- 
der major Adair, also deserving of much commendation, and mov- 
ed forward in line, to the attack of the centre of the intrenchment. 

At first the enemy, confident in his own security, showed a 
good countenance, and kept up a heavy fire, but the determination 
of the troops which I had the honour to command, to overcome all 
difficulties, compelled him to a rapid and disorderly flight, leaving 
in our possession his redoubts, batteries, and position, with sixteen 
pieces of ordnance, and the colours of the New Orleans regiment 
of militia. 

Of the ordnance taken, I enclose the specified return of mar- 
jor Mitchell, of the royal artillery, who accompanied and afforded 
me much assistance, by his able directions of the firing of some 
rockets, it not having been found practicable, in the first instance, 
to bring over the artillery attached to his command. 

I shall have the honour of sending you a return of the casu- 
alties that have occurred, as soon as it is possible to collect them, 


but I am happy to say they are extremely inconsiderable when 
the strength of the position, and the number of the enemy are con- 
sidered, which our prisoners (about thirty in number) agree in 
stating from fifteen hundred to two thousand men, commanded by 
general Morgan. 

I should be extremely wanting both in justice and in grati- 
tude, were I not to request your particular notice of the ofhcers 
whose names I have mentioned, as well as of major Blanchard, of 
the royal engineers, and lieutenant Peddie, of the 27th regiment, 
deputy assistant-quarler-master- general, whose zeal and intelli- 
gence I found of the greatest service. 

The wounded men are meeting with every degree of atten- 
tion and humanity by the medical arrangements of staff surgeon 

The enemy's camp is supplied with a great abundance of 
provisions, and a very large store of all sorts of ammunition. 

On moving to the attack I received a wound, which shortly 
after my reaching the redoubt, occasioned me such pain and stiff- 
ness, that I have been obliged to give over the command of the 
troops on this side to lieutenant-colonel Gubbins, of the 85th light 
infantryj but as he has obtained some re-enforcement since the at- 
tack, of sailors and marines, and has taken the best precautions to 
cover and secure his position, I will be answerable, from my 
knowledge of his judgment and experience, that he will retain it, 
until your pleasure and further orders shall be communicated to 

1 have the honour to be, &c. 
(Signed) W. Thornton. 

No. 6. 

Letter from vice-admiral Cochrane to John Wiiso?i Croker^ esq. 

Armide, off hie au Chat, January 18, 1815. 

An unsuccessful attempt to gain possession of the enemy's 
lines near New Orleans on the 8th instant, having left me to de- 
plore the fall of major-general the hon. Sir Edward Pakenham, 
and major-general Gibbs, and deprived the service of the present 
assistance of major-general Keane, who is severely wounded, I 


send the Plantagenet to England, to convey a despatch from 
major-general Lambert, upon whom the command of the army 
has devolved, and to inform my lords commissioners of the admi- 
ralty of the operations of the combined forces since my arrival 
upon this coast. 

The accompanying letters, Nos. 163 and 169, of the 7th and 
16th ultimo, will acquaint their lordships of the proceedings of 
the squadron to the 15th December. 

The great distance from the anchorage of the frigates and 
troop-ships to the bayou Catalan, which, from the best informa- 
tion we could gain, appeared to offer the most secure, and was, 
indeed, the only unprotected spot whereat to effect a disembarka- 
tion; and our means, even with the addition of the captured ene- 
my's gun-vessels, only affording us transport for half the army, 
exclusive of the supplies that were required, it became necessary, 
in order to have support for the division that would first land, to 
assemble the whole at some intermediate position, from whence 
the second division could be re-embarked in light vessels brought 
into the lake, as near the bayou as might be practicable, and re- 
main there until the boats could land the first division and return. 
Upon the 16th, therefore, the advance, commanded by colo- 
nel Thornton, of the 85th regiment, was put into the gun-vessels 
and boats, and captain Gordon of the Seahorse proceeded with 
them, and took post upon the Isle aux Poix, a small swampy spot 
at the mouth of the Pearl river, about thirty miles from the an- 
chorage, and nearly the same distance from the bayou, where ma- 
jor-general Keanc, rear-admiral Codrington, and myself, joined 
them on the following day; meeting the gun- vessels and boats re- 
turning to the shipping for troops and supplies of stores and pro- 

The hon. captain Spencer, of the Carron, and lieutenant Ped- 
dy, of the quarter-master-general's department, who were sent to 
reconnoiti'e the bayou Catalan, now returned with a favourable re- 
port of its position for disembarking the army; having, with their 
guide, pulled up in a canoe to the head of the bayou, a distance 
of eight miles, and landed within a mile and a half of the high 
road to, and about six miles below New Orleans, where they cros- 
sed the road without meeting with any interruption, or perceiving 
the least preparation on the part of the enemy. 


The severe changes of the weather, from rain to fresh gales 
•and hard frost, retardhig the boats m their repeated passages to 
and from the shipping, it was not until the 21st that (leaving on 
board the greater part of the two black regiments and the dra- 
goons) we could assemble troops and supplies sufficient to admit 
of our proceeding; and on that day we recommenced the embarka- 
tion of the second division in the gun-vessels, such of the hired 
craft as could be brought into the lakes, and the Anaconda, which 
by the greatest exertions had been got over the shoal passage. 

On the 22d these vessels being filled with about two thousand 
four hundred men, the advance, consisting of about one thousand 
six hundred men, got into the boats, and at eleven o'clock the 
whole started, with a fair wind, to cross Lac Borgne. We had 
not, however, proceeded above two miles when the Anaconda 
grounded, and the hired craft and gun-vessels taking the ground 
. in succession before they had got within ten miles of the bayou; 
the advance pushed on, and at about midnight reached the en- 

A piquet, which the enemy had taken the precaution to place 
there, being surprised a -d cut off, major-general Keane, with 
rear-admiral Malcolm and the advance, moved up the bayou, and 
having effected a landing at day-break, in the course of the day 
was enabled to take up a position across the main road to New 
Orleans, between the river Mississippi and the bayou. 

In this situation, about an hour after sun-set, and before the 
boats could return with the second division, an enemy's schooner 
•f fourteen guns, and an armed ship of sixteen guns, having drop- 
ped down the Mississippi, the former commenced a brisk can- 
nonading, which was followed up by an attack of the whole of the 
American army. Their troops were, however, beaten off, and 
obliged to retire with considerable loss, and major-general Keane 
advanced somewhat beyond his former position. As soon as the 
second division was brought up, the gun-vessels and boats re- 
turned for the remainder of the troops, the small armed seamen 
and marines of the squadron, and such supplies as were required. 

On the 26th, major-general sir E. Pakenham and major- 
general Gibbs arrived at head-quarters, when the former took 
command of the army. 


The schooner which had continued at intervals to annoy the 
troops, having been burnt on the 27th by hot shot from our artil- 
lery, and the ship having warped farther up the river, the follow- 
ing day the general moved forward to within gun-shot of an in- 
trenchment which the enemy had newly thrown up, extending 
across the cultivated ground from the Mississippi to an impassa- 
ble swampy wood on his left, a distance of about one thousand 

It being thought necessary to bring heavy artillery against 
this work, and also against the ship which had cannonaded the 
army when advancing, guns were brought up from the shipping, 
and on the 1st instant batteries were opened; but our fire not 
having the desired effect, the attack was deferred until the arrival 
of the troops under major-general Lambert, which were daily ex- 

Major-general Lambert, in the Vengeur, with a convoy of 
transports, having on board the 7th and 43d regiments, reached 
fehe outer anchorage on the 1st, and this re-enforcement was all 
brought up to the advance on the 6th instant, while preparations 
were making for a second attack, in the proposed plan for which 
it was decided to thi'ow a body of men across the river to gain 
possession of the enemy's guns on the right bank. For this pur- 
pose the canal by which we were enabled to conduct provisions 
and stores towards the camp, was widened and extended to the 
river, and about fifty barges, pinnaces, and cutters, having, in the 
day of the 7th, been tracked under cover and unperceived, close 
up to the bank, at night the whole were dragged into the Missis- 
sippi, and placed under the command of captain Roberts, of the 

The boats having ?;rounded in the canal, a distance of three 
hundred and fifty yards from the river, and the bank being com- 
posed of wet clay thrown out of the canal, it was not until nearly 
daylight that, with the utmost possible exertions, this service was 

The 85th regiment, with a division of seamen under captain 
Money, and a division of marines under major Adair, the whole 
amounting to about six hundred men, commanded by col. Thorn- 
ton, of the 85th regiment, were embarked and landed on the right 

APPENDIX. clxiii 

bank of the river without opposition, just after daylight; and the 
armed boats moving up the river as the troops advanced, this part 
of the operations succeeded perfectly; the enemy having been dri- 
ven from every position, leaving behind him seventeen pieces of 

The great loss however sustained by the principal attack 
having induced general Lambert to send orders to colonel Thorn- 
ton to retire after spiking the guns and destroying the carriages, 
the whole were re-embarked and brought back, and the boats, by 
a similar process of hard labour, were again dragged into the ca- 
nal, and from thence to the bayou, conveying at the same time 
such of the wounded as it was thought requisite to send off to the 

Major-general Lambert having determined to withdraw the 
army, measures were taken to re-embark the whole of the sick 
and wounded that it was possible to move, and the stores, ammu- 
nition, ordnance, &c. with such detachments of the army, seamen, 
and marines, as were not immediately wanted; in order that the 
remainder of the army may retire unincumbered, and the last di- 
vison be furnished with sufficient means of transport. 

This arrangement being in a forward state of execution, I 
quitted head-quarters on the 14th instant, leaving rear-admiral 
Malcolm to conduct the naval part of the operations in that quar- 
ter, and I arrived at this anchorage on the 1 6th, where I am ar- 
ranging for the reception of the army, and preparing the fleet for 
further operations. 

I must, in common with the nation, lament the loss which 
the service has sustained by the death of major-general the hon. 
sir Edward Pakenham, and major-general Gibbs. Their great 
military qualities were justly estimated while living, and their 
zealous devotion to our country's welfare, will be cherished as an 
example to future generations. 

In justice to the officers and men of the squadron under my 
command who have been employed upon this expedition, I cannot 
omit to call the attention of my lords commissioners of the admi- 
ralty to the laborious exertions and great priv..tions which have 
been willingly and cheerfully borne, by every class, for a period 
of nearly six weeks. 

clxiv APPENDIX. 

From the 12th of December, when the boats proceeded to 
the attack of the enemy's gun-vessels, to the present tiine, but 
very few of the officers or men have ever slept on board their 

The whole of the army, with the principal part of its provi- 
sions, its stores, artillery, ammunition, and the numerous neces- 
sary appendages, have been all transported from the shipping to 
the head of the bayou, a distance of seventy miles, chiefly in open 
boats, and are now re-embarking by the same process. The hard- 
ships, therefore, which the boats crews have undergone, from their 
being kept day and night continually passing and repassing in the 
most changeable and severe weather, have rarely been equalled; 
and it has been highly honourable to both services, and most gra- 
tifying to myself, to observe the emulation and unanimity which 
has pervaded the whole. 

Rear-admiral Malcolm superintended the disembarkation of 
the army, and the various services performed by the boats; and it 
is a duty that I fulfil with much pleasure, in assuring their lord- 
ships that his zeal and exertions upon every occasion could not be 
surpassed by any one. I beg leave also to offer my testimony to 
the unwearied and cheerful assistance afforded to the rear-admi- 
ral by captains sir Thomas M. Hardy, Dashwood, and Goi'dou, 
and the several captains and other officers. Rear-admiral Cod- 
rington accompanied me throughout the service, and I feel much 
indebted for his able advice and assistance. 

Captain sir Thomas Troubridge, and the officers and seamen 
attached, under his command, to the army, have conducted them- 
selves much to the satisfaction of the generals commanding. Sir 
Thomas Troubridge speaks in the highest terms of the captains 
and other officers employed under him, as named in his letter (a 
copy of which is enclosod) reporting their services. He particu- 
larly mentions captain Money, of the Trave, who I am much con- 
cerned to say, had both bones of his leg broken by a musket shot, 
advancing under a heavy fire to the attack of the battery that was 
afterwards carried. 

The conduct of captain Money at Washington and near Bal- 
timore, where he was employed with the army, having before oc- 
casioned my noticing him to their lordships, I beg leave now to 


jjecommend him most strongly to their protection. The woun d 
that he has received not affording him any probability of his being 
able to return to his duty for a considerable time, I have given 
him leave to go to England; and shall intrust to him my despatches. 

I have not yet received any official report from the captain of 
the Nymph, which ship, with the vessels named in the margin,* 
were sent into the Mississippi, to create a diversion in that quarter. 

The bombs have been for some days past throwing shells in- 
to fort Plaquemine, but I fear without much effect. I have sent 
to recall such of them as are not required for the blockade of the 


I have the honour to be. See. 

Alexander Cochrane. 

Letter from cafit. Thomas Troubridge to vice-admiral Cochrane. 

Head-quarters 7iear J\''ew Orleans, January 12, 1815- 

The conduct and exertions of the officers and seamen which 

you did me the honour to place under my command to serve with 
the army on shore, having been such as to meet very general ap- 
probation, I feel it a duty I owe to them to make such known to 
you, and to particularize the exertions of captains Money, Rogers, 
and Westphall. 

I cannot sufficiently express the high sense T entertain of the 
seal and activity of lieutenant Scott, of the Tonnant, and lieute- 
nant Fletcher of the Norge, who, on all occasions, have shown 
themselves most deserving officers. 

Captains Money and Rogers, who were detached across the 
river, again report the exertion and gallantry of lieutenant Scott, 
and also of Mr. Woolcombe, midshipman of his majesty's ship 
Tonnant, who particularly distinguished themselves in leading 
their men under a heavy fire to the battery that was carried. It 
is with infinite regret that I report the severe wound captain Mo- 
ney received while on this service. To lieutenants Wroote, of 
the Royal Oak, and Franklin, of the Bedford, with the many other 
officers employed, every praise is due. 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

Thomas Troubridge. 

* Nympl), Herald, iEtna, Meteor, Thistle, Pigmy. 

clxvi APPENDIX. 

No. 7. 

Letter from general Lambert to earl Bathurst. 
His Britannic Majeaty^a shift Tonnant^ off C/iandeleur's island^ 

January 2Bthy 1815. 
My lord, 

After maturely deliberating on the situation of this army, 
after the command had unfortunately devolved upon me, on the 
8th instant, and duly considering vi'hat probability now remained 
of carrying on with success, on the same plan, an attack against 
New Orleans, it appeared to me that it ought not to be persisted 
in. I immediately communicated to vice-admiral sir A. Coch- 
Kine that I did not think it would be prudent to make any further 
attempt at present, and that I recommended re-embarking the 
army as soon as possible, with a view to carry into effect the other 
objects of the force employed upon this coast; from the 9th inst. 
it was determined that the army should retreat, and I have the 
satisfaction of informing your lordship that it was effected on the 
night of the 18th inst. and ground was taken up on the morning 
of the 19th on both sides of the bayone, or creek, which the troops 
had entered on their disembarkation, fourteen miles from their 
position beiore the enemy's line, covering New Orleans, on the 
left bank of the Mississippi, and one mile from the entrance into 
Lac Borgne: the army remained in bivouac until the 27th instant, 
when the whole were re-embarked. 

In stating the circumstances of this retreat to your lordship, 
I shall confidently trust that good order and discipline ever exist- 
ed in this army, and that zeal for the service, and attention was 
ever conspicuous in officers of all ranks. Your lordship is alrea- 
dy acquainted with the position the army occupied, its advanced 
post close up to the enemy's, and the greater part of the army 
Avere exposed to the fire of the batteries which was unremitting 
day and night since the 1 st of January, when the position in ad- 
vance was taken up. The retreat was effected without being 
harassed in any degree by the enemy; all the sick and wounded 
(with the exception of eighty, whom it was considered dangerous 
to remove), field artillery, ammunition, hospital and other stores 
of every description, which had been landed on a very large scale, 


■were brought away, and nothing fell into the enemy's hands, ex- 
cepting six iron eighteen-pounders, mounted on sea carriages, 
and two carronades, which were in position on the left bank of the 
Mississippi; to bring them off at tiie moment the army was re- 
tiring was impossible, and to have done it previously would have 
exposed the whole force to any fire the .enemy might have sent 
down the river. These batteries were of course destroyed, and 
the guns rendered perfectly unserviceable; only four men were 
reported absent next morning, and those, I" suppose, must have 
been left behind and have fallen into the hands of the enemy: but 
when it is considered the troops were in perfect ignorance of the 
movement, until a fixed hour during the night, that the picquets 
did not move off till half-past three o'clock in the morning, and 
that the whole had to retire through the most difficult new made 
road, cut marshy ground, impassable for a horse, and where, in 
many places, the men could only go in single files, and that the 
absence of men might be accounted for in so many ways, it would 
be rather a matter of surprise the number was so few. 

An exchange of prisoners has been effected with the enemy 
upon very fair terms, and their attention to the brave prisoners, 
and wounded, that have fallen into their hands, has been kind and 
humane, I have every reason to believe. 

However unsuccessful the termination of the late service the 
army and navy have been employed upon, has turned out, it 
would be injustice not to point out how much praise is due to their 
exertions; ever since the 13th December, when the army began 
to move from the ships, the fatigue of disembarking and bringing 
up artillery and supplies from such a distance has been incessant; 
and I must add, that owing to the exertions of the navy, the army 
has never wanted provisions. The labour of the seamen and sol- 
diers was particularly c(,nspicuous on the night of the 7th inst. 
when fifty boats were dragged through a canal into the Mississip- 
pi, in which there were only eighteen inches of water, and I am 
confident that the vice-admiral sir Alexander Cochrane, who sug- 
gested the possibility of this operation, will be equally ready to 
admit this, as well as the hearty co-operations of the troops on 
all occasions. 

clxviii APPENDIX. 

From what has come under my own observation since I 
joined this army, and from official reports that have been made 
to me, I beg to call your lordship's attention to individuals who, 
from their station, have rendered themselves peculiarly conspicu- 
ous. Major Forrest, at the head of the quarter-master- general's 
department, I cannot say too much of. Lieutenant Evans and 
Peddie of the same, have been remarkable for their exertions and 
indefatigability; sir John Tylden, who had acted in the field as 
assistant adjutant-general with me (lieutenant-colonel Stovin hav- 
ing been wounded on the 23d ult. though doing well, not as yet 
being permitted to take active service), has been very useful; on 
the night of the 7th, previous to the attack, rear-admiral Malcolm 
reports the great assistance he received from him in forwarding 
the boats into the Mississippi; captain Wood, of the 4th regiment, 
deputy assistant adjutant-general, has filled that situation since the 
first disembarkation of the troops with zeal and attention. 

During the action of the 8th inst. the command of the 2d 
brigade devolved upon lieutenant-colonel Brooke, 4th regiment, 
that of the 3d upon colonel Hamilton, 5th West India regiment, 
and the reserve upon colonel Blayken, royal fusileers; to all these 
officers I feel much indebted for their service. Lieutenant-colo- 
nel Dickson, royal artillery, has displayed his usual abilities and 
assiduity; he reports to me his general satisfaction of ^U the offi- 
cers under his command, especially major Munro, senior officer 
of the royal artillery, previous to his arrival, and of the officers 
commanding companies. 

Lieutenant-colonel Burgoyne, royal engineers, afforded me 
every assistance that could be expected from his known talents 
and experience; that service lost a very valuable and much es- 
teemed officer in lieutenant Wright, who was killed when recon- 
noitring on the evening of the 31st ultimo. 

Lieutenant-colonel Mein, of the 43d, and lieutenant-colonel 
Gubbins, 85th regiment, field officers of the piquets on the 18th, 
have great credit for the manner in which they withdrew the out- 
posts on the morning of the 19th under the direction of colonel 
Blakeney, royal fusileers. 

I request in a particular manner to express how much this 
army is indebted to the attention and diligence of Mr. Robb, de^ 

APPENDIX. clxix 

puty inspector of hospitals, and their immediate removal, with 
such excellent arrangement, that the wounded were all brought 
oflP with very favourable circumstance, except such cases as would 
have rendered their removal dangerous. 

Captain sir Thomas Troubridge, royal navy, who command- 
ed a battalion of seamen, and who was attached to act with the 
troops, rendered the greatest service by his exertions in whatever 
way they were required; colonel Dickson, royal artillery, par- 
ticularly mentions how much he was indebted to him. 

The condiict of two squadrons of the 14th light dragoons, 
latterly under the command of lieutenant-colonel Btiker, previ- 
ously of major Mills, has been the admiration of every one, by 
the cheerfulness with which they have performed all descriptions 
of service. I must also mention the exertion's of the royal staflF 
corps under major Todd so reported by the deputy-quarter-master- 

Permit me to add the obligations I am under to my personal 
staff. Lieuteuant the honourable Edward Curzon, of the royal 
navy, who was selected as a naval aid-de-camp to the command- 
ing officer of the troops on their first disembarkation, each of 
whom have expressed the satisfaction they had in his appomtment, 
to which I confidently add my own. 

Major Smith, of the 95th regiment, now acting as military 
secretary, is so well known for his zeal and talents, that I can 
with great truth say, that I think he possesses every qualification 
to render him hereatter one of the brightest ornaments of his pro- 

I cannot conclude without expressing how much the army 
is indebted to rear-admiral Malcolm, who had the immediate 
charge of landing and re-embarking the troops; he remained on 
shore to the last, and by his abilities and activity smoothed every 

I have the honour to be, &c. 

(Signed) John Lambert. 

P. S. I regret to have to report that during the night of the 
25th, in very bad weather, a boat containing two officers, viz. lieu- 
tenant Brydges and cornet Hammond, and thirty-seven of the 1 4th 



light dragoons, unfortunately fell into the hands of the enemy, off 
the mouth of tlic Rigolets. I have not been able to ascertain cor- 
rectly the particular circumstances. 

Rettirn of casualties in action with the enemy near Meto Orleans^ 
on the 23d and 2^th December^ 1814. 

General staff — 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 1 lieutenant 

Royal artillery— 2 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 7 rank 
and file missing. 

Royal engineers, sappers and miners— i rank and file mis- 

4th foot — 1 captain, 1 lieutenant, 1 sergeant, 1 drummer, 1 
rank and file killed; 1 sergeant, 2 drummers, 8 rank and file 
wounded; 2 rank and file missing. 

35th ditto — 2 captains, 11 rank and file, killed; 1 captain, 3 
lieutenants, 4 sergeants, 2 drummers, 57 rank and file, wounded; 
1 lieutenant, I ensign, 1 sergeant, 16 rank and file, missing. 

93d do — 1 rank and file, wounded. 

95th foot — 6 sergeants, 17 rank and file, killed; I captain, 2 
lieutenants, 6 sergeants, 34 rank and file, wounded; 1 major, 2 
sergeants, 39 rank and file, missing. 

Total — 4 captains, 1 lieutenant, 7 sergeants, 1 drummer, 33 
rank and file, killed; 1 lieutenant-colonel, 1 major, 2 captains, 8 
lieutenants, 10 sergeants, 4 drummers, 141 rank and file, wound- 
ed; 1 major, 1 lieutenant, 1 ensign, 3 sergeants, 58 rank and file, 



4th foot — captain F. J. Johnstone, lieutenant John Souther- 

2 1 st do — captain W. Conran. 

85th do — captains C. Grey and C. Harris. 


General staff — lieutenant-colonel Stovin, 28th foot, assistant 
adjutant-general, severely but not dangerouly; major Hooper, 
37th foot, deputy assistant adjutant-general severely (leg ampu- 

APPENDIX. clxxi 

tated), lieutenant D. Evans, 3d dragoons, deputy assistant quarter- 
master-general, severely. 

Royal artillery — lieutenant J. Christie, severely. 

4th foot — lieutenant T. Moody, severely. 

89th foot — captain James Knox, lieutenants G. VVillings, F. 
Maunsell, and W. Hickson, severely. 

95th foot — captain W. Hallen, lieutenant D. Forbes, severely; 
lieutenant W. J. G. Farmer, slightly. 

85th do — lieutenant W. Walker, and ensign G. Ashton. 
95th do — major Samuel Mitchell. 

Fred. Stovin. 

return of casualties between the 25th and 31st decem- 

HER, 1814. 

Royal artillery — 4 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 5 rank 
and file wounded. 

Royal engineers, sappers and miners, I rank and file wounded. 

4th foot — 4 rank and file wounded. 

21st do — 1 rank and file killed, 1 rank and file wounded. 

44th do — 2 rank and file wounded; 1 rank and file missing. 

85th do — 1 drummer, 3 rank and file killed; 2 ensigns, II 
rank and file wounded. 

93d do — 2 rank and file killed; 5 rank and file wounded. 

95th do — 3 rank and file killed; 1 sergeant, 3 rank and file 
wounded; 1 rank and file missing. 

1st West India regiment — 1 captain, killed. 

5th do — 1 rank and file killed; 2 rank and file wounded. 

Total — -1 captain, 1 drummer, 14 rank and file killed; 1 lieu- 
tenant, 2 ensigns, 4 sergeants, 34 rank and file wounded; 2 rank 
and file missing. 



1st West India regiment — captain F. Collings. 


Royal artillery — lieutenant B. L. Poynter, slightly. 
8Sth foot — ensign sir Fred. Eden, Bart, severely (since dead> 
ensign T. Ormsby, slightly. Fred. Stoven. 

clxxii APPENDIX. 

ARY, 1815. 

Royal artillery — 1 lieutenant, 1 sergeant, 9 rank and file, 
killed; 12 rank and file, wounded. 

Royal engineers sappers and miners — 1 lieutenant, killed. 

21st foot — 1 rank and file killed; one lieutenant, 4 rank and 
file wounded. 

44th do — 1 lieutenant, 1 rank and file killed; 3 rank and file 

85th do— 2 rank and file killed; 2 lieutenants, 4 rank and file 

93d do. foot — 1 sergeant, 8 rank and file killed; 1 lieutenant, 
10 rank and file wounded. 

95th do— -1 rank and file killed; 2 rank and file missing. 

5th West India regiment — 4 rank and file killed; 2 rank and 
file wounded. 

Total — 3 lieutenants, 2 sergeants, 27 rank and file killed; 4 
lieutenants, 40 rank and file wounded; 2 rank and file missing. 



Royal artillery—- lieutenant A. Ramsay. 
Royal engineers — lieutenant P. Wright. 
44th foot — lieutenant John Blakeney. 

21st foot — lieutenant J, Leavock, slightly. 
85th do— lieutenant R. Carlton, severely; lieutenant J. W. 
Boys, slightly. 

93d do — lieutenant A. Phaup, severely, (since dead.) 

Fred. Stovin. 

No. 8. 

Letter from general Lambert to earl Bathurst. 

Head-Quarters, Isle Daufihine, February 14^//, 1815. 
Mt Lord, 

My despatch, dated January 29th, will have informed your 
lordship of the re-embarkation of this force, which was completed 
on the 30th; the veather came on so bad on that night, and con- 

APPENDIX. elxxiii 

(inued so until the 5th of February, that no communication could 
be held with the ships at the inner anchorage, a distance of about 
seventeen miles. 

It being agreed between vice-admiral sir Alexander Coch- 
rane and myself that operations should be carried towards Mobile, 
it was decided that a force should be sent against fort Bowyer, 
situated on the eastern point of the entrance of the bay, and from 
every information that could be obtained, it was considered a bri- 
gade would be sufficient for this object, with a respectable force 
of artillery. I ordered the second brigade, composed of the 4th, 
21st and 44th regiments, for this service, together with such 
means in the engineer and artillery departments as the chief and 
commanding officer of the royal artillery might think expedient. 
The remainder of the force had orders to disembark on Isle Dau- 
phine, and encamp; and major-general Keane, whom I am truly 
happy to say has returned to his duty, superintended their ar- 

The weather being favourable on the 7th for the landing to 
the eastward of Mobile Point, the ships destined to move on that 
service sailed under the command of captain Ricketts, of the 
Vengeur, but did not arrive in sufficient time that evening to do 
more than determine the place of disembarkation, which was 
about three miles from fort Bowyer. 

At daylight the next morning the troops got into the boats, 
and six hundred men were landed under lieutenant-colonel Deb- 
beig, of the 44th, without opposition, who immediately threw out 
the light companies under lieutenant Bennett, of the 4th regi- 
ment, to cover the landing of the brigade. Upon the whole being 
disembarked, a disposition was made to move on towards the fort, 
covered by the light companies. The enemy was not seen until 
about one thousand yards in front of their works; they gradually 
fell back, and no firing took place until the whole had retired into 
the fort, and our advance had pushed on nearly to within three 
hundred yards. Having reconnoitred the forts with lieutenant- 
colonels Burgoyne and Dickson, we were decidedly of opinion, 
that the work was formidable only against an assault; that batte- 
ries being once established, it must speedily fall. Every exertion 
was made by the navy to land provisions, and the necessary equip- 

clxxiv APPENDIX. 

inent of the battering train and engineer stores. We broke ground 
on the night of the 8th, and advanced a firing party to within one 
liundred yards of the fort during the night. The position of the 
batteries being decided upon the next day, they were ready to re- 
ceive their guns on the night of the 10th, and on the morning of 
1 1 Ih the fire of a battery of four eighteen-pounders on the left, 
and two howitzers on the right, each about one hundred 
yards distance, two six-pounders at about three hundred yards, 
and eight small cohorns advantageously placed on the right, with 
intervals between of one hundred and two hundred yards, all fur- 
nished to keep up an incessant fire for two days, were prepared to 
open. Preparatory to commencing, I summoned the fort, allow- 
ing the commanding officer half an hour for decision upon such 
Irerms as were proposed. Finding he was inclined to consider 
*hem, I prolonged the period, at his request, and at three o'clock 
the fort was given up to a British guard, and British colours 
hoisted; the terms being signed by major Smith, military secre- 
tary, and captain Ricketts, R. N. and finally approved of by the 
vice-admiral and myself, which I have the honour to enclose. I 
am happy to say our loss was not very great; and we are indebted 
for this, in a great measure, to the efficient means attached to this 
force. Had we been obliged to resort to any other mode of attack, 
the fall could not have been looked for under such favourable 

We have certain information of a force having been sent from 
Mobile, and disembarked about twelve miles off, in the night of 
the 10th, to attempt its relief; two schooners with provisions, and 
an intercepted letter, fell into our hands, taken by captain Price, 
R, N, stationed in the bay, 

I cannot close this despatch Avithout naming to your lordship 
again lieutenant-colonels Dickson, royal artillery, and Burgoyne, 
royal engineers, who displayed their usual zeal and abilities; and 
lieutenant Bennet, of the 4th, who commanded the light compa- 
nies and pushed up close to the enemy's works. 

Captain hon. R. Spencer, R. N. who had been placed with a 
detachment of seamen under my orders, greatly facilitated the 
service in every way by his exertions. 


Ffoiii captain Ricketts, of the R. N. who was charged with 
the landing and the disposition of the naval force, I received eve- 
ry assistance. 

John Lambert. 

Fort Bowijer., February H'A, 1815. 
Return of ordnance^ ammunition and stores, captured from thi 
enemy in this filace, on the l^ih instant: 


1 twenty-four-pounder, 2 nine-pounders, outside the fort. 
Iron — .3 thirty-two-pounders, 8 twenty-four-pounders, 6 twelve- 
pounders, 5 nine-pounders. 
Brass — 1 four-pounder. 
Mortar — 1 eight-inch. 
Howitzer— 1 five-and-a-half-inch. 


Thirty-two-pounder — 856 round, 64 grape, 11 case. 

Twenty-four-pounder — 851 round, 176 bar, 286 grape, 84 case. 

Twelve-pounder — 535 round, 74 grape, 439 case. 

Nine-pounder — 78 1 round, 208 grape, 429 case. 

Six-pounder— 15 round, 75 bar, 13 case. 

Four-pounder — 231 round, 38 grape, 147 case. 

Shells — 25 eight-inch, 74 five-and-a-half-inch. 

183 hand-grenades. 

5,519 pounds powder. 

I triangle gin, complete. 

16,976 musket ball-cartridges. 

500 flints. 

35 1 muskets, complete, with accoutrements. 

Jas. Pehcival, jiss. Com. Royal Artillery. 

A. Dickson, Lt. Col. Com. Royal Artillery. 

Return of casualties in the army vmder the command of major 
general Lambert, employed before fort Bowyer, between the 
8th and 12th of February, 1815. 

Royal sappers and miners — 1 rank and file wounded. 

4th foot — 8 rank and file killed; 2 Serjeants, 13 rank and file 

cljutvi APPENDIX. 

21st foot — 2. Serjeants, 2 rank and file killed; I rank and file 

40th foot — 1 rank and file killed; 1 rank and file wounded. 
Total— 13 killed, 18 wounded. 

F. Stoven, D. a. G. 

Return of the American garrison of fort Bowyer, which surren- 
dered to the force under major-general Lambert, 1 1th Febru- 
ary, 1815. 

1 field-officer, 3 captains, 10 subalterns, 2 staff, 16 Serjeants, 
1 6 drummers, 32T rank and file, 20 women, 16 children, 3 servants 
not soldiers. F. Stoven, B. A. G. 



From tolonel Malcolm to rear-admiral Malcolm,. 

Cumberland Island^ 5th February^ 1815. 
I received your letter of the 5th ult, it is written before your 
last attack on that place, but I most sincerely hope you will ulti- 
mately succeed. From all accounts New Orleans is very strong: 
the enemy will have gained a great confidence in themselves from 
their success. What a disappointment it will be in England should 
you fail — the chance of failure has not been calculated on, and 
from the force employed it has been made too sure at first. 
I have no opinion of either the Indians or black new-raised cor/is: 
the former in this country carry on a most furious war — murder 
and desolation mark their track — there is no hope but flying, or 
resistance to the last moment of life: this is what every one says 
of the Florida Indians, of course the inhabitants of all descriptions 
would fear to come near you. There is a report here that neither 
the 21st or 44th regiments behaved well, but as a report I treat 
it. I should be sorry to hear two British regiments slurred in an 
attack.* ■ 

* In this letter of the colonel's there was a lamentation expressed that 
his share of the prize-money at St. Mary's did not exceed^we hundred pounds/ 


From colonel Malcolm to rear-admiral Malcolm. 

Cumberland Island, 1 \th February, 1815. 
i HOPE we may hear from you in a short time, and of your 
success against the place you are now before — (New Orleans.) 
It will repay the troofisfor all their trouble and fatigues! I do not 
expect, either war or peace, that we will move from this island 
this winter; if the war goes on, a garrison must be left here in 
charge of the islaHd. 

From sir Thomas Cochrane, of the Surprise frigate, to captain Pi- 
got, off JVew Orleans. 

Cumberland Island, February \2(h, 1815. 
I CAME here just t-,vo days too late to share in the good 
things going on- Old Somerville was senior, and ordered the at- 
tack on St. Mary's, which Barrie executed. The prize-money 
will be about thirty ^thousand pounds, not more. Had our force 
been sufficient, the next movement would have been against Sa- 
vannah, but not mustering above a thousand bayonets, we were 
content to keep possession of this island, which we are placing in 
a state of defence. Our operations will, I suppose, be shortly put 
a stop to by our friend, Jemmy Madison, as peace or war now de- 
pends on him: the commissioners at Ghent having signed, and the 
prince regent ratified, the terms of a peace, and hostilities will 
cease as soon as he does the same. We hope, in the mean tim^j 
better luck will attend you at New Orleans than has hitherto 
done, and that you will have time to give general Jackson a trim- 

From sir Thomas Cochrane to sir Thomas Troubridge, off JVeiO 

J^forth End Cumberland Island, February \2tk, 1815. 
I HOPE this will reach head-quarters in time for the St Law- 
rence, who sails immediately for your part of the world with the 
news of peace being concluded with this country, but of which I 
should think you will receive earlier intelligence direct from Eng- 
land. We arc in daily expectation of a flag of truce to inform us 
of Mr. Madison's having ratified the treaty, on his doing which 
hostilities will immediately cease. I confess myself by no means 



sorry for this event. I think we have had quite enough of VfSiT 
for some years to come, although I should have wished we had 
made the Yankees more sensible of our power and ability to pu- 
nish them, should they again provoke us. ^s it is, txcefit the in- 
jury done to their trade, ive have little to boast of. We are all 
very much grieved to learn the disasters in your quarter. Our 
loss seems to have been immense; and from the reports we pick 
up, one is led to believe there was not much prospect of success 
at the commencement of the attack. We are most particularly 
unfortunate in our general officers on all occasions. I am afraid 
general Power and the regiment with him, will not be with you in 
time to render any service. He was at Bermuda on the 24th ult. 
at which period the Statira had not arrived. 

I came here six weeks ago, and found St. Mary's had been 
taken two days before my arrival, which, of course, cuts me out of 
ivhat has been cajitured. Barrie commanded the party landed; 
old Somerville was senior officer, the admiral having only arrived 
the day before me, in consequence of being blown off the coast by 
strong northwest gales on his way from the Chesapeake. It was 
at first supposed, as is usual on all these occasions, that a great 
deal of money would be made; but if they clear thirty thousand 
pounds, it ivill be as much as they ivill do. 

Fro7n admiral Cockburn to cafitain Evans. 

Head-Quarters, Cumberland Island, Wth February, 1815- 
No general, however, as you now know, has come here: 
you have had thera all your way, and though I have learnt by a 
few hasty lines the unfortunate result of your first endeavours 
against New Orleans, yet excepting as far as relates to the poor 
generals and to the gross numbers you lost, I know no particu- 
lars, not even which of my many friends amongst you are dead or 
aJive, or which have broken bones or whole skins. I trust, hoW' 
ever, it will prove that you are amongst the latter, and I hope you 
will when at leisure favour me with a detailed account of all that 
has passed in your neighbourhood. 

We have been more fortunate here in our small way. We 
have taken St. Mary's, a tolerably rich [ilace, and with little loss 
have managed to do .much damage to the enemy,, and we arb now 

APPENDIX. qlxxxx 

in tolerable security, upon a large fertile island in Georgia, though 
an ugly account of fieace being signed (the particulars of which I 
have sent to sir admiral Cochrane) seems to promise a speedy 
dismissal to us from this coast. 

From Mr. Swainson to Heutenatit Douglas, of H. M. brig So/ihiCj, 

off jVcw Orleans. 

9th February, 1815. 

We had some fine fun at St. Mary's; the bombs were at the 

town, and had plenty of plunder. How are you off /or tables, and 

chests of drawers, iJfc? 

From J. Gallon to J. O'Reily, esq. on board H. AT. shi/i Tonnant, 
off A^eiv Orleans. 
Cumberland Island, 9th February, 1815. 
We have had fine fun since I saw you. What with the Rap- 
pahannock and various other places, we have contrived to pick ufi a 
few trifling things, such as mahogany tables, chests of drawers, is'c. 

From John Miller to Mr. Thomas Miller, 75 Old Gravel Lane, St. 
George's, Fast London. 
H. M. shifi Lacedemonian, off land, February V2th, 1815. 
We have lately been employed with the squadron under ad- 
miral Cockburn, and have taken Cumberland Island, and the town 
of St. Mary's, from the Yankees. Our troops and sailors behaved . 
very well; part of the black regiment employed on this service 
acted with great gallantry. Blacky had 720 idea of giving quarters; 
and it was with difficulty the officers prevented their putting the 
prisoners to death. The Yankee riflemen fired at our men in am- 
bush; blacky, on the impulse of the moment, left the ranks, and 
pursued them into the woods, fighting like heroes. A poor Yan- 
kee, disarmed, begged for mercy. Blacky replied, " he no come 
in bush for mercy," and immediately shot him dead! 

From J. R. Glover to captain Westful,of the Anaconda. 

Head- Quarters, Cumberland Island, \sc February, 1815. 
We have established our head-quarters here, after ransack- 
ing St. Mary's, from which we brought property to the amount of 
^fty thousand pounds, and had we two thousand troops, we might 
yet collect a good harvest before peace takes place. My foi'C- 

clxxx APPENDIX. 

bodings will not allow mc to anticipate either honoui- or profit to 
the expedition, of which you form a part, and I much fear the con- 
trary, yet most fervently do I hope my forebodings may prove 
groundless. The admiral (Cockburn) is as active as ever, and 
success in general attends his undertakings. 

From cajitain A''ajiiery of the Euryalus frigate, to ca/itain Gordon^ 
of (he Seahorse. 

Of Cape Henry, January 24:(h, 1815. 
Here I am in Lynhaven bay, the clippers sailing every day, 
and losing them for want of fast sailers. All our prizes are well 
disposed of. I have had a good deal to do with them, and not 
fliany thanks as you may suppose from the agents. I have peti- 
tioned the prince regent in behalf of the whole of us, for a good 
slice of prize-money, and I hope to succeed. You, I suppose, will 
not be displeased at it. Excuse this hasty scrawl, I am in a d — d 
bad humour, having just returned from an unsuccessful chase. 



After the news of peace had reached the infamous Cock- 
burn, at Cumberland Island, the following depredations were 
committed on St. Simons, by the British. The respectable editor 
of the Savannah Republican introduces the facts to the public by 
assuring us that " implicit reliance may be placed" on the follow- 
ing statement: 

" St. Simons, February 13, 1815. 

" As the only person, at present, capable of making a just 
representation of the losses sustained by the inhabitants of St. 
Simons, I beg leave to state them to you, with a view that it may 
be presented to the proper department. 

Major Butler, (Hampton,) one hundred and fifty negroes: 
his dwelling-house rifled; groceries and every other article remo- 
ved to head-quarters (Cumberland.) 

James Hamilton will be ruined as to his negro property; his 
store pillaged; machinery employed in ginning the seed cotton 
destroyed; the whole of his packed cotton removed. 

A. C. Wyily, forty negroes taken, with his cotton. 

E. Matthew?, twenty-six negroes and six bales of cotton. 

APPENDIX. clxxxi 

J. H. Giekie, fifteen nes^roes, several bales of cotton. 

John Couper, the number of negroes unknown. 

In truth, it is impossible to state circumstantially the loss 
which the unfortunate inhabitants have sustained. Cattle slaugh- 
tered in every direction^ property of every description held in re- 
quisition or destroyed. My feelings prevent my adding to this 
hateful catalogue of wo." 

To the above I will subjoin a list of the negroes taktfn from 
the shores of the Mississippi by the British, whom they refused to 
surrender, under the pretext of considering them as deserters, as 
it has been seen in this work. 

Messrs. Jumonville de Villiers, - - 20 

Kernion, - - - - - 2 

Ducros, - - _ _ 9 

Beauregard, - - - - 2 

Dufossat, - - - - 1 

Mendez, - - . _ _ 4 

Delaronde, . - - . 7 

Celestin Lachiapella, - - - 45 

Versailles, . _ _ - 2 

Veillon and Solis, - - - - 2 

Macarty, . . _ _ 1 

Jacques and Gabriel Villere, - - 52 

Lacoste, - - - - 13 

Delassize, - - - - 6 

Bienvenu, - - - - 10 

Delery, . - - _ _ 1 

Reggio, . i . . s 

Harang, ----- 1 

Philipon, - - - . 5 

Bronier, - - - - - 3 

Leandre Lacoste, - . . g 

Delino, - - - - - 4 

Total 199 
Besides the loss of their negroes, some of the planters 
above named have expeinenced other heavy losses, such as the 
whole of their cattle, horses, buildings, furniture, &g, to the 
amount of more than two hundred thousjuid dollju's. 

clxxxii APPENDIX. 


The following document was omitted in its proper place; it is 
.deemed, however, of too much importance to be excluded entirely. 


Directed by major-general Jackson to be read at the head of each 
of the corjis comp-osing the line below J^ew Orleans^ Jan. 21, 


The enemy has retreated, and your general has now leisure 
to proclaim to the world what he has noticed with admiration and 
pi'ide — your undaunted courage, your patriotism, and patience, 
under hardships and fatigues. Natives of different states, acting 
together, for the first time, in this camp; differing in habits and in 
language, instead of viewing in these circumstances the germ of dis- 
trust and division, you have made them the source of an honourable 
emulation, and from the seeds of discord itself have reaped the fruits 
of an honourable union. This day completes the fourth week since 
fifteen hundred of you attacked treble your number of men, who 
had boasted of their discipline, and their services under a celebrated 
leader, in a long and eventful war — attacked them in their camp, 
the moment they had profaned the soil of freedom with their hos- 
tile tread, and inflicted a blow whidi was a prelude to the final 
result of their attempt to conquer, or their poor contrivances to 
divide us, A few hours was sufficient to unite the gallant band, 
though at the moment they received the welcome order to march 
they were separated many leagues, in different directions from the 
city. The gay rapidity of the march, and the cheerful counte- 
nances of the officers and men, would have induced a belief that 
some festive entertainment, not the strife of battle, was the object 
to which they hastened with so much eagerness and hilarity. In 
the conflict that ensued, the same spirit was supported, and my 
communication to the executive of the United States have testified 
the sense I entertained of the merits of the corps and officers that 
were engaged. Resting on the field of battle, they retired in per- 
fect order on the next morning to these lines, destined to become 
the scene of future victories, which they were to share with the 
rest of you, my brave companions in arms. Scarcely were your 
lltjes a protection against musket-shotj -when on the S8th a dispo- 

APPENDIX. clxxxiu 

sition was made to attack them with all the pomp and parade of 
military tactics, as improved by those veterans of the Spanish war. 
Their batteries of heavy cannon kept up an incessant firej 
their rockets illuminated the air; and under their cover two strong 
columns threatened our flanks. The foe insolently thought that 
this spectacle w^as too imposing to be resisted, and in the intoxi- 
tion of his pride he already saw^ our lines abandoned without a con- 
test: — how were those menacing appearances met? 

By shouts of defiance, by a manly countenance, not to be 
shaken by the roar of his cannon, by the glare of his firework 
rockets; by an artillery served with superior skill, and with dead- 
ly effect. Never, my brave friends, can your general forget the 
testimonials of attachment to our glorious cause, of indignant ha- 
tred to our foe, of affectionate confidence in your chief, that re- 
sounded from every rank, as he passed along your line. This 
animating scene damped the courage of the enemy; he dropped 
his scaling ladders and fascines, and the threatened attack dwin- 
dled into a demonstration, which served only to show the empti- 
ness of his parade, and to inspire you with a just confidence in 

The new year was ushered in with the most tremendous fire 
his whole artillery could pi'oduce: a few hours only, however, were 
necessary for the brave and skilful men who directed our own to 
dismount his cannon, destroy his batteries, and effectually silence 
his fire. Hitherto, my brave friends, in the contest on our lines, 
your courage had been passive only; you stood with calmness, a 
fire that would have tried the firmness of a veteran, and you an- 
ticipated a nearer contest with an eagerness v hich was soon to be 
gratified. > 

On the v'^th of January the final effort was made. At the 
dawn of day the batteries opened and the columns advanced. 
Knowing that the volunteers from Tennessee and the militia from 
Kentucky were stationed on your left, it was there they directed 
their chief attack. 

Reasoning always from false principles, they expected little 
opposition from men whose officers even were not in uniform, who 
were ignorant of the rules of dress, and who had never been caned 
into discipline— fatal mistake! a fire incessantly kept op, directed 

clxxxiv APPENDIX. 

with calmness and with unerring aim, strewed the field with the 
bravest officers and men of the column which slowly advanced, 
according to the most approved rules of European tactics, and 
was cut down by the untutored courage of American militia. 
Unable to sustain this galling and unceasing fire, some hundreds 
nearest the entrenchment called for quarter, which was granted— 
the rest retreating, were rallied at some distance, but only to make 
tliem a surer mark for the grape and canister shot of our artil- 
lery, which, without exaggeration, mowed down whole ranks a* 
every discharge; and at length they precipitately retired from the 

Our right had only a short contest to sustain with a few rash 
men who fatally for themselves, forced their entrance into the un- 
finished redoubt on the river. They were quickly dispossessed, 
and this glorious day terminated with the loss to the enemy of 
their commander-in-chief and one major-general killed, another 
major-general wounded, the most experienced and bravest of their 
officers, and more than three thousand men killed, wounded and 
missing, Avhilc our ranks, my friends, were thinned only by the 
loss of six of our brave companions killed, and seven disabled by 
wounds— wonderful interposition of HeavenI unexampled event 
in the history of warl 

Let us be grateful to the God of battles who has directed the 
arrows of indignation against our invaders, while he covered with 
his protecting shield the brave defenders of their country. 

After this unsuccessful and disastrous attempt, their spirits 
Avere broken, their force was destroyed, and their whole attention 
was employed in providing the means of escape. This they have 
effected; leaving their heavy artillery in our power, and many of 
their wounded to our clemency. The consequences of this short, 
but decisive campaign, are incalculably important. The pride of 
our arrogant enemy humbled, his forces broken, his leaders killed, 
his insolent hopes of our disunion frustrated — his expectation of 
rioting in our spoils and wasting our country changed into igno- 
minious defeat, shameful flight, and a reluctant acknowledgment 
of the humanity and kindness of those whom he had doomed tP 
all tlie horrors and humiliation of a conquered state. 

APPENDIX. clxxxv 

On the other side, unanimity established, disaffection crushed, 
confidence restored, your country saved from conquest, your pro- 
perty from pillage, your wives and daughters from insult and vio- 
lation — the union preserved from dismemberment, and perhaps a 
period put by this decisive stroke to a bloody and savage war. 
These, my brave friends, are the consequences of the efforts you 
have made, and the success with which they have been crowned 
by H^ven. 

These irapoi'tant results have been effected by the united 
courage and perseverance of the army; but which the different 
corps as well as the individuals that composed it, have vied with 
each other in their exertions to produce. The share they have 
respectively had, wiH be pointed out in the general order accom- 
panying this address. But the gratitude, the admiration of their 
country, offers a fairer reward than that which any praises of the 
general can bestow, and the best is that of which they can never 
be deprived, the consciousness of having done their duty, and of 
meriting the applause they will receive. 


Head- Quarters, 7th Military District, Camp below JVew Orleans, 

Adjtitant general's Office, January 2l. 
Before the camp at these memorable lines shall be broken 
up, the general thinks it a duty to the brave army which has de- 
fended them, publicly to notice the conduct of the different corps 
which compose it. The behaviour of the regular troops, consist- 
ing of parts of the 7th and 44th regiments of infantry, and the 
corps of marines, all commanded by colonel Ross, has been such 
as to merit his warm approbation. The 7th regiment was led by 
major Peyre, and the 44th by captain Baker, in the action of the 
23d, in a manner that does those officers the highest honour. 
They have continued through the campaign to do their duty with 
the same zeal and ability with which it was commenced. On that 
occasion the country lost a valuable officer in the death of lieute- 
nant M'Clellan of the 7th infantry, who fell while bravely leading 
his company Lieutenant Dupuy of the 44th, although severely 
wounded in this action, returned in time to take a share in all the 
subsequent attacks. 

clxxxvi APPENDIX. 

To the Tennessee mounted gunmen, to their gallant leader, 
brigadier-general Coffee, the general presents iiis warmest thanks, 
not only for their uniform good conduct in action, but for the 
wonderful patience with which they have borne the fatigue, and 
the perseverance with which they surmounted the difficulties of a 
most painful march, in order to meet the enemy— a diligence and 
zeal to which we probably owe the salvation of the country. Or- 
dinary activity would have brought them too late to act the bril- 
liant part they have performed in the defeat of our invaders. All 
the officers of that corps have distinguished themselves; but the 
general cannot avoid mentioning the name of lieutenant-colonel 
Lauderdale who fell on the night of the 23d — and those of colo- 
nels Dyer, Gibson and Elliott, who were woimded, but disdaining 
personal considerations, remained firm to their duty. 

The cavalry from the Mississippi territory, under their en- 
terprizing leader major Hinds, was always ready to perform eve- 
ry service which the nature of the country enabled them to exe- 
cute. The daring manner in which they reconnoitred the enen»y 
on his lines, excited the admiration of one army and the astonish- 
ment of the other. 

Major-general Carrol, commanding the detachment of West 
Tennessee militia, has shown the greatest zeal for the service, a 
strict attention to duty, and an ability and courage that will always 
recommend him to the gratitude of his country. His troops have, 
since the lines were formed, occupied and defended the weakest 
part of them, and borne, without a murmur, an encampment on a 
marshy and unhealtliy soil. In the memorable action of the 8th 
January, the chief effort of the enemy was directed against themj 
but their valour, and that of the brave men who supported them, 
(general Coffee's brigade on the left, and a part of the Kentucky 
troops on the right) soon made it clear that a rampart of high- 
minded men is a better defence than the most regular fortification. 

General Adair, Avho, owing to the indisposition of general 
Thomas, brought up the Kentucky militia, has shown that troops 
will always be valiant when their leaders are so. No men ever 
displayed a more gallant spirit than these did under most va- 
luable officer. His country is under obligations to him. 

APPENDIX. clxxxvii 

, The general would be ungrateful or insensible to merit, if he 
did not particularly notice the conduct of the officers and men 
who so bravely supported and so skilfully directed his artillery. 
Colonel M'Rea, in the action of the 23d, showed, as he always 
does, great courage. Lieutenant Spotts, under whose immediate 
direction our artillery had been placed, led it to action with a da- 
ring courage worthy of admiration. Captain Humphrey com- 
manded the first battery on our right— the service is greatly in- 
debted to that officer, not only for the able and gallant manner in 
which he directed his fire, but for the general activity he dis- 
played in his department. 

Lieutenant Norris of the navy, with Mr. Walker Martin and 
a detachment of seamen, was stationed at the 2d battery; and lieu- 
tenant Crawley, with Mr. W. Livingston (master's mate) with a 
similar detachment, were stationed at a thirty-two-pounder, which 
was remarkably woU directed — they performed their duty with 
the zeal and bravery which has always characterized the navy of 
the United States. Captains Dominique and Belluche, lately com- 
manding privateers at Barataria, with part of their former crew 
and many brave citizens of New Orleans, were stationed at Nos. 3 
and 4. The general cannot avoid giving his warm approbation of 
the manner in which these gentlemen have uniformly conducted 
themselves while under his command, and of the gallantry with 
which they have redeemed the pledge they gave at the opening 
of the campaign to defend the country. The brothers Lafitte 
have exhibited the same courage and fidelity; and the general 
promises that the government shall be duly apprized of their con- 
duct. Colonel Perry, deputy quarter-master-general, volunteered 
his services at No. 6 — he was ably aided by lieutenant Kerr of the 
artillery — his battery was well served, bravely supported, and 
greatly annoyed the enemy — Nos. 8 and 9 were directed by lieu- 
tenant Spotts with his usual skill and bravery, assisted by Mr. 

The general takes the highest pleasure in noticing the conduct 
of general Garrigue de Flaujac, commanding one of the brigades 
of militia of this state, and member of the senate. His brigade not 
being in the field as soon as the invasion Avas known, he repaired 
to the camp and offered himself as a volunteer for the service of a 

clxxxviii APPENDIX. 

piece of artillery, which he directed with the skill which was to 
be expected from an experienced artillery officer: disdaining the 
exemption afforded by his seat in the senate, he continued in this 
suljordinate but honourable station, and by his example as well as 
his exertion, has rendered essential services to his country. Mr. 
Sebastian Hiriard of the same body, set the same example, served 
a considerable time in the rank* of the volunteer battalion, and af- 
terwards as adjutant of the coloured troops. Major Plauche's 
battalion of volunteers, though deprived of the valuable services 
of major Cannae, who commanded them, by a wound which that 
officer received in the attack of the 28th of December, have re- 
alized all the anticipations which the general had formed of their 
conduct. Major Plauche, and major St. Geme of that corps, have 
distinguished themselves by their activity, their courage, and their 
zeal; and the whole corps have greatly contributed to enable the 
general to redeem the pledge he gave, when at the opening of the 
campaign he promised the country, not only safety, but a splendid 
triumph over its insolent invaders. The two corps of coloured 
volunteers have not d'sappointed the hopes that were formed of 
their courage and perseverance in the performance of their duty. 
Majors Lacoste and Daquin, who commanded them, have deserv- 
ed well of their country. Captain Savary's conduct has been no- 
ticed in the account rendered of the battle of the 23d, and that 
officer has since continued to merit the highest praise. Captain 
Beale's company of the city riflemen has sustained by its Subse- 
quent conduct the reputation it acquired in the action of the 23d. 
Colonel de la Uonde, of the Louisiana militia, has been extremely 
serviceable by his exertions, and has shown great courage, and an 
uniform attachment to the cause of the country. 

General Humbert, who offered his services as a volunteer, 
has continually exposed himself to the greatest dangers, with his 
characteristic bravery, as has also the Mexican field- marshal, 
Don Juan de Anaya, who acted in the same capacity. The ge- 
neral acknowledges the important assistance he has receiy.ed from 
commodore Patterson, as well by his professional exertion, as the 
zealous co-operation of his department during the whole course of 
the campaign. Captain Henley, on board of the Carolina, and af- 
terwards in directing the erection of several batteries at the bayou 

APPENDIX. clxxxix 

and on the right bank of the river, was of great utility to the ar- 
my. Lieutenant Alexis, of the navy, stationed in the navy arse- 
nal, was indefatigable in exertions to torward to the army every 
thing which could facilitate its operations — his zeal and activity 
deserve the notice of the government. Major Nicks, who, by an 
accidental wound was deprived of the pleasure of commanding 
the 7th regiment during the campaign, was continually employed 
in the fort, and furnished the ammunition and the artillery that was 
wanted with the greatest activity and promptitude. To the vo- 
lunteers of the Mississippi territory, and to the militia of the re- 
moter parts of this state, who have arrived since the decisive ac- 
tion of the 8th, the general tenders his thanks, and is convinced 
that nothing but opportunity was wanting to entitle them to the 
praises that have been merited by the rest of the army. Captain 
Ogden's troop of horse was peculiarly useful by their local know- 
ledge of the ground on which they acted; and the small detach- 
ment of the Attacapas dragoons, stationed near head-quarters, 
were indefatigable in performing all the duties which devolved on 

The general would not do justice to his staff if he did not be- 
stow deserved praise on the adjutant-general, colonel Butler, and 
his assistant, major Chotard, for their zeal and activity in the im- 
portant department of service confided to them, and for the brave- 
ry which led them wherever danger or duty required their pre- 
sence The vigilance, courage, and attention to duty, exhibited 
during the campaign by colonel Haynes, and his two assistants, 
majors Davis and Hampton, have been appreciated, as they de- 
served to be, by the general. 

The general's aids-de-camp, Thomas L. Butler and captain 
John Reed, as well as his volunteer^ aids, Messrs. Livingston, 
Duncan, Grymes, Duplessis and major Davezac de Castera, the 
judge advocate, have merited the thanks of the general by the 
calm and deliberate courage they have displayed on every occa- 
sion, and in every situation that called it forth. The topographi- 
cal engineei", major Tatum, exhibited all the ardour of youtli in the 
hour of peril, united to the experience acquired by his long ser- 
vices. The chief engineer, major Lacarriei-e Latour, has been 
useful to the army by his talents and bravery. The same praises 


are due to his assistai)ts, captain Lewis Livingston and Mr. La- 
trobe. The medical staff has merited well of the country, and the 
g f^eral would not do ju.stice to his own feelings were he to with- 
hold from Dr. Kerr, hospital surgeon, who volunteered his services, 
and Dr. Flood, the just ti'ibuie of applause deserved by them for 
their medical skill and personal bravery. The quarter-master's 
department, though deprived of the personal exertions of colonel 
Piatt, who was wounded in the night action of the 23d, performed 
■well their duties. Major-general Villere and brigadier Morgan 
have merited the approbation of the general by their unwearied 
attention since they took the field. 

The large mortar was ably directed by captain Lefebre and 
by Mr. Gilbert. Captain Blanchard was very useful as an engi- 
neer, and merits the general's praise for the celerity and skill with 
which he erected the battery which now commands the river, on 
the right of the camp. Mr. Busquet and Mr. Ducoin, of major 
St Geme's company, displayed great knowledge and dexterity as 
artillerists. To the whole army the general presents the assur- 
ance of his official approbation, and of his individual regard. This 
splendid campaign will be considered as entitling every man who 
has served in it to the salutation of his brother in arms. 
By command, 

Robert Butler, Jdjt. Gen. 

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